Number 8: Social indicators for regional Australia
This report was published by the former Department of Families, Community Services (FaCS).
- Executive summary
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Demography
- 3 Labour force
- 4 Income distribution
- 5 Housing
- 6 Department of Family and Community Services: income support
- 7 Department of Family and Community Services: services
- 8 Summary measures
- 9 Regional summary
- 10 Conclusion
- Appendix A: Notes on tables
- Appendix B: Maps
- Appendix C: Allocation of SLAs to Location Types
The purpose of this paper is to examine a range of social measures to provide an insight into the relative outcomes of communities in different parts of Australia. It is part of a project within the Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) to develop a comprehensive database to support needs analysis. It primarily utilises 1996 Census data, with some administrative data also drawn on to examine income support and some services.
The paper does not use a specific definition of ‘Regional Australia’, but rather reviews all regions of the nation classified by State and Territory, and the characteristics of the location with respect to its urban form and its relationship with the State capital. Ten classifications have been used, each of which represents those Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) whose population is predominantly classified as living in:
- the inner, middle and outer tiers of capital cities (each of these represents one third of the locations within the capital);
- urban centres or localities, within 75 kilometres of the capital cities;
- major non-capital cities and towns;
- towns of 40,000 people or more;
- towns with 10,000 to 40,000 people;
- towns with 2,000 to 10,000 people;
- towns, villages and localities of less than 2,000 people; and
- non-urban locations where most people do not live in any type of urban centre or locality.
The circumstances of these locations are reviewed with regard to: demography; labour force characteristics; income levels and distribution; housing access, characteristics and costs; the role of income support payments; and the provision of childcare, and employment support services for persons with disabilities. A number of aggregate measures of social outcome are also considered.
At the time of the 1996 Census, 57 per cent of Australians lived in the capitals, with a further 6.4 per cent living in towns on the fringes of these. The major non-capital cities and other towns of more than 40,000 inhabitants accounted for a further 10.0 per cent. Nine per cent lived in towns smaller than these, but larger than 10,000 people, with 7.4 per cent living in the next group of locations that included towns of more than 2,000 people. Smaller towns accounted for 1.8 per cent, with the remaining 8.4 per cent living in non-urban areas.
Population growth has occurred across all regions between 1986 and 1996, with the exception of regions composed of small towns of less than 2,000 people, many of which have lost population. The strongest growth was recorded in areas immediately adjacent to State capitals. This growth was particularly strong in Queensland, Western Australia and Northern Territory and weak in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory.
There were particularly marked differences in the location of migrants from non-English speaking countries by locations. This group was predominantly located in Sydney and Melbourne, and had a very low presence in smaller towns and cities, and in the Indigenous population which formed a much more significant share of the population outside of the capitals.
Analysis of population structures identified that non-urban areas had somewhat higher population dependency rates, in particular with regard to children, and had slightly higher numbers of children living at home with their parents. The variation in sole parentage between locations was relatively low, although higher rates were recorded in many of the larger non-capital locations as well as inner capital locations and lower rates in small towns and non-urban locations. While people in smaller towns and locations had higher numbers of people living at the same address as five years earlier, the extent of the difference between these areas and other locations was not that great, with an overall picture of high geographic mobility emerging.
A very significant difference emerged, however, with regard to education, with non-capital city locations showing very high levels of relatively early school leaving, and low levels of degree or higher qualifications.
Key differences between regions emerged with respect to:
industry composition and growth, with the capital cities having a high proportion of employment in strongly growing sectors such as finance and business services, and smaller centres having a much higher proportion of their employment in sectors which lost employment, such as agriculture and mining. Notwithstanding this, some sectors such as manufacturing showed growth outside of the capitals, and decline within;
- total employment: while all locations gained part-time employment between 1986 and 1996, many lost full-time jobs. With the exception of small towns of less than 2,000, all non-capital city locations showed some growth in total employment at the national level, although many locations in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania lost employment;
- labour force participation by women, which tended to be appreciably lower in smaller locations;
- the level of self-employment, which was much stronger in country locations, especially small towns and non-urban locations; and
- unemployment, which tended to be higher in the larger non-capital city locations, while durations were longest in the smaller towns.
Underlying these were some strong State trends, with particularly poor outcomes in South Australia and Tasmania.
Analysis of detailed service industry employment data suggests types of government administration, education and community services are relatively evenly distributed across regions. In contrast, employment in health was lower in smaller locations—although there was some evidence of larger towns playing a regional service role in this regard.
Incomes in non-metropolitan areas, at both the individual and household level, tended to be lower than those in the capitals, with household incomes varying between $914 per week in inner suburbs of the capitals to $675 in towns of less than 2,000 people. This difference was also reflected in the proportion of equivalised ‘lower income’ households, which was around 10 to 15 percentage points higher outside of the capitals. Notwithstanding this, most lower income households still lived in the capitals.
Income distribution within locations was generally more equal within the non-capital locations.
Findings across locations, however, need to take into account some important State differences. In particular, there were low levels of income in South Australia and Tasmania across all locations, while the non-metropolitan areas in Western Australia and Queensland recorded better outcomes than those in other States.
Differences between locations occurred with regard to the tenure, cost and form of housing. Rents, mortgages and home ownership rates were all higher in the capitals than they were in the remainder of States. While rents and mortgage repayments tended to fall with diminishing urban centre size, home ownership rates tended to pick up in the smaller centres.
The major non-capital cities and larger towns showed a number of characteristics which differentiated them from other locations; these included high levels of public housing, low levels of home ownership, and in the major centres at least, moderate rent levels.
Smaller locations, in addition to their lower costs, saw a relatively high incidence of alternative housing—either caravans or improvised housing. While some of this may reflect the nature of the location and a flexible market response to housing needs, it may give rise to some questions as to the adequacy of housing stock. The level of public housing in small towns and non-urban areas is very low. The pattern of provision of this housing varied considerably in different States.
Overall income support payments played a much more important role in assisting people and families outside of the capitals. This was accentuated when the financial value of the assistance is considered relative to total income. While some 15 per cent of income in the capitals was derived from transfer payments, this rose to 20 per cent in other areas. This was reflected within most payment types with capital cities having a below average rate of utilisation of all payment types on a per capita basis. The differences between similar locations by State were even more marked.
Some key features included: a very strong division between Sydney and the balance of locations in NSW, poor outcomes for most payments in most locations of South Australia and Tasmania, and in the middle to larger non-capital cities in Queensland. With the exception of the band of locations around Perth, Western Australian outcomes were generally very good.
At the national level, there was not a large amount of variation in the mix of payment types by region. The most substantial differences related to the relative use of Newstart, Mature Age Allowance and Newstart Mature Age Allowance, family payments and a range of small assistance programs.
FaCS is concerned with the delivery and support of services including child care and employment support services for the disabled. Analysis shows much variation in the distribution of these, by both the nature of the location and by State. There is a broad pattern of higher levels of provision in the capital cities with some concentration within these in the inner suburbs, and in the larger non-capital locations relative to less urbanised localities. Interpretation of this must be tentative:
- As the data are only benchmarked against broad population aggregates, the extent to which this reflects variation in demand cannot be ascertained.
- The higher levels of provision may, in part at least, reflect the role of these locations as regional service centres.
The promotion of access to services across Australia is identified, within each program, as a high priority and initiatives are under way to both trial and develop approaches to enable services to be better delivered, especially in rural and remote locations.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) has developed a number of measures of socio-economic outcomes for locations. These, and an aggregate measure developed in the paper, show a pattern of broadly positive outcomes within capital cities, and poorer outcomes in other localities, especially smaller towns and non-urban localities.
In addition, some important State characteristics emerge. Of note are the poor results for Tasmania, and a tendency for Western Australia non-capital city locations to show more positive results when compared with similar locations in other States.
The analysis also shows some limitations in seeking to measure outcomes by a single yardstick. Where either different socio-economic indices are used, or the individual components of the aggregate measure is applied, a more complex picture emerges. Underlying this is that the causes of these poor outcomes vary by location, with few areas recording consistently poor, or good, scores across all dimensions.
While this paper identifies higher levels of disadvantage and poorer outcomes in many non-capital locations, there are many diverse contributing factors. It concludes that in seeking to respond to these, the different factors that generate these outcomes must be taken into account. Most communities had both strengths and weaknesses, and recording a poor outcome in one area is not necessarily an indicator of a poor outcome against other measures.
Reflecting upon this, the paper concludes that these communities do not need a generic form of ‘special area assistance’ but rather that assistance needs to focus on the particular circumstances of the location and the needs of the individuals who live there. This focus on individuals is also important, as, while many of these areas appear to have high levels of needs, the proportion of people with needs who actually live in the less advantaged areas may be small. In addition, the needs of an area may also be the reflection of a more widespread State-level phenomenon. In such cases, the response would appear to need to be ‘State’ rather than ‘regionally’ based.
The issue of service provision and access is important to all communities. While this paper only looks at a narrow band of these, the data highlight apparent low levels of service provision in non-urban locations and in smaller towns.
The paper suggests a need for much closer consideration of the issues associated with access to service. It may be inappropriate to take the outcomes in some of the smallest locations at face value without more detailed examination of the extent to which the higher apparent service levels in some larger non-capital locations reflect their role as service centres for adjacent smaller locations.
This paper seeks to provide an insight into the characteristics of regional Australia—with a particular focus on social outcomes.
Specifically, it considers the relative outcomes of different regions through the use of a range of statistical indicators, identifying the extent to which systematic differences in outcomes occur for different regions. In chapters 1 to 5, these indicators are based on 1996 Census data, with Chapters 6 and 7 also utilising administrative data from the Department of Family and Community Services.
There is no consistent definition of ‘Regional Australia’, nor a single set of consistent geographic classifications which permit analysis of ‘regional outcomes’.
To assist in analysis of social characteristics of regions, this paper provides information on the basis of a regional classification, which considers two factors:
- the relationship of locations to capital cities; and
- the nature of urbanisation of locations.
The basic unit of analysis used is the Statistical Local Area (SLA). These are geographic areas defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and are used by the ABS in reporting small area data, such as that obtained from the Census. The areas are either whole Local Government Areas, or portions of these.
These areas have been used in this analysis as it is considered that:
- Local Government Areas are geographic areas that are relatively meaningful to people and relate to areas in terms that are generally well known. This is in contrast, for example, to data reported on the basis of postcode numbers which are difficult to interpret without detailed mapping and cross reference to maps, town names and suburbs.
- Local government is an important deliverer of community and other services.
In the paper, these SLAs have been grouped on the basis of the main urban form of each locality1 into:
- the inner tier of capital cities (those areas which, on the basis of their population, comprise approximately the one-third of SLAs within each capital city, as defined under the ABS urban centre classification,2 closest to the Central Business District (CBD) of the capital);
- the middle tier of locations within capital cities (representing a second one-third of the capital city population);
- the outer tier of locations, which account for the remaining one third of capital city population;
- those locations, identified by the ABS as urban centres or localities, which, while outside of the boundaries of the capitals, are within 75 kilometres (straight line) of the CBD;
- major non-capital city towns. (This classification comprises Wollongong, Newcastle, Geelong, Toowoomba, Gold Coast, Townsville, Cairns and Launceston.); those other SLAs where most of the population live in a town of 40,000 or more;
- those where most of the population live in towns with 10,000 to 40,000 inhabitants;
- those where most of the population live in towns with populations of 2,000 to 10,000 persons;
- those where most of the population live in towns, villages and localities of less than 2,000 persons; and
- those locations where most people do not live in any type of urban centre or locality.
|Capital City—Inner tier||1,153,004||19.2||967,775||22.2||405,902||12.2||347,851||20.3||324,468||22.8||46,372||10.1||22,490||11.9||94,908||31.9||3,362,770||
|Capital City—Middle tier||1,066,738||17.8||944,417||21.7||430,413||13.0||375,566||21.9||363,222||25.5||47,364||10.3||20,634||10.9||99,233||33.4||3,347,587||
|Capital City—Outer tier||1,135,166||18.9||948,077||21.8||434,913||13.1||424,068||24.8||300,299||21.1||43,001||9.4||26,944||14.2||100,849||33.9||3,413,317||
|Town Pop 40,000+||146,945||2.5||142,476||3.3||162,238||4.9||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||451,659||
|Town Pop 10,000–40,000||700,585||11.7||275,491||6.3||291,224||8.8||171,713||10.0||85,916||6.0||40,949||8.9||23,108||12.2||–||–||1,588,986||
|Town Pop 2,000–10,000||622,404||10.4||170,218||3.9||293,312||8.8||118,950||6.9||49,784||3.5||40,390||8.8||21,544||11.4||–||–||1,316,602||
|Town Pop <2,000||86,912||1.4||40,521||0.9||37,665||1.1||64,248||3.8||37,805||2.7||25,882||5.6||25,324||13.4||–||–||318,357||
Attachment C provides a full listing of SLAs, the type of location to which they have been assigned, and the distribution of their population between the types of locality.
The derivation of the cut off points for these classifications is essentially arbitrary and each classification does not necessarily represent an equal proportion of the population. While, for example, SLAs with population mainly in urban locations of less than 2,000 account for less than 2 per cent of the total Australian population, 13.4 per cent of Northern Territorians and 5.6 per cent of Tasmanians live in such settlements.
It should also be noted that the allocation of locations to particular categories not only reflects the degree and nature of urbanisation but also the structure of local governments. In those states where it is common to have separate local government authorities for towns and their surrounding regions (or even, as the SLA boundaries often reflect historical structures such arrangements have adjusted in the past), there is a tendency for the population to be more highly polarised into urban and non-urban locations.
As illustrated in Table 1.1, Australians (57.0 per cent) largely lived in the capital cities with a further 6.4 per cent living in SLAs within 75 kilometres of the centre of these cities.
A further 7.5 per cent lived in the eight identified major non-capital cities. Of the remaining 29.1 per cent:
- 9.0 per cent lived in SLAs which mainly comprise towns of between 10,000 and 40,000 people;
- 8.4 per cent lived in locations which were largely non-urban;
- 7.4 per cent lived in localities which comprise towns of 2,000 to 10,000 people; and
- the balance lived either in areas consisting of towns of more than 40,000 (2.5 per cent) or towns of less than 2,000 (1.8 per cent).
The roles of these different locations varied between States. Victoria, Western Australia and South Australia had a disproportionately higher proportion of their population in capital cities, while the converse was the case in Queensland, Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
Major non-capital city locations were particularly important in Queensland and Tasmania. In contrast, they were absent in Western Australia and South Australia. Non-urban locations are most important in Tasmania and Queensland but also played important roles in the Northern Territory, Victoria and South Australia.
The distribution of population in New South Wales generally reflected the national structure, except for its very small non-urban population and a corresponding larger proportion of population in towns of 2,000 to 40,000 people.
Attachment B to this paper provides maps of the distribution of locations by State.
In providing some social indicators on these locations, including with respect to their access to social infrastructure, the outcomes for these different locations will be considered in this paper with regard to:
- demography, population structure and growth;
- labour force characteristics including the role of government and community service employment;
- income levels and distribution;
- housing access, characteristics and costs;
- the role of income support payments;
These primarily relate to income support programs within the Family and Community Services Portfolio, for which FaCS is responsible and which are delivered by Centrelink; and
- the provision of childcare and employment support services for persons with disabilities.
These two groups of services are two of the major service provision programs implemented by FaCS, and have a direct impact on the capacity of persons to participate in economic activity.
As indicators, the information set out in this paper does not seek to provide detailed analysis of the factors behind the different outcomes, or policy conclusions (including program evaluations and performance measurement), but rather seeks to inform decision making and analysis.
- 2.1 Population growth Population change since 1996
- 2.2 Population composition
- 2.3 High needs groups, Indigenous Australian,s Migrants born in non-English speaking countries
- 2.4 Families
- 2.5 Education
- 2.6 Mobility
- 2.7 Summary
This section considers some of the factors that underlie the overall settlement pattern of Australia, as discussed above, and illustrated in Table 1.1.
2.1 Population growth
The Australian population increased by 13.9 per cent over the decade to 1996. This growth, as shown in Table 2.1, varied by location. However, with the exception of inner and middle tiers of the capital cities, and locations with centres of less than 2,000, the aggregate national rate of growth for all types of locations exceeded 10 per cent.
Most marked was the growth in those areas just outside of capital cities. Here the population grew by 47.2 per cent nationally and accounted for 16.4 per cent of the overall increase of the Australian population. The growth rate in these locations in Queensland and in the Northern Territory was around double the national rate with Western Australia recording a rate of over 1.5 times above the national average. This growth in Western Australia accounted for 2.4 per cent of the national population increase (Table 2.2), with the equivalent regions around both Sydney and Melbourne each contributing 4.1 per cent, and around Brisbane, 3.7 per cent.
Though population growth was most rapid in urban centres around the capital cities, as a relative share of the population change, growth was concentrated in the outer tiers of the capitals. Such growth in Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Brisbane accounted for 7.9, 6.9, 6.2 and 4.6 per cent of national growth respectively. Similarly, high contributions to national growth were also recorded for non-urban Queensland, 6.8 per cent, and, at 4.8 per cent and 4.3 per cent respectively, in New South Wales and Queensland towns of 10,000 to 40,000.
It can be considered that this likely level of growth would place a high demand on the provision of infrastructure services in these rapidly growing areas.
Unlike the positive picture of population growth recorded for most locations, locations consisting of small towns of under 2,000 inhabitants experienced population declines in all States except Western Australia and the Northern Territory. In the Territory, these towns, along with towns of 2,000 to 10,000, grew very quickly.
The rate of decline in these small towns was strongest in South Australia followed by Victoria and Tasmania. South Australia and Tasmania also recorded a fall in the population living in towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people, although, in contrast, these grew strongly in Queensland.
The pattern of non-urban growth varied between States, with a particularly high rate, 37.8 per cent, recorded in Queensland. (It is possible that the data for this region may disguise variance between the urbanisation of non-urban locations close to the capital, and other major population centres, and more remote localities.)
With respect to capital cities, growth in the inner cities was very slow or sluggish compared to the faster growth of the other parts of the city, particularly the out-skirts of the city. Of particular note is the population decline of the inner cities of Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart compared to the high growth of Darwin. This pattern reflects the level of urbanisation in these locations which have resulted in there being little land for development, with reliance rather on redevelopment such as adoption of higher density housing forms balanced against the impact of falling household size which reduces the overall population density within an area.
|Within 75k of Cap.||35.0||43.7||115.2||74.8||22.8||22.7||93.3||11.9||47.2|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||11.1||8.1||14.0||–||–||–||–||–||11.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||17.7||6.9||48.8||20.1||–5.2||–3.5||12.0||–||18.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||13.7||1.8||20.6||7.7||4.8||5.0||45.8||–||12.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||–2.9||–4.0||–1.8||4.2||–7.2||–3.6||33.3||–||0.0|
a More detailed descriptions of the tables, the definition of variables and the source of data are provided in Attachment A.
b A standard deviation is a statistical measure of the spread of observations around the populations mean (average).
It provides a method for identifying those observations which are furthest away from the mean. As a statistical measure of significance, it relies upon the population to which the data relates being distributed normally. This is not the case with many of the variables being examined in this paper where the distribution is often skewed. (For example, with a large number of ‘low’ observations just below the mean, and a small number of very ‘high’ observations well above the mean.)
Such skewing can result, for example, in a large number of observations being more than one standard deviation above the mean and few, if any, below. For this reason, the measure should not be applied as a statistical test of significance as to the difference between locations but rather as a more general indicator of the spread of outcomes.
|Cap. City–Inner||Cap. City–Middle||Cap. City–Outer||Within 75k of Capital||Major non- Capital||Town Pop.40,000+||Town Pop.10,000–40,000||Town Pop.2,000–10,000||TownPop< 2,000||Non- Urban||Total|
|New South Wales|
|% State 5.1 18.5 43.5 17.0 – – 9.2 2.7 0.8 3.1 100.0|
|Aust. Capital Territory|
Population change since 1996
While population growth since 1996 largely reflects the patterns of the growth in the previous decade, a number of changes have occurred. At a regional level, the balance between the growth rates of different areas of capital cities has become much more muted, with the relatively low inner urban growth rate having increased appreciably. Specifically, the negative growth in Melbourne and Adelaide has been replaced by a small positive growth. The low growth rate of Tasmania has been transformed into a decline that has affected almost all areas of the State.
|Within 75k of Cap.||3.7||3.9||7.1||7.2||2.6||0.7||6.9||5.2||4.4|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||1.8||1.7||1.7||-||-||-||-||-||1.7|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||1.7||1.6||4.7||5.1||-0.6||-1.2||1.9||-||2.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.1||0.0||2.2||3.6||2.1||-0.4||2.5||-||1.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||-1.7||-1.0||-2.2||1.8||-2.0||-1.7||3.8||-||-0.6|
Similarly, small towns of less than 2,000 inhabitants, which had previously just maintained their population, in aggregate, now are recording a decline as the growth in these towns in Western Australia and the Northern Territory is no longer able to outweigh the falls in population in the other States.
At a State level, the ranking of the fastest growing States has changed; Queensland has moved from first ranking to third, switching places with the Northern Territory. Western Australia has maintained its ranking as number two.
Child and old-age dependency rates provide a measure of the relative size of the main components of the population (children—aged under 15 years, the working-age population— aged 15 to 64 years, and the old age population—those aged 65 years and over).
The child dependency rate in 1996 illustrated in Table 2.4 shows some clear patterns:
- low levels of child dependency in the inner part of capital cities, with the rate increasing as one moves out from the inner to the outer ring of the city;
- higher rates in the outer part of these cities and especially in the immediately adjoining locations within 75 kilometres of the capital; and
- high rates in non-urban locations and in towns with populations of less than 10,000. The nature of this pattern tended to vary between States—with some States recording higher rates in the larger of these towns and others in the smaller.
Of particular interest, in a number of these less urbanised locations, high child dependency rates are recorded for locations that have experienced population falls over recent years. Examples of this include small towns of under 2,000 inhabitants in South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and to a lesser degree, New South Wales and Queensland, and in towns of 10,000 to 40,000 population in South Australia and Tasmania. This pattern would be consistent with people moving out of the area upon reaching workforce age. The extent of this, however, has not been able to be fully established in this paper.
|Within 75k of Cap.||38.7||42.8||39.9||41.4||36.2||42.8||42.4||37.4||40.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||37.0||35.1||35.6||-||-||-||-||-||35.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||36.6||37.5||33.9||36.9||36.6||35.4||36.1||-||36.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||38.8||37.8||36.6||39.0||36.4||37.1||34.7||-||37.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||37.0||37.8||35.6||36.5||39.2||39.0||53.4||-||38.5|
The pattern of old-age dependency is less consistent, and has some distinct State characteristics, although overall non-capital city locations had higher levels of aged dependency than most parts of the capital cities. Lower old-age dependency ratios were found in the outer rings of all capital cities except Hobart and in the non-urban localities of the Northern Territory, Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania. The low old-age dependency ratios of these non-urban localities and the small towns of the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Queensland correspond to the relatively high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in these areas and this population’s young age structure. A further factor in this pattern may be older people moving from farms to local towns when they retire.
As noted, there were distinct differences in the overall outcomes between States, with South Australia, New South Wales and Tasmania having age dependency rates above the national average and Western Australia, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory being well below.
In New South Wales, the highest levels of older-aged dependency, one-third above the national average, were recorded in locations of towns of between 2,000 and 40,000 inhabitants, and in locations adjacent to Sydney. Victoria showed higher levels of old-age dependency in most of its non-capital city locations—most markedly in very small towns and those between 2,000 and 10,000. In Queensland, there were higher concentrations in towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people and in South Australia in the smaller towns and in the inner part of Adelaide.
Taking both of these dependency rates together, the picture (Table 2.6) becomes more consistent with towns of less than 40,000 persons, in most cases, showing markedly higher levels of dependency, along with the ring of locations adjacent to State capitals.
|Within 75k of Cap.||24.3||12.4||17.8||19.6||22.0||14.1||6.3||6.8||18.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||16.2||21.1||20.1||-||-||-||-||-||19.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||24.1||20.2||26.6||14.4||17.9||20.7||6.9||-||22.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||24.8||24.8||17.4||14.2||22.1||21.2||7.2||-||21.6|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||21.5||28.4||16.6||14.1||24.8||18.6||5.5||-||19.0|
|Within 75k of Cap.||3.7||3.9||7.1||7.2||2.6||0.7||6.9||5.2||4.4|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||1.8||1.7||1.7||-||-||-||-||-||1.7|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||1.7||1.6||4.7||5.1||-0.6||-1.2||1.9||-||2.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.1||0.0||2.2||3.6||2.1||-0.4||2.5||-||1.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||-1.7||-1.0||-2.2||1.8||-2.0||-1.7||3.8||-||-0.6|
The extent of these higher dependency rates is large—with the rate being more than 10 percentage points higher than the national average in locations such as: the areas surrounding Sydney and Perth, towns of 2,000–40,000 in New South Wales, towns of less than 10,000 in Victoria, and small towns in South Australia.
Such high concentrations are likely to place a heavy demand upon the social infrastructure of these communities.
Two groups with well-identified needs for strong social infrastructure are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds.
Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples accounted for 2.0 per cent of the nation’s population in 1996, Indigenous Australians represented a much more significant proportion of the population in many regions of Australia, in particular in non-capital city locations.
In the Northern Territory, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations constituted 24.4 per cent of the population, and accounted for 7.3 per cent of people living in inner Darwin, rising to 50.7 per cent in non-urban localities and 74.3 per cent in centres of less than 2,000 people.
Following the Northern Territory, towns of less than 2,000 in Queensland had the highest proportion, followed by non-capital city towns and non-urban localities of Western Australia, with the exception of towns of less than 2,000. New South Wales also had higher proportions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in towns of under 2,000 population. The low proportion in Western Australia for this particular type of settlement appears to reflect the nature of many of these locations as mining communities.
Notwithstanding the high Indigenous proportion of the population in the Northern Territory, only 13.1 per cent of Australia’s Indigenous population lived in the Territory. This compares with 28.8 per cent living in New South Wales (7.3 per cent in towns with populations between 2,000 and 10,000 and 5.8 per cent in towns with populations between 10,000 and 40,000). Queensland had 27.1 per cent (6.4 per cent in non-urban areas and 4.7 per cent in major non- capitals), and Western Australia had 14.4 per cent (3.4 per cent in towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people and 3.3 per cent in towns with populations between 2,000 and 10,000). Overall 26.8 per cent lived in the capital cities, 15.7 per cent in non-urban areas, and 9.8 per cent in small towns and settlements of less than 2,000 people.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population experienced rapid growth of 54.6 per cent between 1986 and 1996 compared to 13.9 per cent for the general population.3Strong Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population growth was observed in urban areas close to capital cities, in the outer zones of capital cities (except in Darwin and Adelaide) and in major non-capitals. In the capital cities, there was slower growth in the inner rings. South Australia recorded highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander growth in middle Adelaide and in locations within 75 kilometres of Adelaide.
Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander growth outside capital cities and major non-capital cities was slower, there were important differences. In the towns of under 40,000 population and non-urban localities, Tasmania stood up as showing the highest growth.
|Within 75k of Cap.||1.3||0.5||1.6||1.8||1.0||3.2||10.1||0.0||1.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||2.0||0.8||4.0||–||–||–||–||–||2.3|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||2.9||1.5||2.5||7.0||4.1||3.6||14.8||-||3.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||4.2||0.7||5.3||9.9||3.5||4.5||19.3||-||4.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||7.2||0.4||14.8||4.0||1.8||2.5||74.3||-||10.9|
|Within 75k of Cap.||175.4||134.1||285.9||220.5||100.8||130.5||103.6||–||159.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||76.9||79.0||70.4||–||–||–||–||–||73.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||88.7||50.8||75.1||34.8||34.9||89.9||16.8||–||58.6|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||48.6||72.9||37.5||20.5||43.9||94.2||71.6||–||42.0|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||24.3||30.6||6.5||–4.5||–4.1||95.2||44.0||–||27.7|
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population growth was also high in all towns with a population of 40,000 or more and in New South Wales, and in Queensland in towns with a population of 10,000 to 40,000. Growth also occurred in towns with population of 2,000 to 10,000 in Victoria and the Northern Territory, and in non-urban localities of New South Wales and Victoria.
However, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population growth was not universal. There were declines in the towns of less than 2,000 population in Western Australia and South Australia. There was hardly any growth in the middle portion of Darwin, in towns of under 2,000 population in Queensland and in non-urban localities of Western Australia.
These data suggest that there is a need for strong social infrastructure support in a diverse range of locations but in particular in small centres in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia.
Migrants born in non-English speaking countries
The data in Table 2.9 show a wide divide between capital cities and other areas of Australia in regard to the composition of the population when the country of origin of migrants is considered. Migrants from non-English speaking countries were highly concentrated in capital cities and in their centres. The proportion of total population from non-English speaking backgrounds declined from: inner to outer rings of capital cities; from capital cities to major non-capitals; and from major non-capitals to smaller towns. Comparatively, the population of Australia, outside the capitals, contained only a small proportion of migrants from non-English speaking countries. Indeed, two cities accounted for 62.4 per cent of this population—Sydney (34.6 per cent) and Melbourne (27.8 per cent).
Although 13.3 per cent of Australians were from a non-English speaking background, this figure varied markedly from 2.7 per cent in towns of under 2,000 population and about 4 to 5 per cent in non-urban localities and towns of over 2,000, to 22.5 per cent in the inner capital cities.
Over the decade to 1996, there was particularly rapid growth in this population in urban areas close to Brisbane, Darwin, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, and in the middle and outer parts of Brisbane and Sydney, as well as the outer parts of Perth and Melbourne (Table 2.10). There was also relatively rapid growth in the number of migrants from non-English speaking countries in Queensland in the major non-capitals and in towns with populations of 10,000 to 40,000. The growth of this group in Queensland was from a relatively low base, especially when compared with the share of the population this group represents in New South Wales and Victoria. In total, Sydney accounted for 42.4 per cent of the increase in this population over the decade.
In contrast, there were declines of non-English speaking background population in some of the small towns of under 40,000 population in Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
These data suggest that the need for infrastructure to meet the needs of this population is primarily within State capitals. The pattern of growth indicates that there is a need for some attention also to be given in the country towns of New South Wales and in Queensland.
Table 2.9: Migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds as a proportion of the total population, 1996 (%)
|Within 75k of Cap.||4.8||8.7||5.4||5.5||4.6||3.7||7.3||4.4||6.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||4.0||3.1||3.4||–||–||–||–||–||3.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||3.9||6.2||4.8||5.4||5.3||2.5||5.3||–||4.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||3.2||3.6||4.2||4.9||6.1||2.5||5.9||–||3.8|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||2.7||2.1||2.6||3.8||2.3||2.3||1.6||–||2.7|
|Within 75k of Cap.||58.2||80.9||136.7||72.5||12.3||26.2||84.2||0.0||68.2|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||9.0||5.7||34.1||–||–||–||–||–||15.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||25.4||–2.0||69.3||4.9||–20.2||1.6||5.8||–||16.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||29.0||–0.6||19.8||–18.8||2.1||0.1||24.0||–||12.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||3.6||9.9||19.3||–0.2||–15.1||–14.8||–17.6||–||–0.4|
Three indicators were selected to describe the situation of families in regional Australia.These are: the proportions of all families with children that are sole-parent families, the average number of children per family, and the proportion of married women in de facto marriages.
Nation-wide in 1996, families headed by a sole parent accounted for 22.6 per cent of all families with children. The rates of sole parentage, however, showed some quite strong regional patterns with a number of distinct clusters. These included high levels in:
- inner capital cities in all of the States and within some States another, generally less marked concentration in the outer ring of these cities;
- in Queensland, major non-capital cities and towns with populations of over 10,000, in Victoria in towns of over 40,000 people and in Tasmania in towns of 10,000 to 40,000;
- towns of under 2,000 population and non-urban localities of the Northern Territory, which is likely to be associated with the strong Indigenous communities.
In contrast, the rates of sole parentage in small towns and in non-urban areas were generally relatively low, in a number of cases being only two-thirds, or even half as high as that in inner capital city zones.
However, even where the overall rate is relatively low, it represented a minimum of one in six families with children. This rose in other locations to close to one in three families. To the extent such families do need particular social infrastructure this would suggest a need for a wide geographic spread, with some focus on larger non-capital cities and in the inner areas of capital cities.
|Within 75k of Cap.||24.0||19.0||22.0||23.0||21.7||23.1||24.3||5.2||22.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||25.1||27.1||26.0||–||–||–||–||–||26.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||25.3||24.7||25.8||22.1||25.2||27.6||23.8||–||25.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||24.0||23.0||20.1||19.4||19.9||21.8||20.3||–||22.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||20.0||18.1||20.5||14.9||17.2||18.2||31.1||–||19.2|
De facto marriages constituted 10.0 per cent of all marriages in 1996. De facto marriage rates of double the national average were common in all localities of the Northern Territory, except in outer Darwin, towns with fewer than 2,000 population and in non-urban localities.
While above-average rates were observed in the inner parts of capital cities, rates were much lower than the average in the middle and outer parts of most cities, with some exceptions. A higher rate of de facto marriages was found in the towns of under 40,000 population in Western Australia and Queensland, and in the major non-capitals of Queensland. Victoria had the lowest de facto marriages in all its localities except inner Melbourne. New South Wales also had low rates in the middle and outer parts of Sydney, the urban centres around it and in the major non-capitals.
|Within 75k of Cap.||9.8||9.4||11.2||11.6||9.9||12.1||24.6||11.8||10.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||10.2||9.1||12.0||–||–||–||–||–||10.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||10.5||9.8||12.1||17.6||12.4||10.9||21.8||–||11.6|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||10.3||8.6||13.0||15.5||11.7||9.4||22.6||–||11.2|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||10.7||6.2||15.8||14.3||9.2||12.2||10.0||–||11.3|
Table 2.13: Average number of children living in families, 1996
|Within 75k of Cap.||1.88||1.97||1.92||1.92||1.85||1.91||1.87||2.28||1.91|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||1.90||1.89||1.88||–||–||–||–||–||1.89|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||1.88||1.89||1.84||1.93||1.83||1.82||1.91||–||1.88|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.90||1.90||1.92||2.00||1.87||1.85||2.02||–||1.91|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||1.90||1.93||1.86||1.87||1.90||1.85||2.79||–||1.96|
On average, in 1996 there were 1.86 children4 living in each family with children. Generally families with children in non-urban localities and in small towns, particularly those with under 2,000 population, had more children living with them. In contrast, families in inner tiers of capital cities had a smaller number of children living with them, with the number increasing as one moves out of the urban centre.
In noting this pattern, it is important to recognise the limitations of the measure. In particular, the data report children currently living in families and do not reflect therefore the average size of completed families, that is the number of children actually born into the family. While comparisons of the number of children currently living in a family may provide some insight into the relative sizes of completed families in different locations it may though suffer from some distortions. For example where children in a location are more likely to leave home to take up education or employment the measure may tend to underestimate real family size. Similar distortions can occur where a location may have a high number of families at a particular point in the family lifecycle.
Two indicators are used to analyse the regional educational profile of the population as of 1996. These are the proportions of the population who left school when they were aged 15 years or less and the proportions of the population with a degree or higher qualification.
A high proportion of the population, 38.2 per cent, reported having left school at age 15 or earlier. The proportion that left school at this age was low in capital cities, particularly in the inner parts and high elsewhere, particularly in the small towns and non-urban localities.
Low proportions were found in the Australian Capital Territory and its surroundings (19.7–22.9 per cent), in the inner parts of Hobart (25.3 per cent), Melbourne (26.2 per cent) and Sydney (27.1 per cent). By contrast very high proportions, with about 50 per cent or more leaving before or at age 15, were observed in many other areas. These were all areas of Queensland except inner and middle Brisbane and its major non-capitals, all areas of Western Australia except Perth, the towns and non-urban localities of Tasmania and outer Hobart, and the towns of under 10,000 population in South Australia. While some of the variation can be explained through differences in the population structure—with school leaving ages of 15 and below being much more common up until the 1970s—this is only a partial explanation.
The regional pattern of educational qualification is broadly the inverse of those who left school aged 15 or less, though the differences between locations are much more marked with the highest ranked areas recording rates of such qualifications at over six times the rate recorded in the lowest.
The proportion of population with degree or higher qualifications declined along the urban hierarchy from 21.5 per cent in inner parts of capital cities to 9.0 per cent in outer parts and major non-capitals, and to 6.1 per cent in small towns of under 2,000 population. The rate for non-urban localities was 7.3 per cent compared to a national figure of 11.7 per cent.
Relatively high proportions of the population with degree or higher qualifications were found in the inner city of the Australian Capital Territory (33.1 per cent), Hobart (24.3 per cent), Melbourne (23.1 per cent), Sydney (22.4 per cent) and Brisbane (21.0 per cent). While the ratesr ecorded in inner core of Perth (17.1 per cent), Adelaide (15.5 per cent) and Darwin (16.0 per cent) were much lower, they remained high compared to the national average. Low rates, of about 4–6 per cent, were found in the following areas: towns of less than 40,000 and non-urban localities in Tasmania and South Australia; towns of less than 2,000 in New South Wales and the Northern Territory; the outer suburbs of Hobart and Brisbane; and urban centres close to Perth.
The extent of variation between locations, both with regard to the age at which the population left school, and the achievement of degree or higher qualifications, has important implications for locations. While neither of these measures fully capture the level of skills and knowledge communities have, they do suggest that the extent of such resources are not evenly distributed and, in particular, the stock of these outside of the capitals is much lower.
|Within 75k of Cap.||45.0||35.1||49.1||55.9||42.0||40.4||38.9||19.7||43.6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||38.2||37.2||52.3||–||–||–||–||–||42.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||44.3||39.2||48.9||47.9||45.0||48.8||33.3||–||44.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||45.6||41.6||50.0||49.9||46.6||49.7||37.0||–||46.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||45.6||41.9||51.1||49.5||47.7||49.2||42.6||–||47.0|
|Within 75k of Cap.||7.0||7.2||6.1||4.2||8.6||9.1||7.6||26.8||6.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||8.4||9.2||7.0||–||–||–||–||–||8.2|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||7.4||7.0||7.3||7.8||5.4||5.4||13.4||–||7.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||6.6||6.8||7.0||7.1||5.2||5.4||10.3||–||6.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||5.2||7.3||6.4||7.6||4.8||5.7||4.9||–||6.1|
Nationally, in 1996, only 54.9 per cent of Australians aged over five years reported that they lived at the same address as they did five years previously. This reflects a number of factors: internal and external migration into locations; people moving address within a location; and people who did not record in the Census their location five years ago.
In the context of this analysis, the focus is on the extent to which there is population stability within locations—that is the degree to which localities comprise relatively stable communities. While some insight into this question can be gained from considering the proportion of current residents who have been in the location for more than five years, it must be noted that this can be misleading where a population is growing.
|Within 75k of Cap.||55.0||58.2||40.2||39.7||55.0||53.1||37.9||61.8||51.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||53.2||54.6||48.0||–||–||–||–||–||51.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||53.5||54.3||42.5||42.6||56.0||55.1||39.2||–||50.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||56.4||60.5||48.6||48.3||56.1||57.3||39.4||–||54.2|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||63.0||66.9||55.9||48.5||63.8||56.5||74.1||–||60.2|
Notwithstanding this limitation, the overall picture from these data is a widespread tendency to mobility. Only in two locations—Victorian and Northern Territory towns of less than 2,000— had two-thirds or more of the residents remained at the same address over the five-year period. After these towns, the most stable locations were the middle ring of suburbs in the capitals, where 59.0 per cent of the population still lived in the same location. Higher levels of stability were also recorded in non-urban locations, except Queensland and the two territories.
Some areas experienced very high mobility rates, with about 60 per cent of their population changing their address in the past five years. These included the inner and middle zones in Darwin; the urban centres around the capitals of Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory; the towns with 10,000 to 40,000 population in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia, the major non-capital cities of Queensland; and the locations consisting of towns with populations of 2,000 to 10,000 in the Northern Territory.
The data show a complex set of demographic outcomes across regions and States. With the exception of small towns of less than 2,000 people, population growth occurred across all regions—with the strongest growth rates being recorded in areas immediately adjacent to State capitals. It was particularly strong in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory and weak in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory.
Non-urban areas had somewhat higher dependency rates, in particular with regard to children and had slightly higher numbers of children living at home. The variation in sole parentage between locations was relatively low. While people in smaller towns and locations had a higher degree of residential stability, the extent of this difference, on the whole, was not particularly high.
Particularly marked differences were recorded in the location of migrants from non-English speaking countries. These people were predominantly located in Sydney and Melbourne but had a very low presence in smaller towns and cities, and in the Indigenous population which formed a much more significant share of the population outside of the capitals.
A very significant difference emerged also with regard to education, with non-capital city locations showing very high levels of relatively early school leaving and low levels of tertiary education or higher qualifications.
- 3.1 Labour force participation
- 3.2 Employment growth, Full-time employment, Part-time employment
- 3.3 Structure of employment
- 3.4 Self-employment
- 3.5 Unemployment
- 3.6 Long-term unemployed
- 3.7 Families and employment
- 3.8 Employment in selected service industry sectors
- 3.9 Summary
Access to, and performance of, local labour markets are important determinants of outcomes in communities. This section considers a number of dimensions of such access, and the relative performance of regional labour markets. In addition, it considers some aspects of the composition of employment to provide some information on the extent to which social infrastructure is being provided.
Labour force participation (the proportion of persons aged over 15 who are either employed or are looking for work) provides an important measure of the attachment of the population to the labour market.
In 1996 nationally, 71.4 per cent of males over 15 years and over were employed, or looking for work. This proportion, however, varied substantially by region. Lower participation rates, around 60 per cent, were recorded in the non-urban and small towns of the Northern Territory, and 65 per cent in the towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people in Queensland. In contrast, participation rates were over 80 per cent in the outer suburbs of Canberra and at levels close to this in many areas in Western Australia.
Identifying a pattern to the data is difficult, although it can be concluded that:
- Generally male participation rates were higher in outer rings of capital cities (except in Hobart and Adelaide), and slightly above average in the middle ring of capital cities (except in Hobart, Adelaide and Melbourne) and in non-urban localities (except in the Northern Territory and Tasmania).
- Male participation rates were lower in major non-capitals, inner-capital cities (excluding Darwin, Sydney and Brisbane), and in towns with over 2,000 inhabitants. The exception is Western Australia where towns showed higher rates, as well as the towns of between 2,000 to 40,000 population in the Northern Territory.
- Rates close to the national average were observed in small towns of under 2,000 population and in urban areas close to capital cities. (In these latter locations, this result was an average of the high rates in Victoria, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory, and low rates in the other States.)
Unlike males, female labour force participation was not only high in the outer rings of capital cities but also in the inner and middle parts of cities. Comparatively high participation rates were observed in Darwin and the Australian Capital Territory, in the towns of 2,000 to 40,000 population of the Northern Territory and generally in Western Australia, with the exception of the band of locations around Perth.
A measure closely related to labour force participation is the employment-to-population ratio. This provides an indication of what portion of the relevant working age population is employed at any given time. While these showed a similar pattern to participation rates, some features
Particularly noticeable in these data are the low male ratios recorded almost uniformly throughout Tasmania, and to a lesser extent in South Australia, as well as a pattern which sees the higher rates being recorded at both ends of the population density distribution—within State capitals and in non-urban areas (Table 3.3). The small-to-medium sized towns of Western Australia stand in contrast to similarly sized settlements in other States, although relatively high rates were also recorded in some Queensland localities.
|Within 75k of Cap.||68.3||77.2||69.7||68.2||69.3||71.1||77.8||78.7||71.2|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||74.4||67.6||70.5||–||–||–||–||–||70.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||66.1||70.2||65.3||75.6||71.5||68.6||80.3||–||68.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||65.9||68.7||72.8||76.0||69.0||66.7||78.0||–||69.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||70.2||68.8||75.3||78.8||69.6||70.4||61.0||–||71.8|
|Within 75k of Cap.||48.9||54.9||50.6||45.5||50.4||51.8||62.9||78.8||50.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||53.2||48.1||50.0||–||–||–||–||–||50.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||47.4||49.4||46.8||55.0||48.9||45.6||69.4||–||48.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||45.7||46.9||51.8||53.1||49.4||44.2||62.6||–||48.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||47.1||46.9||51.5||54.1||47.4||45.4||41.9||–||48.4|
While females in the capital cities also showed a high employment-to-population ratio, this tended to continue to decrease with locality size, rather than showing a rebound in the smaller locations, in contrast to the pattern for males. Also, in contrast to males, female employment-to- population ratios decreased between the inner and outer suburbs of the capitals.
|Within 75k of Cap.||73.9||77.8||71.3||70.5||72.5||69.9||75.0||73.5||73.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||74.9||67.2||72.3||–||–||–||–||–||71.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||68.7||70.8||69.1||77.1||69.8||67.8||80.8||–||70.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||68.6||72.8||76.1||79.7||73.0||67.0||78.7||–||72.2|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||70.5||74.2||78.5||81.0||72.1||71.5||58.7||–||73.6|
|Within 75k of Cap.||59.9||58.9||56.2||51.4||59.8||56.8||63.0||83.0||58.1|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||59.3||55.8||57.7||–||–||–||–||–||57.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||56.5||56.7||56.6||61.2||54.7||51.9||72.5||–||57.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||54.2||57.3||58.8||59.8||59.7||51.1||65.6||–||56.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||53.7||59.6||57.2||59.6||56.6||51.6||41.2||–||55.2|
One striking feature of these data is for inner Hobart. Here the female employment-to- population ratio of 66.2 per cent was only 3.6 percentage points lower than the male rate, despite the national average gap of 12.7 percentage points. With the exception of this, and the adjacent middle suburbs of Hobart, female employment-to-population ratios in Tasmania was amongst the lowest in the nation.
An important issue which needs to be considered in comparing these data with that of labour force participation rates and unemployment rates is whether or not the low participation rate, especially for women in some smaller locations, is a full measure of attachment to the labour market or whether the apparently lower unemployment rate in these locations may reflect higher levels of job search discouragement.
3.2 Employment growth5
Over the decade to 1996, there have been divergent patterns in employment growth. In particular, while full-time employment increased by only 6.2 per cent, part-time employment grew by 54.1 per cent over the period. The two trends are considered below.
Marked increases in full-time employment occurred in the urban centres around capital cities: in Brisbane’s middle and outer suburbs; in Queensland’s major non-capitals, towns with 10,000 to 40,000 population and non-urban localities; and in towns with 2,000 to 10,000 population in the Northern Territory. In addition, relatively high growth was observed in outer parts of Perth and Sydney, and in the non-urban localities of Western Australia, the Northern Territory and New South Wales.
|Within 75k of Cap.||37.2||35.5||119.7||69.7||8.2||12.5||96.2||4.1||42.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||2.3||–6.3||12.3||–||–||–||–||–||2.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||7.6||–9.8||47.3||23.1||–18.1||–15.7||9.0||–||8.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.9||–10.6||22.8||5.0||–5.2||–11.1||42.6||–||4.8|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||-13.0||-13.1||-3.6||8.0||-21.6||-15.7||12.1||–||-8.1|
In contrast, there was no full-time employment growth amongst people living in the inner and middle parts of capital cities except in Brisbane and Perth. Towns with populations of between 2,000 and 40,000 in South Australia and the Northern Territory, and the major non-capitals in New South Wales and Victoria all recorded declines in employment, as did all locations in Tasmania, except those in the locations surrounding Hobart.
Specifically there were:
- falls in full-time employment in almost all regions of Victoria—with the exception of very strong growth in the areas surrounding the capitals, and above-average growth in the outer urban tier; and
- very strong falls in full-time employment in towns of less than 2,000 especially in South Australia and Tasmania, as well as Victoria and New South Wales.
Unlike full-time employment, growth in part-time employment has been universal in all localities at the aggregation considered in this paper. Even where this growth was at its lowest, most regions generally recorded at least 20 to 30 per cent increases in the number of residents with part-time jobs.
In structure, the regional pattern of part-time employment growth is similar to that of full-time employment growth:
- The urban centres within close proximity to capital cities recorded the highest growth, which was twice the national average of 54.1 per cent. Of these centres, particularly high growth was recorded in Queensland (190.6 per cent), the Northern Territory (173.4 per cent) and Western Australia (125.5 per cent).
|Within 75k of Cap.||100.1||100.3||190.6||125.5||63.8||75.7||173.4||78.1||105.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||63.0||59.3||42.2||–||–||–||–||–||54.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||64.7||45.0||96.5||49.9||29.6||26.4||43.1||–||59.9|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||55.5||43.6||61.4||36.5||37.8||42.6||84.5||–||52.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||31.1||29.4||39.3||20.4||23.7||5.5||153.8||–||31.6|
|Cap. City–Inner||Cap. City||>Cap. City–Outer||Within 5k of Capital||Major non-Capital||Town Pop.40,000+||Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||Town Pop < 2,000||Non-Urban||Total|
|New South Wales|
|Aust. Capital Territory|
Higher rates of part-time growth were also observed in outer capital cities, except Tasmania, major non-capitals in New South Wales and Queensland, and non-urban localities, except South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
By State and Territory, the highest part-time growth was in the Northern Territory, owing to very high growth in all localities except in middle Darwin and towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people. This was followed by Queensland, which had high growth in most locations other than in inner Brisbane, towns with populations of more than 40,000 and in towns of under 2,000 population.
The sluggish growth in South Australia and Tasmania reflected these States’ overall performance with regard to employment growth.
The relative roles of these localities in overall national outcomes can be seen in Table 3.7 which shows the contributions of regions, by State, to the national increase in total (full-time and part- time) employment of 1,130,859. This pattern generally reflects that of population growth. Specifically, the table shows that 29.7 per cent of the increase in the employed population was located in the outer tier of capital cities, 14.5 per cent in the surrounding periphery, and 12.4 per cent in the middle ring of the capitals. Queensland accounted for 34.7 per cent of the national growth—with the major non-capital towns and non-urban areas both playing a major role in this, followed by New South Wales (30.2 per cent). The next largest contributors were Western Australia (14.9 per cent) and Victoria (13.4 per cent).
One factor that is important in these changes is the nature of industry in different locations and changes in the level of activity within this sector. Table 3.8 shows, for regions at the national level, the composition of employment by industry, and also the overall change in the industries’ employment over the decade to 1996.
This shows the strong differences between locations in their share of employment by sector. Some sectors, such as agriculture and mining, were highly represented in the smaller regions, with others, including finance and business services, more important in the capitals. Similar differences were recorded for other sectors; however, their patterns were not always as clear cut or consistent.
For example, manufacturing played an important role in the outer regions of capitals and adjacent areas. In major non-capital and other large cities, it provided over 10 per cent of employment for residents in towns of 2,000 to 10,000 people and 10,000 to 40,000, as well as in non-urban locations (compared to the national average of just 13.1 per cent). Similarly, employment in government administration, health, community services and defence varied only from 20.2 per cent to 24.9 per cent across locations. (This sector is considered further below.)
|SLA Type||Agriculture||Mining||Manufacturing||Electricity and Water||Construction||Wholesale and Retail||Transport and Communications||Finance and Business Services||Govt, Health and Community||Accommodation, Restaurant and Service||Total|
|Structure of Employment|
|Within 75k of Cap.||3.6||0.8||15.4||0.8||8.7||21.3||6.7||11.2||21.1||10.4||100.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||2.7||1.0||13.6||1.1||6.5||23.0||6.1||10.2||24.7||11.0||100.0|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||4.7||3.2||10.8||1.6||7.7||21.8||5.8||9.9||22.5||12.0||100.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||13.5||3.7||10.8||1.2||6.5||18.5||5.5||7.8||21.6||11.0||100.0|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||27.8||7.2||6.5||1.0||4.8||12.9||4.8||5.0||21.4||8.6||100.0|
|Sector Growth Rate|
a ABS advises that as the industry classifications have undergone a major review since the 1991 Census, comparisons drawn from their time series of Census data should ‘be used as an indicator only’. [ABS 2019]
Most significantly, however, is the relationship between the industry structure locations and the rate of growth in each sector. For example, capital cities have a much higher concentration of employment in the finance sector—which had the second highest rate of growth, while smaller towns and non-urban areas had a disproportionate reliance upon sectors such as mining and agriculture which experienced a decline over the decade.
It must be noted, however, that individual industry growth rates were not consistent across locations. Manufacturing employment fell in the inner and middle tiers of capital cities
(by 23.3 per cent and 8.9 per cent respectively) as well as in major non-capitals (composed of falls of some 20 per cent in New South Wales and Victoria, but an increase of 35.5 per cent in Queensland). In contrast, it grew by 47.1 per cent in non-urban localities and in excess of 20 per cent in areas composed of towns of 2,000 to 10,000 people and those with fewer than2,000 inhabitants.
While most Australians in the workforce are employees, a substantial proportion are self-employed, employers or act as unpaid family workers. The variation in this self-employment (which encompasses all of these forms of self-employment) is an important characteristic of different regions. In particular, self-employment was very high in small towns and non-urban localities and relatively low in capital cities and major non-capitals. The Northern Territory small towns and non-urban localities were an exception.
|Within 75k of Cap.||9.2||8.2||10.3||9.7||14.1||8.4||8.1||13.9||9.6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||8.2||7.8||8.6||–||–||–||–||–||8.2|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||11.1||9.4||11.2||10.5||7.6||8.2||5.5||–||10.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||16.6||14.1||12.6||11.5||14.3||9.2||4.9||–||14.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||23.9||23.1||17.7||18.8||25.8||12.1||3.7||–||20.0|
a ABS advise that the data from the 1996 Census may tend to underestimate the level of self-employment as a result of changes to the Census schedule which may have led to some persons misreporting their employment status. [ABS 1999]
Self-employment rates varied from a low of 7.0 per cent in the middle tiers of capital cities, and 14.3 per cent in towns with a population of between 2,000 and 10,000, to a high of around 20 per cent in towns of under 2,000 population and non-urban localities. The rate in these towns is almost double the national average of 9.4 per cent.
In the capital cities, self-employment was relatively higher in inner cities and in the urban centres around them, particularly in the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia. Particularly low rates of self-employment were recorded overall in the two territories.
The pattern of unemployment rates from the 1996 Census is, in many ways, the inverse of the male employment-to-population ratio. These rates were relatively low in capital cities and most significant in the major non-capital cities and other large and medium towns and declining in smaller centres.
In particular, unemployment rates of 11 to 12 per cent were recorded in major non-capitals, in towns of over 40,000 and in towns of 10,000 to 40,000. Relatively low rates were observed in towns of under 2,000 and in capital cities. Non-urban localities had unemployment rates close to the national average.
There were important State components to the distribution. The States with highest unemployment levels were: Tasmania (with consistently high levels, except in the inner and middle zones of Hobart); South Australia (with high rates in all areas except towns with between 2,000 and 10,000 and the non-urban localities); and Queensland (with high rates except in towns of less than 10,000, non-urban localities, and the inner and middle zones of Brisbane).
|Within 75k of Cap.||9.0||8.4||11.5||12.1||9.8||10.6||8.8||6.5||9.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||9.7||12.6||11.0||–||–||–||–||–||11.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||11.8||11.7||13.2||8.3||13.4||13.7||4.8||–||11.6|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||11.6||9.8||8.2||6.2||9.2||13.4||6.1||–||9.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||10.2||7.3||6.3||6.6||9.5||10.8||8.1||–||8.4|
In both Victoria and New South Wales, the broad national pattern was reflected, with high unemployment rates being concentrated in the major non-capitals and towns of over 10,000 population. In New South Wales, the rate of unemployment within Sydney was around two thirds of the rate in these locations.
Western Australia had the lowest rate of any State that reflected the low rates recorded in all its localities, except urban localities close to Perth.
As noted previously, it is possible that the reported level of unemployment may understate the level of demand for employment, especially in smaller centres and non-urban locations.
An indicator of the duration of unemployment can be derived from the period of receipt of income support. Two indicators are analysed here: the proportion of recipients who had been in receipt of this assistance for more than 12 months and the average duration of receipt. These indicators were derived from 1998 FaCS administrative data and relate to uncompleted spells of assistance to recipients of Newstart and the Mature Age Allowance.
Nationally, 46.4 per cent of income support recipients had been in receipt of assistance for 12 months or more and under this definition were long-term unemployed. This figure varies from 42.6 per cent in inner capital cities, to about 48–50 per cent in towns of fewer than 10,000 people, of over 40,000 people, as well as in non-urban localities.
In the capital cities, relatively low long-term reliance upon unemployment income support was observed in Darwin, Perth and inner Brisbane.
|Within 75k of Cap.||45.8||48.7||46.2||37.6||50.8||55.5||32.9||46.4||46.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||48.9||54.7||46.4||–||–||–||–||–||50.0|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||51.0||48.1||46.8||31.0||51.9||50.9||29.5||–||47.9|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||51.3||53.3||43.0||32.5||47.6||55.2||34.6||–||48.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||52.6||54.6||42.6||36.9||56.0||59.5||32.3||–||49.6|
More generally, the proportion of long-term recipients was low in all areas of Western Australia and also in the Northern Territory, with this latter possibly reflecting the substitution of such benefits by participation in Community Development Employment Program (CDEP) schemes. In contrast, high levels of long-term receipt of unemployment-related income support were recorded in all of Tasmania except inner Hobart.
The national pattern was reflected in New South Wales and Victorian non-capital locations.
The higher proportions in smaller towns, notwithstanding the lower unemployment rates in these centres, suggest a higher level of inertia in these markets—with lower rates of employment turnover being reflected in longer durations.
These patterns are also reflected, as shown in Table 3.12, in the average period of receipt of this assistance. The average duration in weeks varied from a low of 63.8 weeks in inner capital cities to a high of 71–74 weeks in all towns of less than 40,000 people and non-urban localities. The national average was 68.8 weeks.
In general, the cities followed by the urban centres around them, and major non-capital cities, had lower unemployment benefit duration. Very high benefit durations of 77–88 weeks were observed in towns of under 10,000 population and in non-urban localities of Tasmania, South Australia (other than towns of between 2,000 and 10,000 people) and Victoria, major non- capitals of New South Wales and Victoria, towns with population of over 40,000 in Victoria, and the outer part of Hobart and the urban centres around it. Durations of less than one year were observed in all areas of the Northern Territory (except in non-urban localities where it was 63.9 weeks). Western Australia also recorded the next lowest duration (53.9 weeks). Lower average durations were also observed in inner and middle Brisbane, and in inner Sydney.
|Within 75k of Cap.||68.0||71.6||66.4||56.4||76.5||78.5||50.7||65.5||68.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||70.8||81.7||67.9||–||–||–||–||–||73.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||75.1||70.9||69.5||47.8||81.0||75.8||46.5||–||71.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||75.3||77.4||63.4||50.0||74.4||79.8||51.5||–||71.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||76.3||78.9||61.8||55.4||85.4||88.0||50.1||–||73.1|
Labour market access also varies between families. Nationally in 1996 14.3 per cent of couple families with children had neither partner in the workforce (Table 3.13). This compares with other data which show that 21.7 per cent of couple families which have both partners employed full-time, and 24.7 per cent which have neither partner employed on a full-time basis.
While in a number of these cases these people may voluntarily be out of the labour market, inability to access employment is probably the more pervasive explanation. The distribution of this experience has both strong State and regional components. For example, the lowest proportions were found in urban Canberra and Darwin—as well as country Western Australia and Queensland—while such joblessness was most frequently encountered in the inner suburbs of Melbourne and Adelaide—as well as country Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
At a national level, the pattern can be considered to be a declining incidence in the cities with distance from the CBD, and a relatively even national level distribution outside of the capitals— this though hides much variation at the State level.
The extent of dual full-time employment in couple families also showed a very even distribution. It ranged from 22.0 per cent to 22.3 per cent in the cities, falling to a low of 19.5 per cent in towns of 40,000 or more people before rising to 23.9 per cent in non-urban areas, as well as in towns of less than 2,000 people.
The incidence of family joblessness was much higher amongst sole parents—with 57.2 per cent of sole parents not being employed, and indeed only 23.6 per cent of such parents were employed on a full-time basis.
|Within 75k of Cap.||11.9||9.7||14.9||15.0||12.4||14.9||9.5||0.0||12.1|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||10.8||16.1||14.2||–||–||–||–||–||13.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||15.2||15.3||16.3||10.3||15.7||18.3||4.4||–||14.9|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||15.6||13.2||10.8||8.8||14.3||18.1||9.0||–||13.6|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||15.5||11.0||11.0||10.6||13.8||16.5||36.6||–||14.6|
|Within 75k of Cap.||58.6||54.2||59.4||62.9||56.7||58.1||51.6||0.0||57.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||60.1||61.8||60.1||–||–||–||–||–||60.7|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||61.1||61.9||59.8||54.3||63.7||64.4||41.3||–||60.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||64.5||61.9||58.3||57.3||60.7||66.1||44.3||–||62.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||66.3||63.2||59.1||56.7||63.2||61.6||69.8||–||63.3|
The relatively even spread of government administration, health and community services, and defence employment in 1996 was noted above. This is examined further below, looking firstly at a broader sector which also includes culture and recreation employment, and then key elements of this grouping, along with some specific sub-industry groups.
As discussed earlier, these data have a dual interpretation. At one level they represent merely a characteristic of employment in the locations, and at the other, they provide an insight into the level of actual services available to others in the location. This is particularly true in non-capital locations where the geographic level of analysis is more likely to reflect both employment and residential location.
The distribution of this broader services sector is largely consistent with the pattern of government administration and defence employment and varied narrowly between regions. It ranged from around 22 per cent in non-urban localities, small towns and outer rings of capital cities to 26–27 per cent in major non-capitals and towns of over 40,000 population to almost 29 per cent in inner capital cities. The variation within capitals may not be particularly informative as these cities reflect a series of interlocked labour markets, and the residential location of employees (which the tables are based upon) may not reflect the location of the actual service.
Very high contributions by these sectors were observed in the Australian Capital Territory (47.9 per cent), the Northern Territory (37.9 per cent) and Tasmania (due to high rates in Hobart and towns around it and in Launceston). The inner suburbs of Brisbane and Adelaide also had relatively high rates, around 31 per cent. The lowest contributions were in Victoria and New South Wales due to lower contributions in all localities, except in the inner capital cities and towns with a population over 40,000.
The patterns for each of these individual industry components are considered below.
The regional pattern of government administration and defence employment is similar to the contribution of the broader sector, as illustrated in Table 3.15, and is relatively evenly distributed across areas nationally. (To the extent there is variation, in particular within States, this tends to be a small number of locations with particularly high rates, rather than areas with very low rates.)
|Within 75k of Cap.||24.1||20.8||22.2||21.5||24.9||33.5||29.2||41.7||23.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||27.3||28.7||24.7||–||–||–||–||–||26.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||25.7||25.5||22.2||20.6||23.8||24.4||34.3||–||24.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||23.3||25.0||20.8||22.1||20.2||24.6||35.9||–||22.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||20.3||22.3||25.3||15.6||19.8||20.1||60.3||–||22.4|
Also of interest is the split between the two components. This is shown, at the national level, in Table 3.20. Defence employment, as may be anticipated, varied significantly between locations but overall was more highly concentrated in the larger non-capital city locations. This is even more marked when analysed by State and reached a peak in New South Wales where the sector accounted for 36.6 in every thousand employees in towns of more than 40,000. It should be noted, however, that this remained below the rate of 84.3 per 1,000 employed persons in inner Canberra.
The pattern of government administrative employment has two elements. Firstly, within capitals there was a decrease with movement towards the periphery and secondly, there was a sharp fall in the rate in the major and large non-capital city locations, with some upwards movement in the smaller locations. (The sharp rise for towns of fewer than 2,000 was not a consistent component across States but rather an aberration due to the high level of this type of employment in the Northern Territory.)
The share of employment in the education and the health and community services sectors, at 7.3 and 9.8 per cent of employment respectively, represented a more significant component than government administration. This employment formed an essential part of providing the social infrastructure of the region, including the formation of human capital.
|Within 75k of Cap.||4.8||4.7||4.0||5.7||3.7||9.5||10.6||14.9||5.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||7.1||3.3||3.7||–||–||–||–||–||4.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||4.8||5.3||3.5||3.2||3.0||3.8||8.5||–||4.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||5.4||5.1||4.2||3.5||3.2||3.7||16.3||–||5.0|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||4.9||4.1||10.0||3.3||3.4||3.7||30.1||–||6.3|
|Within 75k of Cap.||6.6||5.9||6.0||5.9||8.0||8.6||8.1||8.9||6.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||8.5||9.1||8.4||–||–||–||–||–||8.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||8.0||7.9||7.2||7.3||7.9||7.8||8.2||–||7.8|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||7.2||7.7||7.2||7.3||6.7||8.3||6.8||–||7.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||6.9||7.4||6.4||6.4||7.3||6.6||7.8||–||6.9|
Overall distribution of education employment was even—with the biggest variations occurring within capitals, although this may be more an issue of location of residence rather than of activity. The high rate in towns of more than 40,000 may suggest that these locations play an important role in providing educational services to surrounding locations, and hence may mitigate the slightly lower than average rate in the smallest locations.
Employment in the health and community sectors showed a similar pattern to education but with a much more marked decline in the smaller locations. This is a clear pattern across all States. While showing a similar pattern to education in having a concentration in the larger non- capital city towns, the low levels of employment in smaller locations were more marked.
Looking at a number of individual components of these sectors in Table 3.20, it can be seen that this pattern of decline is largely reflecting health employment rather than community services employment, which appears to fall only in the non-urban locations—and even then from relatively high rates in the larger of the smaller towns. In contrast to this, health employment fell very steeply for all locations under 40,000 persons. Within the capitals, this employment had a very strong bias towards inner locations. The data also demonstrated some strong State employment patterns. In Victoria, employment in this sector in towns of over 40,000 people was 101.7 per 1,000 employed, compared to a State average of 73.4; similarly in Tasmania the rate in Launceston was 106.4 compared to that State’s average of 87.8. In aggregate, while the State level of employment in the sector was 66.6 in the Northern Territory, and even lower in the Australian Capital Territory, in South Australia it was 90.8 per 1,000 employed.
Set against these patterns, the culture and recreation sector, as well as being very small, shows a strong orientation towards State capitals, although again a service function role might be seen in some of the major non-capitals and large towns.
|Within 75k of Cap.||10.5||8.2||9.3||8.1||11.1||12.8||7.7||13.7||9.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||10.0||13.5||10.8||–||–||–||–||–||11.3|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||10.9||10.6||9.4||8.5||11.0||11.5||13.5||–||10.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||9.2||10.7||8.0||10.1||9.2||11.5||11.5||–||9.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||7.6||9.9||7.5||5.2||8.3||8.0||21.2||–||8.2|
The other detailed industry sector shown in Table 3.20 is employment in the finance sector including banks. As with the much broader finance and business services sector discussed above, this shows a much lower presence in smaller communities.
While it is difficult to draw too strong a conclusion from these data, it is reasonable to consider that it indicates:
- The social infrastructure represented by education, government administration, and community services is relatively evenly distributed across the regions of Australia.
- Health infrastructure appears to be less well distributed and has pronounced State differences. There is some evidence suggesting that this employment, in the non-capital cities, is concentrated in the larger towns.
It is not possible to identify whether this reflects the optimal distribution of these services, that is with regard to a critical mass of activity or not.
|Within 75k of Cap.||2.2||2.0||3.0||1.8||2.1||2.6||2.9||4.2||2.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||1.7||2.8||1.9||–||–||–||–||–||2.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||2.0||1.6||2.2||1.6||1.9||1.4||4.1||–||1.9|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.4||1.5||1.3||1.2||1.1||1.1||1.3||–||1.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||1.0||0.9||1.5||0.7||0.7||1.8||1.2||–||1.0|
|SLA Type||Finance||Government Administration||Defence||Health||Community Serves||Other Services including Public Order|
|Within 75k of Cap.||20.9||36.2||13.5||69.7||24.7||21.1|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||18.8||33.4||14.2||84.8||27.1||17.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||17.4||36.2||7.5||76.6||26.0||20.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||15.5||38.8||10.8||65.2||27.3||15.6|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||11.6||61.6||1.4||54.0||27.6||13.6|
Key differences between regions emerged with respect to employment. These related to:
industry composition and growth, with the capital cities having a high proportion of employment in strongly growing sectors such as finance and business services, and with smaller centres having much higher employment in sectors in which employment had declined, such as agriculture and mining. Notwithstanding this, some sectors such as manufacturing showed growth outside the capitals, and decline within;
- labour force participation by women, which tended to be appreciably lower in smaller locations;
- the level of self employment, which was much stronger in country locations;
- unemployment, which tended to be higher in the non-capital city locations and where durations were longest in the smaller towns. (This raised the possibility of higher levels of discouraged job seekers, especially women, in these locations.)
Overlaid on these were some strong State trends, with particularly poor outcomes in South Australia and Tasmania.
Analysis of more detailed service industry employment suggests that areas of government administration, education and community services are well distributed. In contrast, employment in health showed some lower levels in smaller locations although there was some evidence of larger towns playing regional service role.
Income is a major determinant of living standards and social outcomes in Australia. While these outcomes can be influenced by many factors, and high levels of income do not guarantee good outcomes, low incomes are often associated with poorer outcomes. This section considers the level of income6 in regions throughout Australia and the pattern of distribution.
By location, average individual weekly income ranged from around $560 in inner Sydney, Darwin and Canberra, to around $340 in the outer suburbs of Hobart, and a number of other locations in Tasmania. The lowest average individual income, $315 per week, was recorded in small settlements in the Northern Territory. As previously noted, these locations have a high Indigenous population and low levels of labour market participation.
At the national level, a relatively clear pattern emerges. Within capital cities, individual income averaged some $450 per week (higher in the inner suburbs and lower in the outer), while outside of the capitals it ranged nationally between $380 and $400.
The pattern recorded for individual income was even more marked when household incomes are considered (Table 4.2). Households in the capitals averaged almost $900 per week. This declined, through the adjacent locations and major non-capital cities, to just under $750 per week. The average then fell again, to below $700 per week in all locations of less than 40,000 people.
|Within 75k of Cap.||398.5||416.1||375.1||377.9||375.7||388.4||459.7||636.1||395.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||405.5||352.4||381.3||–||–||–||–||–||379.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||372.9||364.1||378.8||470.1||368.6||349.1||514.7||–||383.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||354.6||354.3||440.2||466.9||367.2||341.5||530.0||–||386.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||343.0||356.6||428.7||515.4||348.0||372.1||315.8||–||390.7|
The broad elements of the regional pattern of individual income within States also remain— with households in country Western Australia having incomes around the national average, and in Queensland somewhat below, while those in other States receive incomes well below the national rate.
In aggregate by State, household incomes in both Tasmania ($675 per week) and South Australia ($706 per week) were well below the rates recorded in other States. In contrast, average household incomes in both the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory were over $1000 per week.
|Within 75k of Cap.||745.2||800.6||714.9||688.2||679.0||728.3||911.5||1292.0||742.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||749.3||652.0||709.7||–||–||–||–||–||703.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||677.9||653.9||683.9||865.9||638.1||613.6||1014.8||–||692.6|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||628.0||618.6||792.9||832.1||638.2||612.1||1056.1||–||680.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||597.2||623.6||746.0||824.8||592.7||644.0||901.9||–||674.7|
A natural corollary of income is income tax. The patterns of personal income tax payments, illustrated in Table 4.3, hence largely reflect the pattern of income shown in Table 4.2.
|Within 75k of Cap.||6.8||6.7||5.7||6.6||6.0||6.4||7.2||8.7||6.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||7.0||5.8||6.4||–||–||–||–||–||6.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||6.4||5.9||5.9||8.0||6.4||6.0||7.2||–||6.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||5.7||5.5||7.0||7.3||5.7||5.8||7.4||–||6.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||5.1||5.4||6.5||7.3||5.2||6.6||8.1||–||6.0|
In addition to the average level of income in an area, the distribution of income between households is important in determining the outcomes of families and individuals. Table 4.4 shows the proportion of households with equivalised ‘lower income’7 in each location in 1996. (Equivalisation involves adjustment to the level of household income to account for different household composition.)
As with raw income, there are distinct State and regional patterns. The incidence of ‘lower income’ households was lower in the capitals and higher in country areas with population under 40,000, and particularly high rates were recorded in Tasmania and South Australia.
While the incidence of ‘lower income’ households was lower in the capital cities, a majority (51.2 per cent) of ‘lower income’ households lived in these locations, with a further 6.8 per cent living on the fringe of these cities. 11.2 per cent lived in either major non-capital cities, or in towns of more than 40,000, with the remaining 30.7 per cent living in smaller locations.
Another approach to the measurement of income distribution is the use of a measure such as the Gini Coefficient that considers the ‘equality’ of income distribution. The measure returns a value of between 0 (where income is distributed equally to all households) and 1 (where for example, a single household received all the income). While the measure provides a useful measure of the ‘equity’ of distribution, it has significant limitations in comparative analysis as it does not reflect the nuances of distributions. (For example, two distributions may rate the same score, yet be very different in their outcomes, depending upon whether one or another segmen of the distribution is different.) Hence, while comparing the coefficient between locations is useful for gaining some understanding of the differences, it is not sufficient to claim that income is distributed ‘more’ or ‘less’ equitably.
|Within 75k of Cap.||47.5||41.2||49.3||51.1||51.5||47.1||33.6||17.2||46.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||45.4||52.8||49.8||–||–||–||–||–||49.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||52.8||52.9||52.7||40.0||53.0||56.4||22.8||-||51.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||56.9||55.4||46.2||41.0||55.0||57.3||24.1||-||52.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||59.3||56.2||50.5||43.4||59.7||55.4||60.7||-||54.7|
Given the nature of the measure, and its derivation, no estimates of variance of the distribution have been made.
A review of the results for this measure suggests its key indication is that there tends to be a high degree of homogeneity within locations, especially outside of the capitals.
Within the capitals it points to higher income disparities within the inner ring of suburbs of the capital cities confirming other analysis which has indicated that these locations have a mix of both high and low income households. The extent of disparity tends to decline with distance as one moves to the middle and outer ring, before increasing in the peri-urban zone.
Outside of the capital cities a range of features are revealed. In New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia all non-capital locations had lower coefficients than their State average. In Queensland all non-capital locations had higher coefficients than capital locations with the exception of inner Brisbane. At the national level it must be noted that the differences in the coefficients for locations not only reflect the variation within this type of location in each State, but also between States. In a number of cases the resulting national coefficient is therefore higher than it may have been expected based upon the individual State results.
|Within 75k of Cap.||0.393||0.355||0.366||0.378||0.388||0.371||0.344||0.361||0.378|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||0.384||0.376||0.383||0.383|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||0.393||0.379||0.390||0.398||0.385||0.383||0.336||0.393|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||0.386||0.377||0.404||0.380||0.388||0.378||0.333||0.393|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||0.384||0.390||0.407||0.408||0.387||0.394||0.351||0.400|
Taken together, the data indicate that incomes in non-metropolitan areas, at both the individual and the household level, tend to be lower than in the capital cities. This is also reflected in the proportion of lower income households in these areas, around 10 to 15 percentage points higher outside of the capitals. Notwithstanding this, most low income households still live in the capitals.
Income distribution within locations is generally more equal in the non-capital locations.
These findings across locations, however, need to take into account some important State characteristics, such as the low levels of income in South Australia and Tasmania, across all locations, and the comparatively better performance of non-metropolitan areas in Western Australia and Queensland.
- 5.1 Commonwealth housing assistance
- 5.2 Tenure, Home ownership, Public housing
- 5.3 Dwelling structure
- 5.4 Housing costs, Private rents,Mortgage repayments
- 5.5 Summary
Housing is an important component of both the physical and social infrastructure of communities. Home ownership is not only important as a means of building family wealth and in providing affordable housing over a family’s lifecycle but also provides a strong link for people with the community in which they have invested. At the same time, it may act as an impediment to regional mobility.
The Commonwealth provides housing assistance through both the social security system and through the Commonwealth–State Housing Agreement (CSHA).
Rent Assistance is a non-taxable income supplement paid to social security recipients to assist with the cost of private rent. Rates depend upon the amount of rent paid and the size of the family unit. Total outlays on Rent Assistance for the 1997–98 financial year were estimated at $1.5 billion. This program expenditure has been included in the data used in analysing the distribution of income support payments.
The CSHA is a formal agreement between the Commonwealth and the States and Territories for the provision of housing assistance. Administration of housing programs under the CSHA is the responsibility of State and Territory governments while the Commonwealth is involved in setting strategic directions and priorities. The priority client group for public rental housing is people on low incomes, primarily those receiving social security payments.
Under the CSHA in 1998–99, the Commonwealth made available $967 million to States and Territories. This included $773 million in general funding, primarily for the provision of public rental housing, $91 million for the Aboriginal Rental Housing Program, $64 million for the Community Housing Program and $40 million for the Crisis Accommodation Program. Housing Ministers have agreed in principle to a new agreement for the period July 1999 to June 2003.
As at September 1998, there were 940,460 families receiving Rent Assistance. Of these, 42 per cent lived outside of the capital cities. Average rents in the capital cities are higher than in regional areas ($112.32 per week compared to $103.23 per week) and the average amount of Rent Assistance paid is therefore less. However, the difference in the average amount paid ($30.02 per week compared to $29.40 per week) is not substantial. Non-metropolitan private renters tend to receive proportionately more assistance in relation to the rents they pay. This is because Rent Assistance only continues to increase until rent reaches a cut-off level that is different for different family types. More people in non-metropolitan areas pay rents above this level and consequently Rent Assistance represents a smaller proportion of their rent.
Housing tenure has three main forms—home ownership, private rental and public housing. The first and last of these are considered below, with private rental representing the balance in most locations.
Home ownership rates are lowest in the inner city locations and highest in non-urban locations and smaller towns. The low level of ownership in inner cities results from the concentration of rental accommodation in these locations and high dwelling costs.
Within the capitals, home ownership rates tended to be higher in the middle and outer parts of capital cities and surrounding locations. In contrast to these rates, the levels of home ownership in the large non-capital cities, in almost all States, are relatively low. The rates increase with diminishing size of location before increasing very strongly in non-urban communities.
There are also some strong State patterns. There were extremely high levels of home ownership in Victoria in all locations other than central Melbourne and very low rates in the Northern Territory. Lower levels of home ownership also occurred in Queensland, except in non-urban localities.
The distribution of households in public rental accommodation reflects historic and current State Government policies regarding the amount and location of public housing. Under the current CSHA, the distribution of public housing is determined by State and Territory housing authorities, in line with strategic directions agreed with the Commonwealth.
|Within 75k of Cap.||75.3||83.5||72.6||75.2||78.2||75.1||65.2||83.2||77.1|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||67.0||72.8||65.5||–||–||–||–||–||68.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||70.0||70.5||64.6||60.9||60.3||70.3||46.2||-||67.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||72.3||76.5||64.2||64.7||71.0||75.0||24.0||-||70.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||75.9||82.5||60.5||70.2||79.0||78.4||11.4||-||72.8|
In 1996 overall, the Northern Territory, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory had the highest proportions of households in public housing, followed by Tasmania. The most distinctive single regional feature is the very low provision of this form of housing in non-urban areas and in small towns. Indeed the rate of provision in non-urban areas was only one-third of the national average.
Within States, however, patterns of provision vary:
New South Wales had a concentration in the outer ring of Sydney (but not in the adjacent region) and in its largest non-capital regions.
The level of provision of public housing in Melbourne was relatively low, and was concentrated in the inner city region. In contrast, while provision in medium-sized towns in Victoria was quite low in comparison with national rates, it was well above the State average.
As with New South Wales, public housing in Brisbane was concentrated in the outer suburbs, with rates a little above the State average in the larger non-capital city locations.
- South Australia and the Northern Territory had similar patterns within their capitals of concentrations on the fringe, but also, to a lesser extent in the centre of the city, they also had a very strong concentration in the larger of the non-capital cities.
The high level of public housing in a number of the larger non-capital centres often reflects a previous period when housing was offered as an incentive for workers to relocate to particular regional industries. Many of these centres have seen major declines in employment in recent years and workers who were not home-owners have tended to leave the area. Surplus public housing has then been taken up by people from capital cities and other locations because waiting list times were far shorter or even non-existent. Public housing, therefore, may have reduced the degree of depopulation that might have otherwise occurred. There has though, in the process, been a change in community identity and a number of issues associated with concentrations of disadvantage and distance from usual family supports. In some areas, the availability of excess public housing may make it hard for private landlords to let their properties at economic rents and this has been the source of some complaint.
|Within 75k of Cap.||3.9||-||4.5||4.4||5.8||11.4||17.2||3.2||4.4|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||8.0||5.5||5.3||–||–||–||–||–||6.2|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||5.6||7.0||3.9||9.1||24.9||12.4||21.9||–||7.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||4.6||4.8||2.8||7.8||9.2||9.2||24.1||–||5.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||2.6||2.8||3.4||3.7||4.4||3.5||10.9||–||3.5|
5.3 Dwelling structure
Most housing in Australia is in the form of detached dwellings, with attached housing playing an increasingly important role in capital cities, especially in inner urban locations and in Sydney. In addition, the quality of the Australian housing stock is high, with other data indicating that this holds across most locations. While detailed data on housing quality are not available at this level of analysis, the incidence of two forms of dwellings does provide some indication of whether problems occur in the housing infrastructure of regions. These are the use of caravans and improvised dwellings. These measures are, however, not unambiguous in their interpretation and should be viewed as broad indicators and not specific measures.
While caravans played only a small (1.4 per cent) role in meeting national housing need in 1996, this response has very distinct regional incidence. At a national level of aggregation, living in caravans accounted for some 4 per cent of housing in locations of 2,000 to 40,000 people. Rates much higher than this were, however, recorded in parts of the Northern Territory, Western Australia and Queensland.
|Within 75k of Cap.||1.9||0.8||2.8||1.4||1.5||0.3||6.9||0.0||1.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||0.7||0.6||3.1||–||–||–||–||–||1.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||3.2||2.0||5.2||6.2||1.0||1.0||3.1||–||3.5|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||3.1||1.1||7.5||9.7||3.0||1.0||16.1||–||4.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||2.9||0.7||8.3||6.5||1.8||0.6||9.8||–||3.8|
This pattern is likely to reflect three factors:
- lack of adequate housing;
- the extent to which some of these locations reflect tourist and retirement locations; and
- the capacity of this form of housing to meet varying rental needs in smaller locations.
This latter response takes account of the relatively higher risks for investors in providing rental housing in smaller locations where there is often less certainty about the long-term demand for housing.
The incidence of the use of improvised dwellings8 largely corresponds with those areas with high Indigenous populations. This would appear to confirm the inadequacy of housing infrastructure within the Indigenous population.
Reflecting this need under the CSHA, $91 million is provided under the Aboriginal Rental Housing Program. Most of these funds are directed to rural and remote areas where there is insufficient housing. A further $229 million is provided for housing and infrastructure through the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC). Despite substantial funding, progress in meeting the backlog of need has been very slow. The cost of building in remote areas is very high and, once built, large numbers of houses have not stayed operational. It is estimated that 40 per cent of the 12,000 homes provided for Indigenous people in remote Australia are currently uninhabitable. Much of the problem can be traced to poor initial design and an emphasis on building new houses with too little attention to how communities could carry out the on-going maintenance work that would be required. The old ‘build and forget’ policies are now being changed but addressing the problem will still require significant resources for a significant period of time.
|Within 75k of Cap.||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.0||0.2||0.1||1.9||0.0||0.1|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||0.0||0.0||0.1||–||–||–||–||–||0.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||0.1||0.1||0.4||1.0||0.1||0.0||0.7||–||0.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||0.2||0.1||0.8||1.2||0.4||0.1||7.3||–||0.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||2.8||0.1||1.9||0.9||0.2||0.2||17.0||–||1.9|
Private rental and average mortgage payments are highest in the inner city and lowest in non- urban locations, and generally follow a linear relationship between these extremes. There are some exceptions with high housing costs in some attractive locations (such as coastal locations) outside the capital cities. In other cases, high housing costs reflect the high cost of building in remote locations (for instance, non-urban Northern Territory).
In 1996, private rents varied dramatically by region—from a high of an average of $234 per week in inner Sydney to $89 in small towns of less than 2,000 people in South Australia.
In large part, these costs appear to reflect dwelling values, although the very low rates in locations such as South Australia may reflect surplus housing stock associated with the population decline experienced by those regions.
With the exception of the Northern Territory, the lower rents in non-capital cities would suggest that there is no systematic shortage of private rental accommodation in smaller centres, notwithstanding the low level of public housing availability and generally smaller private rental sectors. As noted above, this may in part be as a result of the market responding in flexible ways to transient housing needs through alternatives to conventional rental housing, such as caravans.
|Within 75k of Cap.||154.4||142.6||155.8||130.8||130.8||133.4||182.9||202.9||146.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||130.3||132.7||138.9||–||–||–||–||–||134.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||139.9||129.9||164.4||160.0||113.4||118.7||187.2||–||145.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||130.6||118.0||135.9||127.1||114.7||122.9||181.7||–||129.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||102.4||102.1||114.0||116.4||89.1||100.9||145.9||–||105.2|
The variance in mortgage repayments (from an average of $277 per week, again in inner Sydney to $114 per week, again in towns of under 2,000 in South Australia) while not as great as the variation in rents, was still high. The pattern of repayments also resembled the pattern of rents.
In large part, this reflects the underlying variation in house values that result in households taking out smaller mortgages to achieve home ownership. A second factor that influences the average rate of mortgage repayment is the age composition and growth rate of the population. Where the population is older, and has fewer new settlers, the pool of mortgages reflected in the data tends to be older than would otherwise be the case. As most loans are credit foncier loans with fixed nominal repayments comprising both interest and principal, this means that the average level of repayments tends to decline over time.
As with rents, higher mortgage repayments were recorded in 1996 in the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory and Sydney.
|Within 75k of Cap.||222.6||187.3||207.1||178.8||165.9||163.1||216.4||325.0||195.4|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||187.4||151.4||185.2||–||–||–||–||–||174.2|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||192.2||153.8||192.3||183.7||146.7||136.1||218.8||–||179.8|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||174.9||145.6||173.6||147.6||140.6||141.5||192.7||–||164.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||145.0||136.5||144.5||151.9||114.1||140.3||120.2||–||139.8|
Differences between locations occurred with regard to the tenure, cost and form of housing. Rents, mortgages and home ownership rates were all higher in the capitals than in the remainder of States. While rents and mortgage repayments tended to fall with diminishing centre size, home ownership rates tended to pick up in the smaller centres.
The major non-capital cities and larger towns showed a number of characteristics which differentiated them from other locations. These included high levels of public housing, low levels of home ownership, and in the major centres at least, moderate rent levels.
Smaller locations, in addition to their lower costs saw, however, a relatively high incidence of the use of alternative housing—either caravans or improvised housing. While some of this may reflect the nature of the location and a flexible market response to housing needs, it may give rise to some questions as to the adequacy of housing stock.
- 6.1 Role of income support: 1996
- 6.2 Income support recipients, Current recipients, Age pensioners, Income support for the unemployed, Payment of Disability Support Pension, Sole parents, Youth payments
- 6.3 Summary
The Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) is responsible for the Commonwealth’s major income support programs. This section considers the relative impact of these programs in different locations.
It considers the current pattern of assistance, based upon 1998 recipient data, and also draws upon more detailed analysis of the role of income support in 1996. This analysis is based upon research (Bray & Mudd 1998) which was undertaken to estimate the contribution transfer payments, and in particular those payments made by the then Department of Social Security (DSS), made to local economies. The analysis has been revised for this paper to incorporate updated taxation and other data and an expanded methodology. The date of the ‘snapshot’ remains 1996 as this allows for a point-in-time comparison of both income support and Census data.
The contribution of income support payments to total income of an area was derived by taking the total value of income support payments in a location as a proportion of the net income in the location as estimated from Census and taxation data.
The contribution of payments by DSS is shown in Table 6.1. This shows rises from low rates in the most urbanised areas to peak in those areas where a majority of the population live in larger towns of between 10,000 and 40,000 people. It then falls in the least urbanised areas but remains at rates higher than those in the most urbanised areas.
Across the States, the greatest reliance upon this source of income occurs in Tasmania followed by South Australia. Queensland is slightly above the national average, Victoria almost on the average while New South Wales is slightly below. Western Australia is below the average and the two Territories are significantly below the average, the Australian Capital Territory being the lowest. In the Northern Territory, larger contributions from this source were found in smaller towns of under 2,000 people.
The pattern changes only slightly across locations with the expansion of the measure of income support to incorporate a wider range of payments by including those made through the Community Development Employment Program (CDEP) operated by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) pensions, and payments to students by the former Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). Overall, these additional payments tend to reinforce the pattern of contributions of DSS payments.
As such, while the contribution to income of payments in the centre of cities rises, the extent of the contribution in these locations remains at a level significantly below the national average. Meanwhile, the rates in locations that are already high grew more strongly. This is largely as a result of the pattern of DVA payments, which were the largest component, reinforcing the pattern of payment of other assistance. While the Northern Territory remains the State with the second lowest contribution to income from these sources, the inclusion of the additional payments has significant effects in the least urbanised areas due to the impact of CDEP.
As a result, such transfer payments account for some 15 per cent of income in the capital cities, rising to 20 per cent in other locations. This reflects both higher levels of use of such transfers and lower incomes in these locations. More than 25 per cent of the net income is derived from transfer payments in a number of locations. These include small towns of fewer than 2,000 in New South Wales, towns of over 40,000 in Victoria, a range of both capital city and other locations in Tasmania, as well as smaller settlements in the Northern Territory, where CDEP is a major source of income.
|Within 75k of Cap.||17.2||13.2||17.4||19.6||17.5||17.5||12.8||6.1||16.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||15.7||21.0||18.4||–||–||–||–||–||18.3|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||19.5||19.3||18.2||11.8||21.1||23.6||7.7||–||18.2|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||20.5||20.1||14.1||11.3||19.1||22.7||8.2||–||17.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||22.4||18.1||13.4||9.2||19.8||19.5||17.5||–||16.6|
|Within 75k of Cap.||21.0||15.4||20.8||23.4||20.6||20.4||16.0||9.4||19.5|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||18.6||25.5||21.4||–||–||–||–||–||21.7|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||23.2||22.7||21.5||14.8||24.6||27.4||9.0||-||21.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||24.4||23.6||16.6||22.6||26.3||12.4||-||21.2|
|Town Pop. < 2,000-10,000||26.4||21.8||16.9||11.0||22.9||22.7||34.5||-||20.6|
A second measure from this study was the proportion of children for whom the payment of family assistance was claimed at above minimum rates. This shows a similar pattern with a greater concentration in the least urbanised areas and non-urban localities. While in a number of less ‘dependent’ locations such assistance was claimed for a quarter or less of children, this rises to over half in many other areas.
The most striking feature is the relatively higher proportion of children assisted in the Northern Territory compared to the proportion of adults. A consequence of this is that the Territory’s ranking increases from below New South Wales and Victoria to above. Non-urban areas in Queensland, locations in the outer tier of Brisbane, as well as locations within 75 kilometres of Brisbane, also have notably high proportions of children assisted.
The proportion of adults assisted by DSS payments shows a similar pattern to the contribution of payments to income. One point of difference is the slightly higher ranking of Victoria relative to Queensland in terms of the number of people assisted.
|Within 75k of Cap.||41.4||38.4||48.3||44.4||46.2||48.2||47.8||19.9||42.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||40.7||54.0||49.4||–||–||–||–||–||47.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||49.0||50.4||52.5||42.0||50.1||55.3||34.3||-||49|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||50.9||51.8||44.9||41.6||52.4||49.8||43.2||-||48.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||58.6||47.5||46.3||37.6||49.9||47.5||45.7||-||48.4|
|Within 75k of Cap.||33.7||27.0||32.5||36.8||34.0||33.8||25.1||17.2||32.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||31.1||38.2||34.7||–||–||–||–||–||34.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||36.1||36.3||34.7||25.6||39.9||42.2||17.7||–||34.9|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||36.2||37.3||28.7||23.7||36.3||40.3||18.2||–||33.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||37.6||34.2||25.9||22.0||35.7||36.4||23.4||–||31.3|
a As this analysis has sought to identify the number of people who benefit from transfers, rather than from actual claimants, both members of couples have been included in measuring the impact of family payments.
Significant changes in the structure of income support payments, in particular relating to youth between 1996 and 1998, make inter-temporal comparisons difficult to measure. Table 6.5 provides an estimate of the underlying trend in recipient levels, excluding youth.
Evident from this is the overall increase in the number of recipients over the period. The exceptions to this increase have been in the central city locations of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth, all of which have witnessed declines in the overall number of recipients. Locations within 75 kilometres of the capital city have experienced the greatest increase in the number of recipients over the period. This was more moderate in New South Wales, and is not inconsistent with the higher rates of population growth in these locations over the same period.
As in New South Wales, Victoria had stronger increases in medium sized towns and the outer and middle tiers of the capital city. Larger towns with a population of 40,000 along with small towns had lower growth in Queensland. Tasmania had a high growth rate overall, with higher rates of growth across most of the State. However, the territories show the highest rates of growth. The Northern Territory saw a decline in smaller towns but a large increase in medium size towns of between 2,000 and 40,000 people, as well as a large increase in the centre of the city.
While the smaller centres of fewer than 2,000 people showed a lower growth rate than other locations, this needs to set against their population that fell over the period.
|Within 75k of Cap.||7.4||11.7||17.2||10.0||10.9||12.4||14.3||27.6||10.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||6.4||4.4||4.4||–||–||–||–||–||5.0|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||8.1||7.7||9.2||5.0||3.5||5.7||35.0||–||7.8|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||9.0||6.1||5.2||6.4||6.2||9.1||25.7||–||7.7|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||5.2||2.3||5.7||9.0||5.4||8.4||–5.5||–||5.1|
It is estimated that 34.7 per cent of the population aged over 15 years gained a benefit from income transfers from FaCS in 1998. (This proportion differs from other estimates of the impact as it relates to persons gaining benefit from the payment rather than being recipients of assistance. As such, in general, where a family payment is made at above minimum rates to a couple, the data count both members of the couple as ‘benefiting’ from the payment. Similarly, when only one member of a couple is a beneficiary of a payment both are counted. Given this and the inclusion of persons on partial rates of assistance, it is also important to note that the data do not report ‘dependence’ upon the assistance; in many cases the financial support may represent a small proportion of a household’s total income.)
|Within 75k of Cap.||38.9||34.2||42.2||43.5||41.4||42.5||31.6||24.7||38.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||36.4||44.9||39.5||–||–||–||–||–||40.2|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||42.6||43.3||41.2||29.5||44.2||48.4||25.3||–||41.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||43.1||44.1||33.2||27.9||42.2||47.6||25.1||–||39.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||43.8||39.5||30.2||26.8||41.5||43.4||24.3||–||36.5|
On this basis, it is estimated that 34.7 per cent of the population aged over 15 years gained some benefit. This proportion ranged from 29.8 per cent in inner capital city locations to 41.1 per cent in towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people, and by State from 21.5 per cent in the Australian Capital Territory to 42.8 per cent in Tasmania and 39.3 per cent in South Australia.
This assistance is provided through a wide range of programs. The focus in this discussion is on the major forms of income support: pensions for the aged, support for people seeking employment, support for those with a longer term disability, support for sole parents and the payment of Youth Allowance to young people undertaking education, training and job search. In all cases, partners have been included in the numbers, unless they obtain a separate benefit in their own right.
|SLA Type||Age pension||Newstart, MAAa& NMAb||Disability Support Pension||Parenting Payment(Single)||Youth Allowance||Other||Total|
|Persons Benefiting as a Proportion of Population Aged Over 15|
|Within 75k of Cap.||12.97||6.77||4.81||3.57||2.57||8.25||38.94|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||12.95||7.79||5.10||3.41||3.54||7.44||40.23|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||13.31||8.29||5.27||3.42||2.95||7.81||41.05|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||12.87||7.47||5.01||3.02||2.54||8.58||39.49|
|Total Pop. < 2,000||11.31||6.77||4.56||2.48||2.16||9.19||36.47|
|Distribution by Type of Assistance|
|Within 75k of Cap.||33.3||17.4||12.4||9.2||6.6||21.2||100.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||32.2||19.4||12.7||8.5||8.8||18.5||100.0|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||32.4||20.2||12.8||8.3||7.2||19.0||100.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||32.6||18.9||12.7||7.6||6.4||21.7||100.0|
|Total Pop. < 2,000||31.0||18.6||12.5||6.8||5.9||25.2||100.0|
a Mature Age Allowance
b Newstart Mature Age Allowance
In addition to these main payments, substantial assistance is provided through payments to low income households with children, and a number of smaller income support programs including: Carer Payment, Widow Allowance, Drought Relief Payment, Special Benefit, Family Payment (Workforce), Austudy for persons over 25 years and Rehabilitation Allowance.
The relative roles of these programs is illustrated in Table 6.7 which shows, in aggregate, the distribution of persons benefiting from these programs as a proportion of the population aged over 15, and the mix of programs within locations.
Aged pensions were the largest single payment, and represented just over a third of the total, followed by assistance to the unemployed (18.5 per cent) and those with a long-term disability (12.5 per cent). Approximately the same numbers were assisted by aid to sole parents and to students (7.6 per cent) with the balancing 19.9 per cent receiving another form of support. The major element was family workforce payments.
The mix of assistance varied between locations. Much of this was driven by the differences in family support. This was particularly noticeable in inner urban locations where the numbers of families relatively were small and those who lived there tended to be more affluent. Once these variations are taken out, the aggregate proportions in receipt of assistance become much more stable.
While there is a tendency for there to be slightly more age pensioners in the population aged over 15 in non-metropolitan areas, this is swamped by the even higher propensity for other types of assistance and the age pensioner share of assistance falls.
Each of the major groups is considered below.
Age pensioners and their spouses represented a higher proportion of the population than any other groups of recipients. In total, persons being assisted by age pensions represented 33.9 per cent of all recipients.
In urban areas, the distribution of these pensioners, as shown in Table 6.8, differed from other groups by having a stronger level of representation in the middle suburbs. This, however, was not a consistent pattern, with Perth showing a strong pattern of higher rates in the inner locations, and Hobart, where a higher rate is recorded in the outer suburbs.
The rate of receipt relative to the population, in all non-capital cities other than in the smallest towns and non-urban areas, where levels are broadly on par with the capitals, was surprisingly even at the national level and was about 1.5 percentage points above that recorded in the capital.
Much variance occurred by State. In Queensland, there was a strong relationship between the size of towns and receipt, while in New South Wales, towns of over 40,000 had relatively low rates. Western Australia showed higher levels, both in the inner and middle regions of Perth and in the area surrounding the city, while its overall rate, along with the two territories, was low.
Table 6.9 shows aged pensioners as a proportion of those aged over 65 years of age—in effect the extent of take up of the Age Pension. The pattern has many points of similarity with the actual distribution of the payments; however, the outer ring of the capitals showed very high rates. A similar upward shift occurs in non-urban locations.
|Within 75k of Cap.||15.5||9.9||12.0||14.9||14.9||10.7||4.0||7.0||13.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||12.0||14.6||12.4||–||–||–||–||–||13.0|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||14.5||14.0||13.0||8.4||14.2||14.1||4.0||–||13.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||14.5||16.4||9.6||7.8||14.0||14.5||2.8||–||12.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||13.2||16.2||8.0||7.7||14.8||13.1||2.6||–||11.3|
|Within 75k of Cap.||79.2||89.9||79.4||90.6||82.6||86.2||67.1||111.0||83.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||85.8||83.9||73.9||–||–||–||–||–||80.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||74.7||83.4||61.6||66.5||93.4||82.2||61.8||-||73.6|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||73.1||82.4||65.0||62.9||77.3||82.6||42.2||-||72.6|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||74.9||73.4||56.3||62.6||74.6||83.4||48.8||-||70.7|
By State, very high ratios were recorded in Victoria and South Australia as well as Tasmania—all of which recorded rates above or near 80 per cent. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the rates were around 75 per cent. They were even lower at around 70 per cent in Queensland, 65 per cent in the Australian Capital Territory and 50 per cent in the Northern Territory.
The magnitude of these State differences well overshadowed some of the locational patterns.
Income support for the unemployed
The three main forms of assistance to this group are: Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA) and Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA). (As these data cover those who benefit from the payment, the data also include people who receive parenting and partnering payments as spouses of these recipients.)
The distribution of persons assisted shows strong regional components and similarities with the data in Section 3 on unemployment. Overall, rates of assistance in non-capitals were around 1.5 to 2.0 percentage points higher than in the capital cities.
This difference is particularly apparent in New South Wales. In the locations that are most urbanised the proportion of people on unemployment programs is significantly below the national average. In the least urbanised locations, this group represents a significantly greater proportion of the population than for Australia as a whole, with all localities composed of towns with populations of less than 40,000 people having rates of 8.1 or higher. In Victoria, the highest use of this assistance is evident in the population in locations ranging from the major non-capital cities to locations that have populations predominantly in towns with populations of more than 10,000.
In Queensland, while the picture is not as clearly delineated, this population is evident in the middle group of non-capital locations. Locations within 75 kilometres of Brisbane also have high proportions. A similar picture emerges in Western Australia where this is the only location with an above average level of assistance through these payments. This is in contrast to the distribution seen in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia.
In contrast to Western Australia, Tasmania shows high proportions of people receiving this assistance in all locations, other than the more central areas of Hobart, but even here the rate was well above the national average.
If this population is considered as a proportion of those that are aged between 15 to 64 years, only the effect of differences in the distribution of the aged population emerge. In particular, once the younger age of the Northern Territory is taken into account, the proportion of the population in receipt of unemployment benefits across that Territory decreases and does not significantly differ from the proportion for Australia as a whole. The effect of this change in the population base to those of working age also becomes apparent in the major non-capital cites of New South Wales where the rate increases, highlighting the different capital city and rest of State outcome.
|Within 75k of Cap.||5.8||6.1||8.1||7.8||6.9||9.5||8.4||5.3||6.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||8.2||8.2||9.3||5.8||10.0||11.2||7.3||–||8.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||8.1||7.1||6.7||5.0||7.8||10.9||8.2||-||7.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||8.3||5.3||5.5||5.0||7.7||9.8||5.6||-||6.8|
|Within 75k of Cap.||7.2||6.9||9.6||9.3||8.5||10.8||8.9||5.7||8.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||7.6||10.4||9.9||–||–||–||–||–||9.3|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||10.2||9.8||11.8||6.6||11.8||13.6||7.8||-||10.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||10.1||8.9||7.9||5.7||9.5||13.2||8.8||-||9.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||10.1||6.8||6.4||5.7||9.7||11.7||6.0||-||8.1|
Payment of Disability Support Pension
These payments are made to persons with long-term disabilities that impair their capacity for employment. The general pattern of the ratio of persons assisted through the Disability Support Pension to population closely resembles that of unemployment related payments.
The features of this distribution are:
- Lower rates in the capitals—with the pattern of variation between tiers differing by State. In Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide and Hobart there was a marked concentration in the outer ring. In contrast in Melbourne, the peak concentration was in the middle suburbs.
- Higher rates of assistance in the areas adjacent to the capitals and in major non-capital city cities, rising to a peak for towns of 10,000 to 40,000 people and remaining relatively high for the next group of locations. In Western Australia, it was again the group of locations within 75 kilometres of Perth which had the highest rates.
- The rates then tended (although not in all States) to fall in small towns of fewer than
2,000 people and in non-urban locations. As a result of this fall, these localities have rates between those recorded in the capitals and the larger towns.
- High levels of receipt occurred in Tasmania and in South Australia, and lower rates in Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory. In contrast to support for persons who are unemployed, the rate in the Northern Territory is also low.
Once this ratio is limited to the population of working age only, non-urban areas of New South Wales move slightly closer to the national average. However, this is not sufficient to reduce the above average rate for New South Wales, making this the only payment considered here where this occurs. Queensland now shows a significant divergence from the national average in the outer tier of Brisbane. In South Australia, a similar pattern to the spread of all recipients is evident, with the exception of higher concentrations of this population in the centre of Adelaide.
|Within 75k of Cap.||4.9||3.6||5.5||6.1||4.8||6.7||3.6||2.5||4.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||4.9||5.6||4.9||–||–||–||–||–||5.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||5.7||5.6||4.6||3.5||6.2||7.8||3.7||-||5.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||5.6||5.3||3.9||3.5||5.9||7.7||2.6||-||5.0|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||5.8||4.2||3.7||3.4||5.0||6.7||2.1||-||4.6|
|Within 75k of Cap.||6.1||4.0||6.5||7.3||5.9||7.6||3.9||2.6||5.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||5.7||6.8||5.8||–||–||–||–||–||6.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||7.0||6.7||5.8||4.0||7.3||9.5||3.9||-||6.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||7.0||6.6||4.6||4.0||7.2||9.3||2.8||-||6.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||7.0||5.4||4.3||3.9||6.2||7.9||2.2||-||5.4|
The distribution of recipients of single rate partnering payments to sole parents, relative to the population over 15 years, has a distinct pattern which is relatively consistent across States.
- In the capitals, they are concentrated in the outer band of suburbs, with low numbers in the innermost suburbs.
- The areas immediately adjacent to the capitals also have high proportion of recipients. This is particularly marked in Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
- While the major non-capitals tend to have rates higher than both their State and the national averages, the level of incidence was lower than that in the locations closer to the capitals, as well as the next group of locations.
- Towns of over 40,000 have high concentrations in all States.
- The rate declines in towns of fewer than 2,000 people, and in non-urban locations, although the average for these is close to the national average.
The pattern of these recipients relative to the population aged over 15 years largely remains intact when this group is compared with families with children. The main difference occurs within the capitals. As a result of the distribution of families with children in the outer locations of these cities, the differences in the distribution of recipients within these cities, and the adjacent band of towns, becomes more muted, with the proportion relative to families in inner capital city locations rising marginally above that of the middle ring of suburbs.
By State, a more consistently higher use of this assistance in Queensland and the Northern Territory is apparent.
|Within 75k of Cap.||3.6||3.3||3.8||4.1||3.1||3.7||5.2||1.3||3.6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||3.4||3.5||3.3||–||–||–||–||–||3.4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||3.4||3.4||3.4||3.3||3.9||3.8||3.4||–||3.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||3.3||2.8||2.7||3.0||2.6||3.0||3.0||–||3.0|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||2.7||1.9||2.2||2.3||2.2||2.6||3.9||–||2.5|
|Within 75k of Cap.||15.8||12.4||16.5||17.6||14.2||14.2||21.2||5.2||15.0|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||15.0||16.2||15.7||–||–||–||–||–||15.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||16.4||15.3||18.1||16.2||17.7||16.9||17.0||–||16.5|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||15.5||13.4||13.3||14.9||12.8||13.2||17.2||–||14.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||12.9||9.0||11.6||11.9||10.6||12.0||17.4||–||12.0|
Youth payment recipients, along with persons receiving single rate parenting payments, represent a relatively small proportion of payments. From Table 6.7, it can be seen that they represent, at 8 per cent, a greater proportion of all recipients in capital cities, in contrast to7 per cent or lower in all non-capital locations, other than towns of 40,000 people or more, where their share is 8.8 per cent. This is reflected in the high beneficiary to population ratio for Youth Allowance in the region of 3.5.
By State, the pattern also shows some differences from the overall use of income support. This assistance is relatively more important in Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory, and is less significant in South Australia.
|Within 75k of Cap.||2.2||2.8||2.8||2.6||2.6||3.4||1.9||2.1||2.6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||3.1||4.6||3.1||–||–||–||–||–||3.5|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||3.0||3.6||2.9||1.9||2.8||3.5||1.3||–||3.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||2.7||3.2||2.2||1.5||2.3||3.1||1.1||–||2.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||3.0||2.8||1.6||1.2||2.2||2.4||0.8||–||2.2|
Overall, income support payments play a much more important role in assisting people and families outside of the capital cities. This is accentuated when the financial value of the assistance is considered relative to total income. While some 15 per cent of income in the capitals is derived from transfer payments, this rises to 20 per cent in other areas. This is reflected within most payment types with capital cities having a below average rate of utilisation of all payment types on a per capita basis.
At the national level, there was not a large amount of variation in the mix of payment types by region. The most substantial differences related to the relative use of Newstart Allowance, Mature Age Allowance, Newstart Mature Age Allowance, family payments and a range of small assistance programs.
Other features include:
- Overall, the larger towns had the highest proportions of recipients and income derived from transfer payments.
- More generally, most non-capital city locations had higher proportions of persons assisted through the programs than in the capitals. In New South Wales, these tended to be unemployment recipients and in Victoria, age pensioners. New South Wales also had a higher proportion of disability support pensioners in the less urbanised areas.
- The larger towns in Queensland had a higher proportion of recipients and included significant proportions of single parenting pensions as a proportion of families. There were lower proportions of age pensioners in Queensland.
- The locations within 75 kilometres of Perth tended to have higher proportions of recipients in Western Australia.
- The Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory had lower proportions of recipients. The Northern Territory had higher proportions of single parent pensioners and, with the inclusion of CDEP, the contributions to incomes in locations outside Darwin tended to increase. There were lower proportions of most payment types in most locations in the Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory and Western Australia.
The Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) is also involved in the delivery and support of community services. Key components are child care and employment support services for the disabled
There are two cohorts of children that use child care: below school age children and school age children. These are usually children where both parents, or single parents, work full or part-time in the labour force but also include children whose parents seek respite or pursue other non work-related activities.
Below school age children (0–4 years old plus those 5–6 year olds that do not attend school) use long day care services, either centre based or in Family Day Care. School age children (7–12 years old plus those 5–6 years old that attend school) use before and after school hours care services and vacation care services.
The data in the tables are derived from the latest Commonwealth Census of Child Care Services (1997) which provides the numbers of children attending Commonwealth-funded services by the location of the service.
|Within 75k of Cap.||40.3||21.8||36.9||22.7||20.8||30.2||22.0||0.0||29.7|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||32.2||28.1||36.5||–||–||–||–||–||32.6|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||35.4||34.4||43.9||24.5||30.2||37.9||25.5||–||35.0|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||23.6||31.5||25.1||15.5||26.6||13.6||19.8||–||23.9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||3.2||8.9||6.4||8.3||3.2||7.3||3.0||–||5.6|
This information is compared to the resident child population of the local area. In order to meaningfully consider data in the table, the 10 categories need to be collapsed. This is because children do not always attend a child care service where they live, particularly in urban areas. Instead, the service they attend may be close to a parent’s workplace, on the journey to a parent’s workplace or perhaps near or at the child’s school. For example, data for the Capital City–Inner category are skewed because there tends to be a disproportionate number of services in inner city areas compared to the resident children population. These services particularly serve parents with young children who travel to the city to work and prefer to have their children close to them during the day (PAC 1998).
On this basis, more appropriate categories to look at these child care statistics are:
- capital cities, including those localities within 75 kilometres of these;
- major non-capital population centres, including towns with populations over 40,000;
- areas composed mainly of towns with populations of 2,000 to 40,000; and
- localities where people live in settlements of fewer than 2,000, including non-urban locations.
This is illustrated in Table 7.2.
Below school age
In 1997, in the national picture of below school age child care, Queensland had the highest participation rates in formal child care in all geographic regions. Brisbane and Hobart had almost 40 per cent participation in below school age child care compared to an average of 30 per cent nationally in capital cities. Overall, two significant points emerge from the below school age tables:
- Non-capital areas with populations above 2,000 tended to have similar participation rates in formal child care to capital cities.
- Areas comprising smaller centres with populations of fewer than 2,000 and rural areas had significantly smaller proportions of their children attending child care services—8.1 per cent compared to around 30 per cent in other geographical areas.
Two possible explanations for these lower participation rates in rural areas are that there are a limited availability of suitable services but also that there may be a stronger preference for informal care than that of their regional and urban counterparts (Riley Research 1996; PAC 1998).
|Capital city and surrounding areas||32.8||27.6||39.0||23.9||27.0||38.0||25.5||26.4||30.5|
|Major non-Capital and population 40,000+||32.4||25.0||39.4||-||-||11.5||-||-||33.8|
|Town Pop. 2,000–40,000||29.5||32.9||34.5||20.0||28.4||25.8||22.6||–||29.4|
|Small towns and non urban||5.1||9.6||10.6||6.4||3.7||7.2||2.7||36.5||8.1|
The provision of child care services for school age children is shown in Table 7.3 and 7.4, reflecting both the detailed and the consolidated geographic outcomes.
Participation rates in child care for school age children were much lower than for below school age children—7.8 per cent participation nationally compared to 28.2 per cent for below school age children. Queensland, South Australia and Australian Capital Territory had the highest participation rates in school age child care—9.6 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively.
Patterns by location are similar to below school age participation, with low participation in locations of centres with populations of less than 2,000 and rural areas. Queensland had the highest participation rate in these areas at 4.1 per cent compared to 1.9 per cent on a national average. New South Wales and the Northern Territory had the lowest participation rate in school age care services to their children in small rural areas. This may be in part explained by the distribution of population with Queensland having a greater network of these very small towns. School age care may also not be required in areas where children may be schooled via school of the air or may attend boarding school in the city or regional town.
|Within 75k of Cap.||6.9||9.5||8.6||4.9||8.7||9.0||8.2||0.0||7.9|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||7.5||7.0||8.7||–||–||–||–||–||7.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||4.8||7.2||6.9||5.3||8.1||8.6||15.0||–||6.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||2.6||9.3||4.9||2.1||8.9||2.8||3.2||–||4.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||0.1||2.6||3.7||0.2||0.7||1.7||0.3||–||1.1|
|Capital city and surrounding areas||7.6||9.6||13.2||6.7||12.6||12.1||8.3||9.8||9.5|
|Major non-Capital and population 40,000+||6.8||6.6||10.4||–||–||3.4||-||-||8.1|
|Town Pop. 2,000–40,000||3.7||8.3||5.9||3.7||8.5||5.7||9.1||-||5.1|
|Small towns and non urban||0.4||2.8||4.1||0.9||1.3||1.2||0.2||-||1.9|
FaCS funds employment and rehabilitation services for people with disabilities under the Disabilities Services Act 1986. The aims are to:
- promote participation and choice in work for people with a disability;
- promote better employment outcomes for people with an injury or a disability;
- promote equity of access to services and support; and
- improve the accountability of purchasers and providers of employment assistance.
The disability employment assistance program is one part of the Commonwealth’s general labour market assistance program and income support programs. It complements Commonwealth-funded mainstream employment programs and assists in reducing dependency on the Commonwealth income support programs.
Employment assistance is provided to some 440 non-government organisations through some 880 outlets and by Commonwealth Rehabilitation Services Australia (CRS Australia) through some 160 outlets. Eligibility for disability employment assistance is determined by Centrelink.
The following data relate to employment assistance provided through agencies, other than CRS Australia.
The tables show considerable variation in the level of these services, relative to the working age population, both by region and by State.
While the level of provision in capital cities is broadly in line with the national average, although concentrated in the inner areas of these cities, the pattern outside of these locations is more distinct. Specifically, in the larger States there is a concentration of services in the major non-capital cities and in larger non-metropolitan areas. In contrast, the level of service provision in small towns and in non-urban locations is quite low.
It is possible that this pattern reflects the role of these larger towns as service centres, as well as the nature of the services that require a degree of population concentration.
While detailed disability data are not available on an equivalent regional basis, some insight into the distribution of need for such services can be obtained from consideration of the distribution of Disability Support Payment recipients (Table 6.12). As discussed previously, these recipients are more highly concentrated in the non-capital city regions, with particularly high concentrations in Tasmania and South Australia.
|Within 75k of Cap.||1.1||0.4||0.5||0.9||1.3||0.9||0.3||2.3||0.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||2.6||4.2||1.4||–||–||–||–||–||2.7|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||1.8||2.6||0.8||1.2||3.6||3.9||1.1||–||1.8|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||1.8||2.9||0.6||0.5||1.7||2.6||0.3||–||1.6|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||0.4||0.7||0.1||0.2||1.3||0.1||0.6||–||0.5|
|Within 75k of Cap.||2.6||2.2||1.7||2.9||2.2||1.3||1.0||2.3||2.3|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||5.5||5.3||4.0||–||–||–||–||–||4.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||3.4||6.1||1.8||3.4||4.4||5.8||3.3||–||3.7|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||3.3||6.0||2.6||2.6||2.6||3.9||1.2||–||3.4|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||1.5||2.7||0.6||1.4||1.5||0.8||0.6||–||1.4|
Data on these services indicate much variation by both nature of location and by State. There is a broad pattern of higher levels of provision in the capital cities with some concentration in these on the inner suburbs. This may, as in the case of some larger non-capital city locations with high levels of provision, in part at least, reflect the role of these locations as regional service centres.
Issues of promoting access to services across Australia are identified within each program as a high priority and initiatives are under way to look at how services can be better delivered, especially in rural and remote locations.
- 8.1 Measures of socio-economic status
- 8.2 Rankings from analysis, Structure of the measure, Outcomes
- 8.3 Summary
The complexity of indicators of needs and social outcomes has been amply demonstrated in previous sections. To overcome this, an alternative is to use summary indicators that permit a broad number of individual characteristics to be brought together. While such measures are very useful in providing a ‘big picture’ of relative needs, they also have their limitations.
The major limitation is that most policy initiatives seek to respond to specific need and remedy particular problems. The use of broad measures of social outcomes is therefore not usually sufficient to make a judgement as to the need for a particular policy response. Indeed, it may be quite misleading as to the nature of response that is needed in any one particular locality.
Nevertheless, bearing in mind these limitations, aggregate measures can assist in identifying systematic patterns in outcomes. Four measures are considered here. The first three are Socio- Economic Indicators developed by the ABS, while the fourth brings together some of the elements which have been considered in this paper.
The ABS has developed five Socio-Economic Indicators For Areas (SEIFA). Of these, two are specifically designed for sub-populations (the urban and the rural population respectively) and do not permit comparisons across these boundaries and have thus not been considered here. The remaining three, which are shown in Tables 8.1 to 8.3, are:
- Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage: this takes into account factors including low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled
- Index of Education and Occupation: this reflects the occupational structure and educational level of the community; and
- Index of Economic Resources: this is based upon data on income and expenditure, home and car ownership, and dwelling size.
The indexes have been created by ABS, largely on the basis of Census data, to permit the examination of socio-economic aspects of areas. They are ordered so that advantaged areas record high scores, and disadvantaged low. The ABS notes that when they are used, it is important that the appropriate index be chosen to reflect the purpose of the analysis.
The ABS also note that the indexes can be considered to have some weaknesses in that they do not fully encompass wealth, may not perform well with regard to different family structures and do not reflect questions of access to services [ABS 2039.0].
Although there is some variation in the patterns of each of the measures, a number of underlying features emerge. The most significant is that amongst the States, no location outside of the capital cities scores an above national average result under all three of the measures and indeed the number of occurrences of even one above average ranking is small.
In more detail:
- Capital cities generally record high results, although this is not the case in the outer suburbs of Hobart, Adelaide and Brisbane.
- The major non-capital cities, urban centres around the capitals, and towns of more than 40,000 people, while usually lying below the national average, do not present particularly low scores. The exceptions are towns of 40,000 or more in Queensland, which show poor results under each of the three measures.
|Within 75k of Cap.||995.6||1020.2||971.3||945.8||994.2||978.9||996.3||1146.7||992.4|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||991.9||985.6||961.0||–||–||–||–||–||978.8|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||971.3||975.4||964.0||978.2||920.9||928.4||1024.4||–||968.4|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||965.1||983.3||970.5||961.9||949.7||939.2||983.7||–||967.3|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||952.0||1007.2||929.2||986.7||966.4||947.3||751.2||–||948.7|
|Within 75k of Cap.||979.8||976.9||939.2||904.7||975.8||971.6||985.4||1140.0||964.6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||985.1||989.7||945.0||–||–||–||–||–||972.1|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||966.0||967.4||952.0||954.0||929.3||926.0||1045.4||–||960.5|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||956.1||964.8||936.0||933.8||926.4||924.3||1006.9||–||949.5|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||932.8||970.7||915.5||937.9||926.9||910.4||899.0||–||931.4|
- Smaller towns, which in South Australia and Tasmania, and to a lesser extent Queensland, show consistently poor results. While Victorian and New South Wales towns show a below average performance, this is not as marked. In Western Australia, the overall result is similar but the performance of locations varies according to the measure used.
- Non-urban localities fare better than small and medium towns, and fare close to the national average on the Index of Relative Social Disadvantage and the Index of Economic Resources.
|Within 75k of Cap.||1010.9||1029.5||996.7||1009.0||990.4||985.6||992.6||1175.9||1009.8|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||989.8||973.0||968.8||–||–||–||–||–||976.9|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||968.9||961.1||966.2||995.9||926.5||940.9||992.4||–||967.3|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||951.4||960.9||960.7||971.3||947.7||950.8||939.9||–||956.1|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||927.9||967.7||908.7||973.4||939.5||947.4||751.6||–||928.8|
It is also possible to develop a more aggregate analysis from the data used in this paper. This is shown in Table 8.4. The aim here is to produce a global picture by developing a ranking index based on the range of variables considered in this analysis.
Structure of the measure
The measure is based on the overall ranking of the regions based on the sum of their rankings on a seven-dimensional scale. (These rankings in turn are based upon the sum of the rankings of the individual elements of the component.9) In each case, the scale has been developed so that a ranking of one is given to the location with the ‘best’ outcomes. The components of this scale comprise:
This includes youth and age dependency, population growth, the proportion of Indigenous population and migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds and the extent of population stability.
|State||Location||Demography||Human Resources||Labour Market||Income||Housing||Income Support||Services||Overall Rank|
|NSW||Capital City—inner tier||25||16||24||20||52||1||39||16|
|Vic||Capital City—inner tier||21||7||49||29||36||4||19||11|
|Qld||Capital City—inner tier||50||6||19||30||48||3||9||11|
|WA||Capital City—inner tier||55||11||31||40||16||6||20||18|
|SA||Capital City—inner tier||31||10||55||51||14||14||2||16|
|Tas||Capital City—inner tier||36||2||28||33||17||23||7||6|
|NT||Capital City—inner tier||57||26||5||14||68||15||56||34|
|ACT||Capital City—inner tier||34||1||27||17||43||9||12||5|
|NSW||Capital City—middle tier||17||24||25||19||46||8||41||20|
|Vic||Capital City—middle tier||4||26||46||18||24||31||49||21|
|Qld||Capital City—middle tier||32||18||11||10||38||23||23||8|
|WA||Capital City—middle tier||40||14||17||26||30||13||36||15|
|SA||Capital City—middle tier||19||21||39||23||5||32||10||7|
|Tas||Capital City—middle tier||9||17||41||21||11||43||26||13|
|NT||Capital City—middle tier||42||8||10||7||63||16||33||18|
|ACT||Capital City—middle tier||5||3||13||6||20||18||28||1|
|NSW||Capital City—outer tier||23||33||22||10||50||23||43||22|
|Vic||Capital City—outer tier||11||32||16||12||22||23||48||10|
|Qld||Capital City—outer tier||63||64||29||15||33||58||15||46|
|WA||Capital City—outer tier||47||40||4||9||37||23||50||23|
|SA||Capital City—outer tier||35||55||54||32||8||48||4||32|
|Tas||Capital City—outer tier||54||67||61||43||1||67||15||57|
|NT||Capital City—outer tier||53||9||6||1||55||7||6||3|
|ACT||Capital City—outer tier||43||15||3||1||25||17||36||4|
|NSW||Major non Capital||30||29||58||44||39||28||21||38|
|Vic||Major non Capital||16||19||57||47||2||37||33||25|
|Qld||Major non Capital||65||34||21||25||60||41||24||45|
|Tas||Major non Capital||40||23||52||48||7||63||29||41|
|NSW||Pop < 2000||15||58||63||64||31||57||68||66|
|Vic||Pop < 2000||2||38||45||67||3||33||54||35|
|Qld||Pop < 2000||13||65||26||51||40||20||62||46|
|WA||Pop < 2000||14||58||18||34||41||5||67||33|
|SA||Pop < 2000||8||56||60||68||10||40||60||55|
|Tas||Pop < 2000||9||62||65||66||5||43||64||58|
|NT||Pop < 2000||46||44||36||22||51||39||54||52|
- Human resources
In addition to the proportion of the population who left school at 15 years or earlier and the proportion with degree or higher qualifications, this includes the ratio of persons employed in education as a measure of the educational resources available to the community.
- Labour market
This component incorporates growth in full and part-time employment, male and female participation rates, the rate of unemployment and proportion of long-term unemployed, as well as the proportion of Disability Support Pension recipients. This latter provides some indication of the difficulty persons with disabilities have in obtaining employment.
Income comprises average household earnings, the proportion of low-income households and the Gini coefficient of the location.
This encompasses both rental and mortgage costs as well as the extent to which caravans and improvised dwellings are used in the location.
- Income support
This comprises change in the number of income support recipients over the past two years, the ratio of income support recipients to the population and the proportion of income derived from all transfer payments.
Components of services considered include: the ratios of health and community employment to total employment, the provision of employment support to persons with disability and child care, as well as the level of public housing.
In determining the components of the scale, the elements have been included to attempt to select those different components which may be considered to reflect poor outcomes, lower levels of resources and access to services, and what may be causing stress on communities. Hence elements such as population growth, while being at one level a measure of regional success, are included, along with the proportion of migrants from non-English speaking countries, the level of dependency and the Indigenous population as factors which may give rise to a community needing higher levels of infrastructure.
Where the rankings are shown on a quartile basis, it should be noted that this simply reflects the number of locations and not the share of population with these characteristics. Thus, for example, on the aggregate measure, the most highly ranked 25 per cent of locations account for 30.5 per cent of the population, as the average size of the lowest ranked 25 per cent of locations is much smaller, these account for only 20.4 per cent of the population.
As table 8.4 shows, few regions score consistently across all of the components. This is not surprising. Where a region may face little pressure from population growth and have a stable community, this may be a result of poor economic circumstances. Similarly, housing costs in these locations may be low.10
Small towns of fewer than 2,000 people, as well as some middle rings of capital cities and non-urban areas, fare relatively well with regard to their demographic experience. This appears to reflect fairly stable population structures and generally a lower representation of high needs groups. The poorest outcomes are less concentrated by type of location, being across a number of locations in Queensland and the Northern Territory, and to a lesser degree, Western Australia.
The highest rankings under this component were recorded in the inner, and at times middle rings of the capitals, and all areas of the Australian Capital Territory. Low scores were recorded in non-urban locations, small towns, especially those of less than 2,000 people, and across Queensland, and, to a lesser degree, South Australia and Western Australia.
While there were generally high rankings for the middle and outer regions of the capitals, this measure showed no consistent pattern other than a general but by no means uniform tendency for better outcomes in the capitals and poorer outcomes in larger non-capital locations. While generally positive results were recorded in Western Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, outcomes in South Australia and Tasmania were poor.
The rankings recorded in non-capital city locations, in States other than Queensland and Western Australia, and the two Territories, were generally low. High rankings were concentrated in both Territories and in some non-inner capital city locations in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland.
This indicator showed a very strong State divide, with high rankings being recorded in almost all locations in Tasmania and South Australia. In contrast, the Northern Territory, Queensland and New South Wales had poor rankings. The high rankings appear to reflect low housing costs. Poor rankings are explained by: high housing costs; or high propensities in the use of caravans and improvised dwellings; or in the case of the Northern Territory, both.
This dimension had both strong locational and State characteristics. While the ranking of most inner capital cities was high, indicating low levels of reliance upon income support, beyond this the patterns had mainly strong State components. Tasmania had a high reliance in all locations, while in New South Wales there was a concentration in the smallest locations. In contrast, in Queensland the poorest outcomes were in the outer suburbs, on the fringe of the cities and in middle sized country towns. Outside of a 75 kilometre radius from the capital, the rankings in country Western Australia were very high, indicating lower levels of reliance.
The measures used in this paper suggest that service provision in smaller centres was generally poor. With the exception of the Australian Capital Territory, locations of under 2,000 people and non-urban centres were ranked in the bottom 25 per cent of locations. As has been discussed in the paper, it is not possible to determine how far this reflects an absence of access to services, or a degree of centralisation of services in regional service centres to which access from other locations is possible. The patterns in some States suggest this may be the case. In New South Wales, for example, the best level of service provision was in a group of locations from towns of 10,000 up to, and including, although less markedly the extra-capital urban ring. A similar pattern was seen in Victoria with high rankings being achieved for towns of between 2,000 and 40,000 persons or more. Elements of such patterns could also be seen in Queensland, South Australia and the Northern Territory.
While the differences between the components of the measure and the lack of consistency in rankings across measures have been cited, some associations can be seen. This is particularly so with the labour market and income elements which also have linkages with the human resources scores.
|Within 75k of Cap.||54||23||65||63||44||30||43||2||6|
|Town Pop. 40,000+||26||29||49||4|
|Town Pop. 10,000–40,000||60||53||68||36||41||48||9||10|
|Town Pop. 2,000–10,000||67||37||50||28||51||56||27||9|
|Town Pop. < 2,000||66||35||46||33||55||58||52||7|
1 The summary location and State totals are the ranked population weighted scores of the component locations.
This shows the division of outcomes dramatically, including:
- high rankings for most inner, middle and outer capital locations, with however the outer suburbs of Brisbane and in particular Hobart showing poor results;
- poor outcomes in non-capital city locations of under 40,000 people, including non-urban locations, except in Western Australia. The poor rankings were particularly marked in New South Wales and Tasmania;
- while the areas adjacent to capitals fared well in Victoria and Tasmania, this was not the case in New South Wales, Queensland or Western Australia.
Most aggregate measures show a pattern of broadly positive outcomes within capital cities, and poor outcomes in other localities, especially smaller towns and non-urban localities.
In addition, some important State characteristics emerge, although these vary by measure. Of particular note are the poor results for Tasmania and a tendency for Western Australia non-capital city locations to show divergent trends to similar locations in other States.
The multi-dimensional measures used here show however that the causes of these poor outcomes vary by location with few areas recording consistently poor, or good, scores across all dimensions.
- 9.1 Capital cities and surrounding areas
- 9.2 Major non-capitals and cities of more than 40,000
- 9.3 Towns and cities of 2,000 to 40,000 people
- 9.4 Small towns and non-urban
|63.4% of National Population
60.7% of Population Growth
65.7% of Employment
63.0% of Employment Growth
60.9% of Unemployment
86.2% of Migrants from NESB
31.5% of Indigenous Population
66.8% of Disposable Income
59.7% of Transfer Payments
|10.1% of National
11.0% of Population Growth
9.5% of Employment
11.6% of Employment
11.8% of Unemployment
5.6% of Migrants from
10.6% of Indigenous
9.5% of Disposable Income
11.4% of Transfer Payments
|16.4% of National Population
17.8% of Population Growth
14.8% of Employment
15.6% of Employment Growth
17.8% of Unemployment
5.3% of Migrants from NESB
32.4% of Indigenous Population
14.8% of Disposable Income
18.7% of Transfer Payments
|10.2% of National Population
10.4% of Population Growth
10.0% of Employment
9.8% of Employment Growth
9.4% of Unemployment
2.9% of Migrants from NESB
25.5% of Indigenous Population
8.9% of Disposable Income
10.3% of Transfer Payments
In 1996, the social circumstances and outcomes of individual Australians and their families showed significant regional variation. This variation is reflected in the outcomes for the communities in which they live.
In approaching the study of this variation, this paper did not seek to impose a specific construct on what ‘Regional Australia’ is. Rather, it sought to classify all locations based upon the size of settlements and their relationship to the State capitals and review the outcomes for these classifications of locations as a whole, and by State. This approach has revealed a complex picture of outcomes.
Social outcomes and needs have many different components. While some communities face stress from rapid population growth and require infrastructure in response, in others the causes of stress may include economic decline in industries which are concentrated in that location. Also, the outcomes for different locations are not simply the product of overall national changes but very much also of the economic circumstances of the different States and Territories.
At the broadest level, the analysis indicates that social outcomes in non-capital city locations are below those of the capitals. In some States, including Tasmania and the Northern Territory, the poorest outcomes are recorded in the smallest settlements and in non-urban areas; in others, such as Victoria and Queensland, they are concentrated in larger centres of 10,000 to 40,000 people.
In some States, such as New South Wales, the divide between the capital city and other locations is very marked. In others, such as Queensland, the contrast is lower.
In seeking to respond to these results, the different factors that generated these outcomes must be taken into account. Most communities had both strengths and weaknesses, and recording a poor outcome in one area is not necessarily an indicator of a poor outcome against other measures.
This appears to indicate that these communities do not need a generic form of ‘special area assistance’ but rather that assistance needs to focus on the particular circumstances of the location and the needs of the individuals who live there. This focus on individuals is important, as many areas which have high average levels of need may have just a small proportion of the total number of people with these needs living in them.
A further issue is that the needs of an area may reflect a more widespread State-level phenomenon than simply disadvantage at the locational level. This can be seen, for example, in the consistently poor labour market outcomes in Tasmania and South Australia, or housing outcomes in the Northern Territory. In such cases, the response would appear to need to be ‘State’ rather than ‘regionally’ based.
The issue of service provision and access is important to all communities, and while this paper only looks at a narrow band of these, the data suggest a need for much closer consideration of the issues associated with access to service. For example, it may be inappropriate to take the outcomes for some of the smallest locations at face value without more detailed examination of the extent to which the higher apparent service levels in adjoining larger non-capital locations may indicate that these locations act as service centres for the smaller locations.
|Table No.||Summary||Detailed Description1||Population Totals|
|1.1||Population Distribution||1996 Population = 17,749,574|
|1986, 1996 Census: Percentage growth in enumerated population, excluding overseas visitors. (Note: Unless otherwise indicated all tables exclude overseas visitors).||1986 Population = 15,542,001
1996 Population = 17,749,574
|1986, 1996 Census: Growth in enumerated population, excluding overseas visitors. (Note: Unless otherwise indicated all tables exclude overseas visitors).||1986 Population = 15,542,001
1996 Population = 17,749,574
|2.3||Population Growth 1996-98||
1996, 1998 Estimated Resident Population (ERP).
|1996 ERP = 18,307,619 1998 ERP = 18,747,804|
|2.4||Child Dependency||1996 Census: Persons aged under 15 as a proportion of persons aged 15 to 64.||Persons under 15 = 3,837,307
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
|2.5||Age Dependency||1996 Census: Persons aged 65 years and over as a proportion of persons aged 15 to 64.||Persons 65 and over = 215,0491
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
1996 Census: Total persons aged under 15 years and aged 65 years and over as a proportion of persons aged 15 to 64.
Persons under 15 and 65 and over =
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population
|1996 Census: Indigenous persons as a proportion of total population||Indigenous population = 352,727
Total Population = 17,749,574
|2.8||Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Growth||1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in Indigenous population.||
1986 Indigenous Population = 227,420
1996 Indigenous Population = 352,727
|2.9||Migrant from Non- English Speaking Background (NESB)||1996 Census: Persons born overseas, in countries other than Canada, Ireland, NZ, South Africa, UK and USA, as a proportion of total population.||
NESB Population = 2,361,473 Total Population = 17,749,574
|2.10||NESB Growth||1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in NESB population.||1986 NESB = 1,785,781 1996 NESB = 2,361,473|
|2.11||Sole Parent Families||1996 Census: Number of sole parent families with children as a proportion of all families with children.||Sole Parent Families = 673,305
All families with children = 2,981,731
|2.12||De facto Marriages||1996 Census: Women aged 15 years who report they are living in a de facto marriage as a proportion of the total reporting they are married in either a registered or a de facto marriage||Married, De facto = 383,644
Married, De facto and Registered =
|2.13||Children per Family||1996 Census: Average estimated number of children currently living in families.
Note 1) measure used is the average number of children being with their parents regardless of the status or age of the children.
Note 2) The data are for children currently living in families at the time of the Census, not completed family size.
|Total Children = 5,548,337
Families with Children = 2,981,731
|2.14||Left school aged 15 or younger||1996 Census: Persons Aged 15 years and over who left school aged 15 years or younger as a proportion of all those who have left school (excluding age left school not Stated).||Left school aged 15 years or younger = 4,668,244
All persons who have left school (excluding age left not Stated) = 12,209,357
|2.15||Degree or higher
|1996 Census: Persons with a Bachelor or higher degree as a
proportion of total population who had left school (excluding
qualification not Stated).
|Persons with degrees = 1,470,660
Population (excluding qualification not Stated) = 12,211,300
|2.16||Living at same Address||1996 Census: Persons aged over 5 who are living at the same
address as 5 years ago as a proportion of population with a
reported address 5 years ago.
|Persons living at same address =
Persons with a reported address =15,830,960
|3.1||Male Labour Force Participation Rate||1996 Census: Males aged 15 years and over, in the labour force
(either employed or unemployed) as a proportion of males aged
15 years and over (less persons with labour force status not
Male labour force = 4,738,844
Males aged 15 years and over = 6,635,980
|3.2||Female Labour Force Participation Rate||1996 Census: Females aged 15 years and over in the labour force
(either employed or unemployed) as a proportion of females
aged 15 years and over (less persons with labour force status not
|Female labour force = 3,667,755
Females aged 15 years and over =
|3.3||Male Employment to Population Ratio||1996 Census: Employed males aged 15 to 64 as a proportion of
the male population aged 15 to 64 (less persons with labour
force status not Stated).
|Employed Males 15–64 = 4,186,563
Male Population 15–64 = 5,704,008
to Population ratio
|1996 Census: Employed females aged 15 to 59 as a proportion of
the female population aged 15 to 59 (less persons with labour
force status not Stated).
|Employed Females 15–59 = 3,266,598
Female Population 15–59 = 5,381,922
|3.5||Full-time employment growth||1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed
|1986 Employed full-time = 4,856,275
1996 Employed full-time = 5,179,024
|3.6||Part-time employment growth||1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed
|1986 Employed part-time = 1,478,801
1996 Employed part-time = 2,286,308
|1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed in
|1986 Employed = 6,503,989
1996 Employed = 7,634,848
|3.8||Industry Composition of
|1986, 1996 Census. Wholesale & Retail = ANZSIC F&G, Transport and Storage = I&J, Finance and Business Services = K&L, Government and related services = M,N&0, Accom. Restaurants and Services = H,P&Q.||1996 Employed with identified industry =7,379,906|
|Self Employment Rate||1996 Census: Persons identified as an employer, own account
worker or contributing family worker as a proportion of total
|Self employed = 714,864
Total employed = 7,634,746
|3.11||Long-term unemployment income support||1998 FaCS: Persons in receipt of employment related income support, recipients of unemployment benefits and those on Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA), or Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA), and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, Mature Age Partner Allowance (MPA), a Partner Allowance (PTA), or parenting payments (PPP) (where the partner is also on a Pension (PGP), Newstart (PGN), or low income (PGL) recipient for more than 12 months as a proportion of all recipients of these payments.||In receipt of income support
(employment) for more than 12 months =
Total = 889,886
|3.12||Average duration of unemployment income support||
1998 FaCS: Persons in receipt of employment related income support (as above)—average duration of receipt.
Total = 889,886
Couples neither parent employed
1996 Census: Couples with children where neither parent is employed as a proportion of total couples with children (less couples not stating their employment status).
Neither employed = 302,925
|3.14||Sole Parent not employed||1996 Census: Sole parents not employed as a proportion of total sole parents.||Sole Parent not Employed = 376,161
Sole parents = 657,557
|3.15||Total Govt, Educ, Health and Rec employment||1996 Census: Total of government, education, health and cultural as above, as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) = M,N,O&P.||Total govt, etc = 1,816,893
Employed with identified industry =
|1996 Census: Persons employed in government administration, defence and justice (excluding police) as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = M.||Government Employment = 372,931
Employed with identified industry =
|1996 Census: Persons employed in education (pre-school to post secondary) as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = N.||Education Employment = 539,944
Employed with identified industry =
|1996 Census: Persons employed in health, dental, veterinary, child and community care as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = O.||Health and Community Employment =
Employed with identified industry =
|1996 Census: Persons employed in media, library and art gallery and sports (including gambling) as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = P.||Cultural and Recreational Employment =
Employed with identified industry = 7,380,077
|3.20||Selected employment by detailed industry||1996 Census: Employed with identified industry only. Finance = ANZSIC 73, Government Administration = 81, Defence = 82, Health = 86, Community Services = 87, Other Services = 96.||Employed with identified industry =
|1996 Census: $ per week, Population who Stated income (ie earning incomes) negative and nil income excluded.||Total individual income = 5,246,485,960
Total persons = 12,123,720
|1996 Census: $ per week, All households where all members Stated their income, negative and nil income excluded.||Total household weekly income =
Total households = 5,551,253
|Taxation Statistics 1996–7: [ATO 1998]||Total annual tax = $58,878,368,3541
Total taxpayers = 8,055,6612
|4.4||Lower Income Household||1996 Census: Incomes equivalised, on the basis of aggregate household composition, using OECD equivalence scale.||Total ‘lower income’ households =
Total households = 5,601,075
|1996 Census: Household Income, all non negative and non nil income ranges where income is Stated, mid points derived from
1995–96 Survey of Income and Housing Costs.
|5.1||Home Ownership||1996 Census: Dwellings owned or being purchased as a proportion of all Other Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where tenure was not Stated, was rent free, or life tenure.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged
Public Housing = 328,423
|5.2||Public Housing||1996 Census: Dwellings rented from State/Territory Housing Authorities as a proportion of all Other Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where tenure was not Stated, was rent free, or life tenure.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units||Public Housing = 328,423
OOPD (excl tenure ns, etc) = 5,987,585
|5.3||Caravans||1996 Census: Caravans, cabins and houseboats as a proportion of all Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where structure not Stated.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units.||Caravans = 90,943
OPD (excl structure ns, etc) = 6,332,253
|5.4||Improvised Dwellings||1996 Census: Improvised homes, tents and sleeping out as a proportion of all Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where structure not Stated.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units.||Improvised dwellings = 11,398
OPD (excl structure ns, etc) = 6,332,253
|5.5||Average Rent||1996 Census: Average weekly rent paid by households paying rent other than those renting from a State housing authority||Households paying rent (excluding to
SHAs) = 1,279,600
Total rent = $204,781,450
|1996 Census: Average weekly mortgage payments of households paying mortgages.||
Households paying mortgages = 1,655,157Total mortgage payments = 330,139,263
|6.1||Income derived from DSS income support||1996 DSS: Estimated proportion of after-tax income derived from DSS income support payments. (Note the estimate varies from previous published estimates due to revisions3).||See Bray & Mudd 1998|
|6.2||Income derived from all transfers||1996 DSS: Estimated proportion of after-tax income derived from DSS and DVA income support payments, Austudy and the Community Development Employment Program. (Note the estimate varies from previous published estimates due to revisions4).||See Bray & Mudd 1998|
|6.3||Children with Family Payments||1996 DSS: Proportion of children aged under 16 for whom family payments are claimed at above minimum rates.||See Bray & Mudd 1998|
|6.4||Adults with income support||1996 DSS: Persons claiming a primary payment as a proportion of the population aged over 16.||See Bray & Mudd 1998|
|6.5||Growth in income support||1996, 1998 FaCS: Estimated recipients, excluding Youth Allowance and equivalent programs for 1998, and all those on employment related benefits under the age of 21 in 1996. The 1998 total, excluding youth, excludes all payments to partners of Youth Allowance recipients and is not compatible with other 1998 data. This exclusion has been undertaken due to changes in income support arrangements for young people||1996 Recipients (excluding youth) = 4,174,118
1998 Recipients (excluding youth) = 4,856,772
|6.6||Persons assisted by income support||1998 FaCS: Recipients (and partners) of income support as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (See below for further details re calculation).||Recipients = 4,821,667
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.7||Persons assisted by income support— proportions||1998 FaCS: Recipients (and partners) of income support as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (See below for further details re calculation)—Program elements as detailed below||Recipients = 4,821,667
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.8||Age Pensions to population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of the Age Pension include all age pensioners and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of a Wife Age Pension (WFA), Wife DSP Pension (WFD), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, FMA).||Recipients = 1,635,826
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.9||Age Pensions to aged population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 65 years and under.||Recipients = 1,635,826
Population aged 65 years and over = 2,150,491
|6.10||Newstart to population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of unemployment benefits as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of unemployment benefits include those on Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA) or Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA) and their partners where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, Mature Age Partner Allowance (MPA), a Partner Allowance (PTA), or parenting payments (PPP) (where the partner is also on a Pension (PGP), Newstart (PGN), or low- income (PGL) recipient). A further small number of recipients include partners on parenting payments at basic rates (PGE,PGB, and PGA), Family payment auto minimum (FMA), and Family payment minimum (FMR).)
(Recipients do not include non-payment spouses (NPS, NNS, PG and FRM). Even though, in the case of those with income that can affect the payment of recipients, in this instance payments are on an individual basis. These exclusions also apply to the following payments.)
|Recipients = 926,989
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.11||Newstart to working age population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of NSA, MAA & NMA as a proportion of the population 15 to 64 years. (Refer to notes re counting of partners.)||Recipients = 889,886
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
|6.12||DSP to population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of Disability Support Pension (DSP) as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of DSP include all DSP recipients and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of this pension, a Wife DSP Pension (WFD), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, PGE, PGB, PGA, FMA, FMR.)||Recipients = 601,936
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.13||DSP to working age population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of Disability Support Pension (DSP) as a proportion of the population aged 15 to 64 years.||Recipients = 601,936
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
|6.14||Sole parent to population ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of Parenting Payment Single payments as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over.||Recipients = 363,989
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|6.15||Sole parent to families ratio||1998 FaCS: Recipients of Parenting Payment Single payments as a proportion of families with children.||Recipients = 363,989
Families with children = 2,981,731
|6.16||Youth Allowance to population||1998 FaCS: Recipients of youth payments as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of youth payments include those on Youth Allowance (YAL) and Youth Training Allowance (replaced) and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, a Parenting Payment for partners of YAL and AUSTUDY recipients (DYA), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) MPA, PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, PGE, PGB, PGA, FMA, FMR.)||Recipients = 389,206
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
|7.1 and 7.2||Child care—daycare||1997 Child care Census: Children attending before school age child care as a proportion of children aged 6 years and under not attending school.||Children attending before school age child care = 385,7195
Children not attending school = 1,368,921
|7.3 and 7.4||Child care—after school||1997 Child care Census: Children attending school age child care as a proportion of children 12 years and under attending school.||Children attending at school age child care = 151,1886
Children under 12 attending school = 1,951,843
|7.5||Disability— Supported Employment||1997 Disability Services Census: Consumers on books at outlets providing supported employment (and a small number of combined supported and open employment) by customer postcode, per 1,000 working aged population.||Consumers = 16,2197
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
|7.6||Disability—Total Employment||1997 Disability Services Census: Consumers on books at outlets providing supported and open employment by customer postcode, per 1,000 working aged population.||Consumers = 34,7068
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
|8.1||SES—Relative Disadvantage||Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on low-income, low educational attainment and high unemployment. A low score indicates a greater occurrence of these.||Mean of SES index = 1003.7 1996 Population = 17,749,574|
|8.2||SES—Education and Occupation||Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on educational and occupational structure of communities.||Mean of SES index = 1001.6 1996 Population = 17,749,574|
|8.3||SES—Economic Resources||Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on the economic resources of families such as income, expenditure and housing.||Mean of SES index = 1010.5
1996 Population = 17,749,574
|8.4||Locational Ranking Components||Index derived from rankings of locations against individual components of a seven dimensional scale developed in the paper.|
|8.5||Locational Ranking Summary||Summary of rankings. State and location totals produced on a population-weighted basis.|
1 Actual payments = 60,251,443,680, some records have had to be deleted due to absent or non-matchable postcodes.
2 Actual Taxpayers = 8,239,609, some records have had to be deleted due to absent or non-matchable postcodes.
3 The data have been revised to take account of later estimates of taxation payments and the level of non-response in the Census with regard to income. The overall average of 14.2 per cent compares with previous estimates of
15.8 per cent.
4 The data have been revised as above. The overall average of 16.9 per cent compares with previous estimates of
18.7 per cent.
5 Actual count 387,578—some records deleted due to insufficient details on location.
6 Actual count 151,710—some records deleted due to insufficient details on location.
7 Actual count 16,385—some records deleted due to geographic mismatch.
8 Actual count 35,054—some records deleted due to geographic mismatch.
- New South Wales
- Western Australia
- South Australia
- Northern Territory
- Australian Capital Territory
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|New South Wales|
|Albury (C)||Pop 40k+||41,795||–||–||–||–||–||98.6||–||–||–||1.4||–|
|Armidale (C)||Pop 10–40k||21,330||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Ashfield (A)||Cap City Inner||40,077||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Auburn (A)||Cap City middle||50,959||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ballina (A)||Pop 10–40k||34,702||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.3||26.6||6.7||20.5||–|
|Balranald (A)||Pop < 2000||2,964||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.4||36.6||–|
|Bankstown (C)||Cap City middle||157,735||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Barraba (A)||Pop < 2000||2,270||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.8||44.2||–|
|Bathurst (C)||Pop 10–40k||28,842||–||–||–||–||–||–||90.2||–||1.3||8.4||–|
|Baulkham Hills (A)||Cap City outer||119,545||–||–||86.9||0.6||–||–||–||–||–||12.5||–|
|Bega Valley (A)||Pop 2–10k||28,845||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.5||27.9||31.7||–|
|Bellingen (A)||Non Urban||12,253||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.1||11.4||44.5||–|
|Berrigan (A)||Pop < 2000||8,161||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.2||42.5||31.3||–|
|Bingara (A)||Pop < 2000||2,099||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.9||41.1||–|
|Blacktown (C)||Cap City outer||232,219||–||–||98.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.9||–|
|Bland (A)||Pop 2–10k||6,681||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.2||9.2||39.6||–|
|Blayney (A)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||4,366||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.2||14.3||24.5||–|
|Blayney (A)—Pt B||Non Urban||1,659||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.9||73.1||–|
|Blue Mountains (C)||Cap City outer||72,506||–||–||51.0||45.1||–||–||–||–||1.1||2.8||–|
|Bogan (A)||Pop 2–10k||3,287||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||68.1||–||31.9||–|
|Bombala (A)||Pop < 2000||2,911||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.9||41.1||–|
|Boorowa (A)||Non Urban||2,376||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.8||53.2||–|
|Botany (A)||Cap City Inner||34,702||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bourke (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,049||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||68.5||–||31.5||–|
|Brewarrina (A)||Pop < 2000||2,193||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.9||32.1||–|
|Broken Hill (C)||Pop 10–40k||21,356||–||–||–||–||–||–||98.2||–||–||1.8||–|
|Burwood (A)||Cap City Inner||28,579||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Byron (A)||Pop 2–10k||27,565||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.0||14.7||31.3||–|
|Cabonne (A)—Pt A||Non Urban||1,974||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Cabonne (A)—Pt B||Non Urban||802||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Cabonne (A)—Pt C||Pop < 2000||9,168||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.0||38.0||–|
|Camden (A)||Cap City outer||32,109||–||–||73.1||6.2||–||–||–||–||–||20.7||–|
|Campbelltown (C) (NSW)||Cap City outer||143,773||–||–||97.9||0.2||–||–||–||–||–||1.9||–|
|Canterbury (C)||Cap City Inner||132,360||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Carrathool (A)||Non Urban||3,164||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.9||56.1||–|
|Casino (A)||Pop 2–10k||10,774||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||92.7||2.6||4.7||–|
|Central Darling (A)||Pop < 2000||2,650||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||60.5||39.5||–|
|Cessnock (C)||Pop 10–40k||44,362||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.8||8.4||9.1||14.6||–|
|Cobar (A)||Pop 2–10k||5,676||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||79.7||–||20.3||–|
|Coffs Harbour (C)||Pop 10–40k||58,337||–||–||–||–||–||–||60.7||6.5||14.4||18.4||–|
|Conargo (A)||Non Urban||1,561||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Concord (A)||Cap City Inner||23,644||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Coolah (A)||Pop < 2000||3,770||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.3||48.7||–|
|Coolamon (A)||Pop < 2000||3,849||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.9||41.1||–|
|Cooma-Monaro (A)||Pop 2–10k||9,680||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||73.9||2.8||23.4||–|
|Coonabarabran (A)||Pop 2–10k||6,994||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.1||15.9||41.1||–|
|Coonamble (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,804||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.3||10.2||32.5||–|
|Cootamundra (A)||Pop 2–10k||7,457||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||78.8||3.4||17.7||–|
|Copmanhurst (A)||Non Urban||3,968||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.2||68.8||
|Corowa (A)||Pop 2–10k||8,215||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.8||19.4||17.8||
|Cowra (A)||Pop 2–10k||12,146||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||70.3||2.2||27.5||
|Crookwell (A)||Non Urban||4,250||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||47.4||–||52.6||
|Culcairn (A)||Pop < 2000||4,106||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.5||35.5||
|Deniliquin (A)||Pop 2–10k||7,816||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||
|Drummoyne (A)||Cap City Inner||30,264||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||
|Dubbo (C)||Pop 10–40k||36,701||–||–||–||–||–||–||82.0||–||1.1||16.9||
|Dumaresq (A)||Non Urban||3,835||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||
|Dungog (A)||Non Urban||7,658||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.5||18.5||53.1||
|Eurobodalla (A)||Pop 2–10k||30,447||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.1||30.6||18.3||
|Evans (A)—Pt A||Non Urban||1,051||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||
|Evans (A)—Pt B||Non Urban||3,871||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||
|Fairfield (C)||Cap City outer||181,785||–||–||98.6||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.4||
|Forbes (A)||Pop 2–10k||10,138||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||73.7||–||26.3||
|Gilgandra (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,844||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.3||–||41.7||
|Glen Innes (A)||Pop 2–10k||6,101||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||
|Gloucester (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,816||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.7||–||45.3||
|Gosford (C)||Within 75km||144,840||–||–||–||93.4||–||–||–||–||–||6.6||
|Goulburn (C)||Pop 10–40k||21,293||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||
|Grafton (C)||Pop 10–40k||17,110||–||–||–||–||–||–||96.8||–||–||3.2||
|Greater Lithgow (C)||Pop 10–40k||19,248||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.4||10.6||9.8||20.1||
|Greater Taree (C)||Pop 10–40k||42,410||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.4||16.7||10.5||33.4||
|Great Lakes (A)||Pop 10–40k||28,609||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.7||–||24.0||20.2||
|Griffith (C)||Pop 10–40k||21,594||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.8||–||9.8||24.4||
|Gundagai (A)||Pop 2–10k||3,726||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.4||–||44.6||–|
|Gunnedah (A)||Pop 2–10k||12,819||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.9||4.8||30.4||–|
|Gunning (A)||Non Urban||2,211||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||22.0||78.0||–|
|Guyra (A)||Pop < 2000||4,262||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.4||40.6||–|
|Harden (A)||Non Urban||3,773||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.1||54.9||–|
|Hastings (A)||Pop 10–40k||58,010||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.1||18.1||7.6||16.2||–|
|Hawkesbury (C)||Within 75km||57,381||–||–||–||66.8||–||–||–||–||–||33.2||–|
|Hay (A)||Pop 2–10k||3,822||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||75.8||–||24.2||–|
|Holbrook (A)||Pop < 2000||2,529||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.6||47.4||–|
|Holroyd (C)||Cap City middle||80,470||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hornsby (A)||Cap City middle||136,746||–||92.3||–||2.2||–||–||–||–||–||5.4||–|
|Hume (A)||Non Urban||6,835||–||–||–||–||–||4.3||–||–||38.1||57.6||–|
|Hunter’s Hill (A)||Cap City Inner||11,969||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hurstville (C)||Cap City middle||65,392||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Inverell (A)—Pt A||Non Urban||4,485||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||24.7||75.3||–|
|Inverell (A)—Pt B||Pop 2–10k||10,414||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||90.1||–||9.9||–|
|Jerilderie (A)||Non Urban||1,960||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.4||55.6||–|
|Junee (A)||Pop 2–10k||5,755||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.0||–||36.0||–|
|Kempsey (A)||Pop 2–10k||26,430||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.9||17.1||37.0||–|
|Kiama (A)||Pop 10–40k||17,706||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.1||16.3||8.0||9.5||–|
|Kogarah (A)||Cap City middle||47,618||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ku-ring-gai (A)||Cap City middle||99,030||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.0||–|
|Kyogle (A)||Non Urban||9,716||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||29.5||7.6||62.9||–|
|Lachlan (A)||Pop 2–10k||7,433||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.7||21.0||37.3||–|
|Lake Macquarie (C)||Major non-Cap||170,495||–||–||–||–||83.3||–||–||4.8||9.2||2.7||–|
|Lane Cove (A)||Cap City Inner||30,107||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Leeton (A)||Pop 2–10k||11,031||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||60.0||8.5||31.5||–|
|Leichhardt (A)||Cap City Inner||58,304||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Lismore (C)||Pop 10–40k||42,954||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.1||–||3.8||30.1||–|
|Liverpool (C)||Cap City middle||120,197||–||89.5||–||2.4||–||–||–||–||–||8.2||–|
|Lockhart (A)||Non Urban||3,487||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.9||50.1||–|
|Maclean (A)||Pop 2–10k||15,987||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.3||23.2||27.6||–|
|Maitland (C)||Pop 40k+||49,941||–||–||–||–||–||90.6||–||–||3.1||6.3||–|
|Manilla (A)||Pop 2–10k||3,145||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.9||–||34.1||–|
|Manly (A)||Cap City Inner||36,265||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Marrickville (A)||Cap City Inner||76,017||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Merriwa (A)||Non Urban||2,257||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.5||58.5||–|
|Moree Plains (A)||Pop 2–10k||15,517||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.7||10.3||30.0||–|
|Mosman (A)||Cap City Inner||25,468||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mudgee (A)||Pop 2–10k||17,074||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.8||–||40.2||–|
|Mulwaree (A)||Non Urban||5,625||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||13.4||86.6||–|
|Murray (A)||Pop 2–10k||5,319||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.4||12.3||41.3||–|
|Murrumbidgee (A)||Pop < 2000||2,389||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.0||36.0||–|
|Murrurundi (A)||Non Urban||2,166||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.6||58.4||–|
|Muswellbrook (A)||Pop 10–40k||15,562||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.7||–||9.7||22.6||–|
|Nambucca (A)||Pop 2–10k||17,610||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.9||15.8||33.3||–|
|Narrabri (A)||Pop 2–10k||14,101||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.5||19.4||35.1||–|
|Narrandera (A)||Pop 2–10k||7,141||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.5||5.5||29.0||–|
|Narromine (A)||Pop 2–10k||6,523||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||53.4||14.6||32.0||–|
|Newcastle (C)—Inner||Major non-Cap||4,145||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Newcastle (C)—Remainder||Major non-Cap||129,539||–||–||–||–||95.4||3.8||–||–||0.4||0.4||–|
|North Sydney (A)||Cap City Inner||53,790||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nundle (A)||Non Urban||1,337||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||20.2||79.8||–|
|Nymboida (A)||Non Urban||4,354||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||29.2||70.8||–|
|Oberon (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,608||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.2||–||44.8||–|
|Orange (C)||Pop 10–40k||33,964||–||–||–||–||–||–||90.4||–||2.6||7.0||–|
|Parkes (A)||Pop 10–40k||15,098||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.9||–||12.1||21.1||–|
|Parramatta (C)||Cap City middle||139,157||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Parry (A)||Non Urban||11,870||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.4||67.6||–|
|Penrith (C)||Cap City outer||163,122||–||–||91.1||1.2||–||–||–||–||–||7.7||–|
|Pittwater (A)||Cap City middle||51,450||–||98.3||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.7||–|
|Port Stephens (A)||Pop 2–10k||51,288||–||–||–||–||1.1||–||24.0||46.6||12.2||16.1||–|
|Queanbeyan (C)||Pop 10–40k||27,414||–||–||–||–||–||–||93.7||–||–||6.3||–|
|Quirindi (A)||Pop 2–10k||4,872||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.8||–||45.2||–|
|Randwick (C)||Cap City Inner||118,905||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Richmond River (A)||Non Urban||10,059||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.0||22.2||51.8||–|
|Rockdale (C)||Cap City Inner||84,847||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ryde (C)||Cap City Inner||92,675||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rylstone (A)||Pop < 2000||3,734||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.9||42.1||–|
|Scone (A)||Pop 2–10k||9,518||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.4||29.9||33.6||–|
|Severn (A)||Non Urban||2,915||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||21.1||78.9||–|
|Shellharbour (A)||Major non-Cap||52,080||–||–||–||–||98.7||–||–||–||–||1.3||–|
|Shoalhaven (C)||Pop 2–10k||76,726||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.0||34.4||19.4||15.1||–|
|Singleton (A)||Pop 10–40k||20,133||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.2||–||1.5||36.4||–|
|Snowy River (A)||Non Urban||17,697||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.3||23.7||40.0||–|
|South Sydney (C)||Cap City Inner||82,960||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Strathfield (A)||Cap City Inner||26,044||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sutherland Shire (A)||Cap City outer||194,104||–||–||98.1||1.8||–||–||–||–||–||0.1||–|
|Sydney (C)—Inner||Cap City Inner||11,114||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sydney (C)—Remainder||Cap City Inner||13,768||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tallaganda (A)||Non Urban||2,420||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.8||61.2||–|
|Tamworth (C)||Pop 10–40k||35,014||–||–||–||–||–||–||91.0||–||0.9||8.1||–|
|Temora (A)||Pop 2–10k||5,914||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||69.7||4.9||25.4||–|
|Tenterfield (A)||Pop 2–10k||6,529||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.1||3.8||47.1||–|
|Tumbarumba (A)||Pop < 2000||3,613||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.1||47.9||–|
|Tumut (A)||Pop 2–10k||10,951||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.0||21.5||24.5||–|
|Tweed (A)—Pt A||Pop 10–40k||41,030||–||–||–||–||–||–||92.1||–||–||7.9||–|
|Tweed (A)—Pt B||Non Urban||25,835||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.0||15.2||44.8||–|
|Ulmarra (A)||Non Urban||6,147||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||42.2||57.8||–|
|Uralla (A)||Non Urban||5,871||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.9||5.4||52.7||–|
|Urana (A)||Non Urban||1,497||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.8||56.2||–|
|Wagga Wagga (C)||Pop 40k+||55,519||–||–||–||–||–||77.2||–||4.1||4.5||14.3||–|
|Wakool (A)||Non Urban||4,941||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||42.2||57.8||–|
|Walcha (A)||Pop < 2000||3,208||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.6||49.4||–|
|Walgett (A)||Pop < 2000||8,550||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.6||49.4||–|
|Warren (A)||Pop < 2000||3,290||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.0||42.0||–|
|Warringah (A)||Cap City middle||124,299||–||98.8||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.2||–|
|Waverley (A)||Cap City Inner||61,674||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Weddin (A)||Pop < 2000||3,788||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.6||48.4||–|
|Wellington (A)||Pop 2–10k||8,648||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||56.9||5.6||37.5||–|
|Wentworth (A)||Pop < 2000||7,245||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.4||45.6||–|
|Willoughby (C)||Cap City Inner||53,735||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Windouran (A)||Non Urban||422||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Wingecarribee (A)||Pop 2–10k||36,777||–||–||–||9.1||–||–||–||56.8||13.3||20.8||–|
|Wollondilly (A)||Within 75km||33,413||–||–||–||69.6||–||–||–||–||–||30.4||–|
|Wollongong (C)||Major non-Cap||177,009||–||–||–||4.0||95.1||–||–||–||–||0.9||–|
|Woollahra (A)||Cap City Inner||50,169||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wyong (A)||Within 75km||115,999||–||–||–||82.5||–||–||–||9.4||–||8.1||–|
|Yallaroi (A)||Non Urban||3,227||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.9||60.1||–|
|Yarrowlumla (A)—Pt A||Non Urban||8,910||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||19.8||80.2||–|
|Yarrowlumla (A)—Pt B||Non Urban||276||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Yass (A)||Pop 2–10k||9,128||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||53.0||14.5||32.4||–|
|Young (A)||Pop 2–10k||11,046||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.5||2.3||36.2||–|
|Unincorp. Far West||Non Urban||1,078||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||19.9||80.1||–|
|Lord Howe Island||Pop < 2000||369||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–|
|NSW Off-Shore Areas & Migratory||Offshore||2,637||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Alpine (S)—East||Non Urban||13,627||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.1||65.9||–|
|Alpine (S)—West||Pop 2–10k||4,530||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.7||–||40.3||–|
|Ararat (RC)||Pop 2–10k||11,098||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.1||4.8||33.1||–|
|Ballarat (C)—Central||Pop 40k+||33,601||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ballarat (C)—Inner North||Pop 40k+||22,391||–||–||–||–||–||77.7||–||–||2.9||19.4||–|
|Ballarat (C)—North||Non Urban||1,050||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.8||71.2||–|
|Ballarat (C)—South||Pop 40k+||19,467||–||–||–||–||–||71.1||–||–||14.6||14.3||–|
|Banyule (C)—Heidelberg||Cap City Inner||59,871||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Banyule (C)—North||Cap City middle||52,723||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bass Coast (S)—Phillip Is.||Within 75km||5,707||–||–||–||60.2||–||–||–||–||19.1||20.6||–|
|Bass Coast (S) Bal||Pop 2–10k||14,440||–||–||–||8.7||–||–||–||57.7||8.5||25.0||–|
|Baw Baw (S)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||4,129||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.2||–||45.8||–|
|Baw Baw (S)—Pt B East||Non Urban||4,088||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||24.0||76.0||–|
|Baw Baw (S)—Pt B West||Non Urban||24,768||–||–||–||21.6||–||–||–||36.4||3.2||38.8||–|
|Bayside (C)—Brighton||Cap City Inner||32,603||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bayside (C)—South||Cap City middle||48,330||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Boroondara (C) Camberwell N.||Cap City Inner||39,447||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Boroondara (C) Camberwell S.||Cap City Inner||46,029||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Boroondara (C)—Hawthorn||Cap City Inner||30,641||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Boroondara (C)—Kew||Cap City Inner||28,473||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Brimbank (C)—Keilor||Cap City middle||73,202||–||99.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.3||–|
|Brimbank (C)—Sunshine||Cap City middle||75,929||–||97.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.3||–|
|Buloke (S)—North||Pop < 2000||3,846||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.9||42.1||–|
|Buloke (S)—South||Pop < 2000||3,753||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.1||33.9||–|
|Campaspe (S)—Echuca||Pop 10–40k||10,014||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Campaspe (S)—Kyabram||Pop 2–10k||11,750||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||48.8||11.7||39.5||–|
|Campaspe (S)—Rochester||Non Urban||7,865||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.5||8.1||59.5||–|
|Campaspe (S)—South||Non Urban||3,691||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.8||58.2||–|
|Cardinia (S)—North||Within 75km||21,276||–||–||–||56.4||–||–||–||–||–||43.6||–|
|Cardinia (S)—Pakenham||Within 75km||14,700||–||–||–||66.7||–||–||–||–||–||25.7||–|
|Cardinia (S)—South||Non Urban||4,623||–||–||–||42.0||–||–||–||–||–||58.0||–|
|Casey (C)—Berwick||Cap City outer||43,624||–||–||96.6||–||–||–||–||–||–||3.4||–|
|Casey (C)—Cranbourne||Within 75km||44,171||–||–||–||56.0||–||–||–||–||–||2.8||–|
|Casey (C)—Hallam||Cap City outer||45,703||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Casey (C)—South||Non Urban||10,033||–||–||–||35.2||–||–||–||–||–||64.8||–|
|C. Goldfields (S)—M’borough||Pop 2–10k||7,381||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|C. Goldfields (S) Bal||Non Urban||4,941||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.0||68.0||–|
|Colac-Otway (S)—Colac||Pop 2–10k||9,793||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Colac-Otway (S)—North||Non Urban||6,745||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||9.3||90.7||–|
|Colac-Otway (S)—South||Non Urban||3,226||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||30.3||69.7||–|
|Corangamite (S)—North||Pop < 2000||9,443||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||33.4||33.4||33.2||–|
|Corangamite (S)—South||Non Urban||7,520||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.6||68.4||–|
|Darebin (C)—Northcote||Cap City Inner||43,956||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Darebin (C)—Preston||Cap City Inner||77,838||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Delatite (S)—Benalla||Pop 2–10k||8,582||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Delatite (S)—North||Non Urban||4,749||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Delatite (S)—South||Non Urban||9,162||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||27.6||–||72.4||–|
|E. Gippsland (S)—Bairnsdale||Pop 10–40k||23,378||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.6||33.8||2.2||17.4||–|
|E. Gippsland (S)—Orbost||Non Urban||8,281||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.0||23.2||50.9||–|
|E. Gippsland (S)—South-West||Non Urban||3,447||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||6.8||93.2||–|
|E. Gippsland (S) Bal||Non Urban||2,787||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.4||59.6||–|
|Frankston (C)—East||Cap City outer||29,449||–||–||84.2||7.9||–||–||–||–||–||7.9||–|
|Frankston (C)—West||Cap City outer||74,522||–||–||99.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.3||–|
|Gannawarra (S)||Non Urban||11,922||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.6||27.3||40.2||–|
|Glen Eira (C)—Caulfield||Cap City Inner||70,326||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Glen Eira (C)—South||Cap City middle||43,066||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Glenelg (S)—Heywood||Non Urban||6,022||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.1||73.9||–|
|Glenelg (S)—North||Pop < 2000||3,668||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||53.1||46.9||–|
|Glenelg (S)—Portland||Pop 2–10k||10,217||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||94.6||–||5.4||–|
|Golden Plains (S)—North-West||Non Urban||6,392||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||9.8||90.2||–|
|Golden Plains (S)—South-East||Non Urban||6,766||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.0||72.0||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Central||Pop 40k+||18,919||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Eaglehawk||Pop 40k+||8,054||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner East||Pop 40k+||20,375||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner North||Pop 40k+||7,471||–||–||–||–||–||63.5||–||–||8.2||28.3||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner West||Pop 40k+||12,490||–||–||–||–||–||62.8||–||–||–||37.2||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—S’saye||Non Urban||4,120||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.6||64.4||–|
|Gr. Bendigo (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||9,909||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||25.1||74.9||–|
|Gr. Dandenong (C) Dandenong||Cap City outer||55,817||–||–||99.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.3||–|
|Gr. Dandenong (C) Bal||Cap City outer||70,362||–||–||98.2||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.8||–|
|Geelong West||Major non-Cap||13,597||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|South Barwon—Inner||Major non-Cap||39,165||–||–||–||–||93.9||–||–||–||–||6.1||–|
|Greater Geelong (C)—Pt B||Within 75km||26,876||–||–||–||89.8||–||–||–||–||–||10.2||–|
|Greater Geelong (C)—Pt C||Non Urban||2,367||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt A||Pop 10–40k||39,694||–||–||–||–||–||–||80.5||–||–||19.5||–|
|Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt B East||Non Urban||3,832||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||6.8||93.2||–|
|Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt B West||Non Urban||8,376||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||33.7||13.4||52.9||–|
|Hepburn (S)—East||Pop 2–10k||7,075||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.3||9.3||44.4||–|
|Hepburn (S)—West||Non Urban||6,352||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.6||13.3||50.0||–|
|Hindmarsh (S)||Pop < 2000||6,572||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.1||32.9||–|
|Hobsons Bay (C)—Altona||Cap City middle||48,195||–||99.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.0||–|
|Hobsons Bay (C)Williamstown||Cap City Inner||25,969||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Horsham (RC)—Central||Pop 10–40k||12,591||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Horsham (RC) Bal||Non Urban||4,731||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||10.1||89.9||–|
|Hume (C)—Broadmeadows||Cap City middle||64,869||–||98.5||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.5||–|
|Hume (C)—Craigieburn||Within 75km||26,562||–||–||–||49.9||–||–||–||–||–||8.6||–|
|Hume (C)—Sunbury||Within 75km||24,599||–||–||–||89.9||–||–||–||–||–||10.1||–|
|Indigo (S)—Pt A||Non Urban||10,289||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.7||24.1||47.2||–|
|Indigo (S)—Pt B||Pop < 2000||3,390||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||74.6||25.4||–|
|Kingston (C)—North||Cap City middle||84,738||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kingston (C)—South||Cap City outer||37,700||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Knox (C)—North||Cap City outer||104,569||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Knox (C)—South||Cap City outer||26,225||–||–||99.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.9||–|
|La Trobe (S)—Moe||Pop 10–40k||17,878||–||–||–||–||–||–||86.8||–||6.8||6.4||–|
|La Trobe (S)—Morwell||Pop 10–40k||22,801||–||–||–||–||–||–||60.6||21.4||4.4||13.5||–|
|La Trobe (S)—Traralgon||Pop 10–40k||24,199||–||–||–||–||–||–||78.5||–||1.0||20.5||–|
|La Trobe (S) Bal||Non Urban||2,686||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Loddon (S)—North||Non Urban||3,638||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.6||63.4||–|
|Loddon (S)—South||Non Urban||4,948||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.1||60.9||–|
|Macedon Ranges (S)—Kyneton||Pop 2–10k||7,384||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.9||10.3||38.8||–|
|Macedon Ranges (S)—Romsey||Within 75km||8,779||–||–||–||55.4||–||–||–||–||–||44.6||–|
|Macedon Ranges (S) Bal||Non Urban||16,204||–||–||–||36.8||–||–||–||18.4||–||44.8||–|
|Manningham (C)—East||Cap City outer||13,286||–||–||70.2||13.2||–||–||–||–||–||16.5||–|
|Manningham (C)—West||Cap City middle||90,474||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Maribyrnong (C)||Cap City Inner||59,029||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Maroondah (C)—Croydon||Cap City outer||51,160||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Maroondah (C)—Ringwood||Cap City outer||40,163||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Melbourne (C)—Inner||Cap City Inner||6,373||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Melbourne (C)—Remainder||Cap City Inner||42,187||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Melton (S)—East||Cap City outer||4,563||–||–||50.7||38.6||–||–||–||–||–||10.7||–|
|Melton (S) Bal||Within 75km||34,606||–||–||–||89.4||–||–||–||–||–||10.6||–|
|Mildura (RC)—Pt A||Pop 10–40k||40,644||–||–||–||–||–||–||59.4||6.3||7.0||27.4||–|
|Mildura (RC)—Pt B||Non Urban||4,774||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.0||64.0||–|
|Mitchell (S)—North||Pop 2–10k||10,991||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.3||2.2||40.5||–|
|Mitchell (S)—South||Within 75km||13,942||–||–||–||67.6||–||–||–||–||–||32.4||–|
|Moira (S)—East||Non Urban||7,374||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.6||4.1||49.3||–|
|Moira (S)—West||Non Urban||17,339||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.3||12.0||47.6||–|
|Monash (C)—South-West||Cap City middle||39,618||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Monash (C)—Waverley East||Cap City outer||57,677||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Monash (C)—Waverley West||Cap City middle||55,257||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moonee Valley (C)—Essendon||Cap City Inner||63,991||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moonee Valley (C)—West||Cap City Inner||40,858||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moorabool (S)— Bacchus Marsh||Within 75km||13,489||–||–||–||83.6||–||–||–||–||–||16.4||–|
|Moorabool (S)—Ballan||Non Urban||5,060||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.9||59.1||–|
|Moorabool (S)—West||Non Urban||3,393||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Moreland (C)—Brunswick||Cap City Inner||39,164||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moreland (C)—Coburg||Cap City Inner||47,575||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moreland (C)—North||Cap City middle||43,354||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mornington P’sula (S)—East||Within 75km||32,329||–||–||–||72.0||–||–||–||–||–||21.5||–|
|Mornington P’sula (S)—South||Cap City outer||38,516||–||–||84.7||3.1||–||–||–||–||–||12.2||–|
|Mornington P’sula (S)—West||Cap City outer||39,564||–||–||97.5||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.5||–|
|Mount Alexander (S)—C’maine||Pop 2–10k||6,690||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Mount Alexander (S) Bal||Non Urban||9,240||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.5||63.5||–|
|Moyne (S)—North-East||Non Urban||2,755||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.9||64.1||–|
|Moyne (S)—North-West||Non Urban||2,960||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||8.0||92.0||–|
|Moyne (S)—South||Non Urban||10,152||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||25.9||15.0||59.1||–|
|Murrindindi (S)—East||Non Urban||6,062||–||–||–||10.3||–||–||–||–||42.3||47.4||–|
|Murrindindi (S)—West||Non Urban||6,389||–||–||–||10.8||–||–||–||–||15.0||74.2||–|
|Nillumbik (S)—South||Cap City outer||26,238||–||–||93.4||–||–||–||–||–||–||6.6||–|
|Nillumbik (S)—South-West||Cap City outer||19,541||–||–||84.1||3.2||–||–||–||–||–||12.7||–|
|Nillumbik (S) Bal||Non Urban||8,638||–||–||–||38.0||–||–||–||–||–||62.0||–|
|N. Grampians (S)—St Arnaud||Pop 2–10k||3,790||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||69.6||–||30.4||–|
|N. Grampians (S)—Stawell||Pop 2–10k||9,211||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||68.1||2.8||29.1||–|
|Port Phillip (C)—St Kilda||Cap City Inner||46,709||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Port Phillip (C)—West||Cap City Inner||26,383||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Pyrenees (S)—North||Non Urban||3,402||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.5||71.5||–|
|Pyrenees (S)—South||Non Urban||3,178||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.9||58.1||–|
|Queenscliffe (B)||Within 75km||3,193||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|South Gippsland (S)—Central||Non Urban||11,391||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.4||18.0||45.6||–|
|South Gippsland (S)—East||Non Urban||5,639||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.1||67.9||–|
|South Gippsland (S)—West||Non Urban||7,053||–||–||–||3.5||–||–||–||38.8||7.3||50.3||–|
|S. Grampians (S)—Hamilton||Pop 2–10k||9,248||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|S. Grampians (S)—Wannon||Non Urban||2,535||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||42.8||57.2||–|
|S. Grampians (S) Bal||Non Urban||5,374||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||17.8||82.2||–|
|Stonnington (C)—Prahran||Cap City Inner||42,191||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stonnington (C)—Malvern||Cap City Inner||42,109||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Strathbogie (S)||Non Urban||8,794||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||30.7||28.0||41.3||–|
|Surf Coast (S)—East||Pop 2–10k||9,065||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.0||4.3||29.7||–|
|Surf Coast (S)—West||Pop < 2000||7,649||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.6||36.4||–|
|Swan Hill (RC)—Central||Pop 2–10k||9,385||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Swan Hill (RC)—Robinvale||Non Urban||3,855||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.6||54.4||–|
|Swan Hill (RC) Bal||Non Urban||7,152||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||27.3||72.7||–|
|Towong (S)—Pt A||Pop < 2000||2,292||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.3||45.7||–|
|Towong (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||3,830||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.7||68.3||–|
|Wangaratta (RC)—Central||Pop 10–40k||15,527||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Wangaratta (RC)—North||Non Urban||3,863||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Wangaratta (RC)—South||Non Urban||5,645||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||10.2||89.8||–|
|Warrnambool (C)||Pop 10–40k||26,776||–||–||–||–||–||–||97.3||–||–||2.7||–|
|Wellington (S)—Alberton||Non Urban||5,722||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.9||64.1||–|
|Wellington (S)—Avon||Non Urban||3,979||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||33.9||66.1||–|
|Wellington (S)—Maffra||Pop 2–10k||10,073||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.0||23.2||36.7||–|
|Wellington (S)—Rosedale||Non Urban||6,677||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||32.1||67.9||–|
|Wellington (S)—Sale||Pop 10–40k||13,366||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|West Wimmera (S)||Non Urban||4,933||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.7||63.3||–|
|Whitehorse (C)—Box Hill||Cap City middle||46,165||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Whitehorse (C) Nunawading E.||Cap City middle||42,534||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Whitehorse(C)Nunawading W.||Cap City middle||46,773||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Whittlesea (C)—North||Non Urban||9,260||–||–||–||26.3||–||–||–||–||–||49.4||–|
|Whittlesea (C)—South||Cap City middle||92,634||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wodonga (RC)||Pop 10–40k||29,188||–||–||–||–||–||–||88.5||–||–||11.5||–|
|Wyndham (C)—North-West||Non Urban||537||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Wyndham (C)—Werribee||Cap City outer||67,737||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wyndham (C) Bal||Non Urban||5,623||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||88.2||–|
|Yarra (C)—North||Cap City Inner||41,973||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Yarra (C)—Richmond||Cap City Inner||23,175||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Yarra Ranges (S)—Central||Within 75km||14,512||–||–||–||69.4||–||–||–||–||–||30.6||–|
|Yarra Ranges (S)—North||Within 75km||11,094||–||–||–||68.5||–||–||–||–||–||31.5||–|
|Yarra Ranges (S)—South-West||Cap City outer||104,437||–||–||84.5||3.4||–||–||–||–||–||12.1||–|
|Yarra Ranges (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||762||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Yarriambiack (S)—North||Non Urban||2,452||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.4||54.6||–|
|Yarriambiack (S)—South||Pop 2–10k||5,852||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||42.6||29.4||28.0||–|
|Lady Julia Percy Island||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Yallourn Works Area||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|French Island||Non Urban||58||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Bass Strait Islands||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|VIC Off-Shore & Migratory||Offshore||807||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Acacia Ridge||Cap City middle||6,489||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Albany Creek||Cap City middle||12,001||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Albion||Cap City Inner||2,262||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Alderley||Cap City Inner||4,550||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Alexandra Hills||Cap City outer||17,267||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Algester||Cap City middle||7,254||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Annerley||Cap City Inner||8,450||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Aramac (S)||Non Urban||778||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.0||56.0||–|
|Arana Hills||Cap City middle||6,347||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Archerfield||Cap City middle||613||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ascot||Cap City Inner||4,626||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ashgrove||Cap City Inner||10,933||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Aspley||Cap City middle||11,020||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Atherton (S)||Pop 2–10k||10,253||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.5||10.2||34.3||–|
|Aurukun (S)||Pop < 2000||781||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||99.6||0.4||–|
|Bald Hills||Cap City middle||5,783||–||97.4||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.6||–|
|Balmoral||Cap City Inner||3,252||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Balonne (S)||Pop 2–10k||4,846||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.8||10.3||38.9||–|
|Banana (S)||Non Urban||13,598||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.0||22.6||39.4||–|
|Banyo||Cap City middle||4,702||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Barcaldine (S)||Pop < 2000||1,850||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||86.1||13.9||–|
|Barcoo (S)||Non Urban||492||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Bardon||Cap City Inner||8,048||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bauhinia (S)||Non Urban||2,543||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.2||73.8||–|
|Beaudesert (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||23,630||–||–||–||37.3||–||–||–||–||1.0||61.8||–|
|Beaudesert (S) Bal in BSD||Non Urban||22,521||–||–||–||4.7||–||–||–||–||–||81.3||–|
|Beenleigh||Cap City outer||7,428||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bellbowrie||Cap City middle||3,829||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Belmont-Mackenzie||Cap City middle||3,194||–||75.8||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||24.2||–|
|Belyando (S)||Pop 2–10k||10,755||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||82.7||–||17.3||–|
|Bendemere (S)||Non Urban||958||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.8||53.2||–|
|Berrinba-Karawatha||Cap City outer||296||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bethania-Waterford||Cap City outer||4,657||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Biggenden (S)||Non Urban||1,570||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.7||56.3||–|
|Biggera Waters||Major non-Cap||5,013||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Birkdale||Cap City middle||11,136||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Blackall (S)||Pop < 2000||1,833||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||78.1||21.9||–|
|Boonah (S)||Non Urban||6,879||–||–||–||40.2||–||–||–||–||–||59.8||–|
|Boondall||Cap City middle||7,256||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Booringa (S)||Pop < 2000||1,850||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.3||47.7||–|
|Boulia (S)||Non Urban||561||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.3||56.7||–|
|Bowen (S)||Pop 2–10k||14,411||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||76.4||1.9||21.8||–|
|Bowen Hills||Cap City Inner||999||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bracken Ridge||Cap City middle||12,845||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bray Park||Cap City outer||8,151||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bribie Island||Within 75km||12,946||–||–||–||98.6||–||–||–||–||–||1.4||–|
|Bridgeman Downs||Cap City middle||3,546||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Brighton||Cap City outer||8,678||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Broadbeach Waters||Major non-Cap||8,158||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Broadsound (S)||Pop 2–10k||7,486||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||74.5||–||25.5||–|
|Brookfield (incl. Mt C’tha)||Non Urban||2,645||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||76.6||–|
|Browns Plains||Cap City outer||23,944||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bulimba||Cap City Inner||3,659||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bulloo (S)||Non Urban||799||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.9||73.1||–|
|Bundaberg (C)||Pop 40k+||42,842||–||–||–||–||–||95.8||–||–||–||4.2||–|
|Bungil (S)||Non Urban||1,978||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||20.5||79.5||–|
|Burdekin (S)||Pop 2–10k||18,957||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.1||8.9||29.0||–|
|Burke (S)||Pop < 2000||1,431||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||68.1||31.9||–|
|Burleigh Heads||Major non-Cap||8,425||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Burleigh Waters||Major non-Cap||9,540||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Burnett (S)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||10,707||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.6||12.1||26.3||–|
|Burnett (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||10,511||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||6.0||94.0||–|
|Caboolture (S)—Central||Within 75km||15,320||–||–||–||84.5||–||–||–||–||–||15.5||–|
|Caboolture (S)—East||Within 75km||10,963||–||–||–||50.8||–||–||–||–||–||49.2||–|
|Caboolture (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||4,408||–||–||–||36.8||–||–||–||–||–||63.2||–|
|Caboolture (S) Bal in BSD||Non Urban||9,718||–||–||–||12.8||–||–||–||–||–||87.2||–|
|Cairns (C)—Barron||Major non-Cap||16,913||–||–||–||–||55.8||–||17.3||–||10.5||16.4||–|
|Cairns (C)—Central Suburbs||Major non-Cap||23,698||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cairns (C)—City||Major non-Cap||16,035||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cairns (C)—Mt Whitfield||Major non-Cap||11,435||–||–||–||–||99.6||–||–||–||–||0.4||–|
|Cairns (C)—Northern Suburbs||Pop 10–40k||15,498||–||–||–||–||–||–||76.4||15.7||–||8.0||–|
|Cairns (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||6,990||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.9||54.1||–|
|Cairns (C)—Trinity||Major non-Cap||26,249||–||–||–||–||78.1||–||–||14.0||–||7.9||–|
|Cairns (C)—Western Suburbs||Major non-Cap||11,208||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Calamvale||Cap City middle||6,150||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Calliope (S)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||11,055||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.7||11.2||31.1||–|
|Calliope (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||2,899||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||7.3||92.7||–|
|Caloundra (C)—Caloundra N.||Pop 10–40k||15,080||–||–||–||–||–||–||96.0||–||–||4.0||–|
|Caloundra (C)—Caloundra S.||Pop 10–40k||14,016||–||–||–||–||–||–||98.8||–||–||1.2||–|
|Caloundra (C)—Hinterland||Non Urban||6,184||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||14.2||85.8||–|
|Caloundra (C)—Kawana||Pop 10–40k||16,389||–||–||–||–||–||–||99.2||–||–||0.8||–|
|Caloundra (C)—Rail Corridor||Non Urban||14,667||–||–||–||13.0||–||–||–||–||17.5||69.4||–|
|Cambooya (S)||Non Urban||4,079||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.3||64.7||–|
|Camp Hill||Cap City Inner||9,059||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cannon Hill||Cap City Inner||3,903||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Capalaba||Cap City outer||16,213||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Capalaba West||Non Urban||380||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.9||–|
|Cardwell (S)||Non Urban||10,588||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||23.7||35.9||40.5||–|
|Carina||Cap City Inner||8,359||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Carina Heights||Cap City Inner||5,601||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Carindale||Cap City middle||10,205||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Carpentaria (S)||Pop < 2000||4,271||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||89.8||10.2||–|
|Carseldine||Cap City middle||5,757||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chapel Hill||Cap City Inner||9,936||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Charters Towers (C)||Pop 2–10k||8,893||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Chelmer||Cap City Inner||2,544||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chermside||Cap City Inner||6,297||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chermside West||Cap City middle||5,544||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chinchilla (S)||Pop 2–10k||5,600||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.0||–||42.0||–|
|City—Inner (Brisbane)||Cap City Inner||2,337||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|City—Remainder (Brisbane)||Cap City Inner||2,641||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|City (Townsville)||Major non-Cap||1,820||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Clayfield||Cap City Inner||9,054||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cleveland||Cap City outer||10,939||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Clifton (S)||Non Urban||2,308||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.1||63.9||–|
|Cloncurry (S)||Pop 2–10k||3,898||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.1||5.2||31.7||–|
|Clontarf||Cap City outer||8,048||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.0||–|
|Cook (S)—Weipa only||Pop 2–10k||2,200||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Cook (S) (excl. Weipa)||Non Urban||6,881||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.4||50.6||–|
|Cooloola (S)—Gympie only||Pop 10–40k||15,147||–||–||–||–||–||–||71.4||19.1||–||9.5||–|
|Cooloola (S) (excl. Gympie)||Non Urban||16,715||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||25.5||74.5||–|
|Coomera-Cedar Creek||Non Urban||6,247||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Coopers Plains||Cap City middle||3,926||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Coorparoo||Cap City Inner||12,763||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Corinda||Cap City middle||3,988||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Crow’s Nest (S)||Non Urban||8,644||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.4||22.2||46.5||–|
|Croydon (S)||Pop < 2000||316||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||70.6||29.4||–|
|Currumbin Waters||Major non-Cap||8,638||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Daisy Hill-Priestdale||Cap City outer||4,325||–||–||97.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.9||–|
|Dalby (T)||Pop 2–10k||9,517||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Dalrymple (S)||Non Urban||3,669||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||5.5||94.5||–|
|Darra-Sumner||Cap City middle||3,714||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Deagon||Cap City middle||3,250||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Deception Bay||Within 75km||15,886||–||–||–||82.9||–||–||–||–||–||17.1||–|
|Diamantina (S)||Non Urban||424||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Doolandella-Forest Lake||Cap City middle||6,468||–||94.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||5.9||–|
|Douglas (S)||Pop 2–10k||14,594||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.8||22.2||34.1||–|
|Duaringa (S)||Pop 2–10k||9,311||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.7||19.6||16.7||–|
|Durack||Cap City middle||5,641||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Dutton Park||Cap City Inner||1,456||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Eacham (S)||Non Urban||6,211||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.9||65.1||–|
|Eagleby||Cap City outer||8,466||–||–||96.4||–||–||–||–||–||–||3.6||–|
|East Brisbane||Cap City Inner||4,607||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Edens Landing-Holmview||Cap City outer||3,945||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Eidsvold (S)||Pop < 2000||970||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||53.5||46.5||–|
|Eight Mile Plains||Cap City middle||9,372||–||98.8||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.2||–|
|Ellen Grove||Cap City middle||2,493||–||81.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||18.3||–|
|Emerald (S)||Pop 2–10k||13,312||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||70.2||11.2||18.6||–|
|Enoggera||Cap City Inner||6,188||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Esk (S)||Non Urban||13,391||–||–||–||23.0||–||–||–||–||6.5||70.5||–|
|Etheridge (S)||Non Urban||1,280||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||23.3||76.7||–|
|Everton Hills||Cap City middle||5,206||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Everton Park||Cap City Inner||7,668||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fairfield||Cap City Inner||2,184||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ferny Grove||Cap City middle||5,065||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ferny Hills||Cap City middle||7,642||–||99.6||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.4||–|
|Fig Tree Pocket||Cap City Inner||2,587||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fitzroy (S)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||4,501||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Fitzroy (S)—Pt B||Non Urban||4,998||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||11.7||88.3||–|
|Flinders (S)||Pop < 2000||2,232||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.7||35.3||–|
|Fortitude Valley—Inner||Cap City Inner||165||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fortitude Valley—Remainder||Cap City Inner||1,528||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gatton (S)||Non Urban||14,730||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.2||11.7||52.1||–|
|Gayndah (S)||Pop < 2000||2,916||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.1||38.9||–|
|Geebung||Cap City middle||4,187||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gladstone (C)||Pop 10–40k||26,453||–||–||–||–||–||–||99.9||–||–||0.1||–|
|Gold Coast (C) Bal in BSD||Non Urban||8,438||–||–||–||7.8||–||–||–||–||–||54.8||–|
|Goondiwindi (T)||Pop 2–10k||4,374||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Graceville||Cap City Inner||3,609||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Grange||Cap City Inner||3,317||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Greenbank—Pt A||Non Urban||557||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Greenbank—Pt B||Cap City outer||7,732||–||–||99.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.3||–|
|Greenslopes||Cap City Inner||7,471||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Guanaba-Currumbin Valley||Non Urban||14,145||–||–||–||3.7||11.5||–||–||–||–||84.7||–|
|Gumdale||Cap City middle||929||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hamilton||Cap City Inner||4,257||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hawthorne||Cap City Inner||3,699||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hemmant-Lytton||Cap City middle||1,660||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hendra||Cap City Inner||3,441||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Herberton (S)||Non Urban||5,181||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.8||56.2||–|
|Hermit Park||Major non-Cap||3,460||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Herston||Cap City Inner||2,899||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hervey Bay (C)||Pop 10–40k||42,391||–||–||–||–||–||–||75.6||–||10.0||14.3||–|
|Highgate Hill||Cap City Inner||5,190||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hinchinbrook (S)||Pop 2–10k||15,579||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.5||22.3||32.2||–|
|Holland Park||Cap City Inner||7,134||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Holland Park West||Cap City Inner||5,305||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hope Island||Within 75km||2,765||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hyde Park-Mysterton||Major non-Cap||2,378||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ilfracombe (S)||Non Urban||333||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Inala||Cap City middle||13,287||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Indooroopilly||Cap City Inner||9,849||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Inglewood (S)||Pop < 2000||2,771||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.6||38.4||–|
|Ipswich (C)—Central||Cap City outer||66,048||–||–||97.3||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.7||–|
|Ipswich (C)—East||Cap City outer||37,016||–||–||97.5||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.5||–|
|Ipswich (C)—North||Within 75km||11,415||–||–||–||65.9||–||–||–||–||–||30.7||–|
|Ipswich (C)—South-West||Non Urban||4,724||–||–||–||7.5||–||–||–||–||–||92.5||–|
|Ipswich (C)—West||Non Urban||7,650||–||–||–||48.6||–||–||–||–||–||51.4||–|
|Isis (S)||Non Urban||5,878||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.8||58.2||–|
|Isisford (S)||Non Urban||302||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Jamboree Heights||Cap City middle||3,357||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Jericho (S)||Non Urban||966||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.9||59.1||–|
|Jindalee||Cap City middle||5,302||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Johnstone (S)||Pop 2–10k||20,777||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.3||26.5||30.2||–|
|Jondaryan (S)||Non Urban||11,056||–||–||–||–||8.2||–||–||30.7||1.8||59.3||–|
|Kallangur||Cap City outer||14,405||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kangaroo Point||Cap City Inner||5,124||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kedron||Cap City Inner||11,029||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kelvin Grove||Cap City Inner||3,945||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kenmore||Cap City middle||8,014||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kenmore Hills||Cap City middle||2,246||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Keperra||Cap City middle||7,303||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kilcoy (S)||Non Urban||3,139||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||48.3||51.7||–|
|Kilkivan (S)||Non Urban||3,203||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||25.4||74.6||–|
|Kingaroy (S)||Pop 2–10k||11,141||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.9||–||37.1||–|
|Kingston (QLD)||Cap City outer||13,148||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kolan (S)||Non Urban||4,196||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||22.8||77.2||–|
|Laidley (S)||Non Urban||12,116||–||–||–||23.0||–||–||–||–||–||77.0||–|
|Lawnton||Cap City outer||5,315||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Livingstone (S)||Pop 2–10k||24,796||–||–||–||–||–||5.6||–||46.8||1.3||46.3||–|
|Logan (C) Bal||Non Urban||1,892||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Loganholme||Cap City outer||10,988||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Loganlea||Cap City outer||6,573||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Longreach (S)||Pop 2–10k||4,419||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||85.2||–||14.8||–|
|Lota||Cap City middle||2,556||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Lutwyche||Cap City Inner||2,548||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|MacGregor (QLD)||Cap City middle||5,426||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mackay (C)—Pt A||Pop 40k+||60,703||–||–||–||–||–||73.9||–||8.7||9.4||7.9||–|
|Mackay (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||11,191||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||9.2||90.8||–|
|Magnetic Island||Pop < 2000||3,027||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||98.3||1.7||–|
|Main Beach-Broadwater||Major non-Cap||4,772||–||–||–||–||96.9||–||–||–||–||3.1||–|
|Manly||Cap City middle||3,427||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Manly West||Cap City middle||8,392||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mansfield||Cap City middle||8,187||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mareeba (S)||Non Urban||18,188||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||37.8||6.0||56.2||–|
|Margate-Woody Point||Cap City outer||10,224||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Maroochy (S)—Buderim||Pop 10–40k||24,213||–||–||–||–||–||–||86.6||–||–||13.4||–|
|Maroochy (S)—Coastal North||Pop 2–10k||15,905||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||88.2||7.3||4.6||–|
|Maroochy (S)—Maroochydore||Pop 10–40k||17,045||–||–||–||–||–||–||98.2||–||–||1.8||–|
|Maroochy (S)—Mooloolaba||Pop 10–40k||11,161||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Maroochy (S)—Nambour||Pop 10–40k||11,397||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Maroochy (S) Bal||Non Urban||19,991||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||11.1||88.9||–|
|Maroochy (S) Bal in S C’st SSD||Non Urban||12,086||–||–||–||–||–||–||6.7||27.7||18.8||46.8||–|
|Marsden||Cap City outer||16,502||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Maryborough (C)||Pop 10–40k||24,868||–||–||–||–||–||–||85.6||–||–||14.4||–|
|McDowall||Cap City middle||5,142||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|McKinlay (S)||Non Urban||1,443||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.0||64.0||–|
|Mermaid Beach||Major non-Cap||6,083||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mermaid Waters||Major non-Cap||9,793||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Middle Park||Cap City middle||4,391||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Millmerran (S)||Non Urban||2,830||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.4||53.6||–|
|Milton||Cap City Inner||1,584||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mirani (S)||Non Urban||5,088||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||27.1||72.9||–|
|Miriam Vale (S)||Non Urban||4,331||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||20.2||79.8||–|
|Mitchelton||Cap City Inner||5,882||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Monto (S)||Non Urban||2,922||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.1||55.9||–|
|Moorooka||Cap City Inner||8,408||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moreton Island||Non Urban||455||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Morningside||Cap City Inner||6,931||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mornington (S)||Non Urban||1,114||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Mount Gravatt||Cap City Inner||3,063||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mount Gravatt East||Cap City Inner||9,019||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mount Isa (C)||Pop 10–40k||22,866||–||–||–||–||–||–||95.1||–||1.1||3.7||–|
|Mount Morgan (S)||Pop 2–10k||2,858||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||87.0||–||13.0||–|
|Mount Ommaney||Cap City middle||2,009||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mt Louisa-Mt St John-Bohle||Major non-Cap||3,707||–||–||–||–||84.1||–||–||–||–||15.9||–|
|Mt Warren Park||Cap City outer||5,283||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mundubbera (S)||Non Urban||2,514||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.2||50.8||–|
|Murarrie||Cap City Inner||2,356||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Murgon (S)||Pop 2–10k||4,472||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.7||24.6||28.7||–|
|Murilla (S)||Non Urban||2,790||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||42.5||57.5||–|
|Murweh (S)||Pop 2–10k||4,962||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.0||8.8||24.1||–|
|Nanango (S)||Non Urban||7,810||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.7||6.7||58.6||–|
|Nathan||Cap City Inner||1,582||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nebo (S)||Pop < 2000||2,462||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.0||46.0||–|
|New Farm||Cap City Inner||9,118||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Newmarket||Cap City Inner||3,680||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Newstead||Cap City Inner||1,330||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Noosa (S)—Noosa-Noosaville||Pop 10–40k||11,539||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Noosa (S)—Sunshine-Peregian||Pop 10–40k||8,862||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.8||25.4||5.3||5.4||–|
|Noosa (S)—Tewantin||Pop 10–40k||8,856||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Noosa (S) Bal||Non Urban||11,914||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.9||68.1||–|
|Norman Park||Cap City Inner||5,977||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|North Ward-Castle Hill||Major non-Cap||6,096||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Northgate||Cap City middle||3,619||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nudgee||Cap City middle||1,873||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nudgee Beach||Cap City middle||314||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nundah||Cap City Inner||7,742||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ormiston||Cap City outer||3,593||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Oxley (QLD)||Cap City middle||5,662||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Paddington||Cap City Inner||6,878||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Pallarenda-Shelley Beach||Pop < 2000||1,009||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||87.6||12.4||–|
|Palm Beach||Major non-Cap||13,657||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Paradise Point||Major non-Cap||3,921||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Parkinson-Drewvale||Cap City outer||2,428||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Paroo (S)||Pop < 2000||2,432||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||60.1||39.9||–|
|Peak Downs (S)||Pop < 2000||3,172||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||73.5||26.5||–|
|Perry (S)||Non Urban||351||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Petrie||Cap City outer||7,263||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Pine Rivers (S) Bal||Non Urban||26,841||–||–||–||4.4||–||–||–||–||–||66.1||–|
|Pinjarra Hills||Non Urban||440||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Pinkenba-Eagle Farm||Cap City middle||482||–||88.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||12.0||–|
|Pittsworth (S)||Pop 2–10k||4,264||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||54.5||–||45.5||–|
|Quilpie (S)||Pop < 2000||1,402||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.1||47.9||–|
|Railway EState||Major non-Cap||2,771||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ransome||Cap City middle||430||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Red Hill (QLD)||Cap City Inner||4,768||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Redcliffe-Scarborough||Cap City outer||17,789||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Redland (S) Bal||Within 75km||5,372||–||–||–||95.7||–||–||–||–||–||4.3||–|
|Redland Bay||Within 75km||5,559||–||–||–||81.8||–||–||–||–||–||18.2||–|
|Richlands||Cap City middle||859||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Richmond (S)||Pop < 2000||1,179||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.2||37.8||–|
|Riverhills||Cap City middle||3,304||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Robertson||Cap City middle||4,110||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Robina-Clear Island Waters||Major non-Cap||13,257||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rochedale South||Cap City middle||15,672||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rockhampton (C)||Pop 40k+||59,732||–||–||–||–||–||94.4||–||–||–||5.6||–|
|Rocklea||Cap City middle||1,448||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Roma (T)||Pop 2–10k||6,439||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||89.2||–||10.8||–|
|Rosalie (S)||Non Urban||8,035||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.4||64.6||–|
|Rothwell-Kippa-Ring||Cap City outer||11,965||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rowes Bay-Belgian Gardens||Major non-Cap||2,678||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Runaway Bay||Major non-Cap||7,707||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Runcorn||Cap City middle||9,229||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Salisbury||Cap City Inner||5,159||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sandgate||Cap City middle||6,271||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sarina (S)||Non Urban||9,394||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.1||19.9||46.0||–|
|Seventeen Mile Rocks||Cap City middle||4,356||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Shailer Park||Cap City outer||10,275||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sheldon-Mt Cotton||Non Urban||3,204||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Sherwood||Cap City Inner||4,387||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Slacks Creek||Cap City outer||11,665||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|South Brisbane||Cap City Inner||3,599||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|South Townsville||Major non-Cap||2,059||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Spring Hill||Cap City Inner||4,970||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Springwood||Cap City outer||6,374||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|St Lucia||Cap City Inner||9,824||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stafford||Cap City Inner||5,538||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stafford Heights||Cap City Inner||7,283||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stanthorpe (S)||Non Urban||9,596||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.3||4.0||52.7||–|
|Strathpine||Cap City outer||10,021||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stretton||Cap City middle||2,079||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sunnybank||Cap City middle||7,436||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Sunnybank Hills||Cap City middle||14,166||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Surfers Paradise||Major non-Cap||24,086||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Taigum-Fitzgibbon||Cap City middle||3,550||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tambo (S)||Pop < 2000||566||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.8||33.2||–|
|Tanah Merah||Cap City outer||902||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tara (S)||Non Urban||3,504||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||24.4||75.6||–|
|Taringa||Cap City Inner||6,236||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Taroom (S)||Non Urban||2,733||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.0||60.0||–|
|Tarragindi||Cap City Inner||9,050||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|The Gap (incl. Enoggera Res.)||Cap City middle||15,004||–||97.3||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.7||–|
|Thorneside||Cap City middle||3,369||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Thornlands||Cap City outer||7,131||–||–||77.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||22.9||–|
|Thuringowa (C)—Pt A Bal||Major non-Cap||15,036||–||–||–||–||50.7||–||–||15.4||26.0||7.9||–|
|Thuringowa (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||6,527||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.1||65.9||–|
|Tiaro (S)||Non Urban||4,252||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||8.9||91.1||–|
|Tingalpa||Cap City middle||7,290||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Toowong||Cap City Inner||13,093||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Toowoomba (C)—Central||Major non-Cap||14,237||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Toowoomba (C)—North-East||Major non-Cap||10,671||–||–||–||–||99.3||–||–||–||–||0.7||–|
|Toowoomba (C)—North-West||Major non-Cap||18,611||–||–||–||–||97.6||–||–||–||–||2.4||–|
|Toowoomba (C)—South-East||Major non-Cap||19,247||–||–||–||–||99.1||–||–||–||–||0.9||–|
|Toowoomba (C)—West||Major non-Cap||20,868||–||–||–||–||97.6||–||–||–||–||2.4||–|
|Torres (S)||Non Urban||8,571||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||29.0||22.0||49.1||–|
|Townsville (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||3,109||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||31.9||68.1||–|
|Underwood||Cap City middle||2,675||–||95.6||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||4.4||–|
|Upper Brookfield||Non Urban||507||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Upper Kedron||Non Urban||339||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Upper Mount Gravatt||Cap City middle||7,238||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Victoria Point||Within 75km||9,760||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Virginia||Cap City middle||1,800||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wacol||Cap City middle||5,155||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Waggamba (S)||Non Urban||2,712||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||8.0||92.0||–|
|Wakerley||Cap City middle||715||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wambo (S)||Non Urban||5,205||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||18.8||81.2||–|
|Warroo (S)||Non Urban||996||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.0||60.0||–|
|Warwick (S)—Central||Pop 10–40k||10,947||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Warwick (S)—East||Non Urban||4,041||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||25.6||74.4||–|
|Warwick (S)—North||Non Urban||2,234||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.1||61.9||–|
|Warwick (S)—West||Non Urban||2,745||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Waterford West||Cap City outer||4,859||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wavell Heights||Cap City Inner||8,241||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wellington Point||Cap City outer||6,556||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|West End (Brisbane)||Cap City Inner||5,780||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|West End (Townsville)||Major non-Cap||3,527||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Westlake||Cap City middle||3,360||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Whitsunday (S)||Pop 2–10k||18,282||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.5||8.2||40.3||–|
|Wilston||Cap City Inner||3,209||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Windaroo-Bannockburn||Cap City outer||2,132||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Windsor||Cap City Inner||5,834||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Winton (S)||Pop < 2000||1,736||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.8||34.2||–|
|Wishart||Cap City middle||8,442||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wondai (S)||Non Urban||3,971||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.2||60.8||–|
|Woocoo (S)||Non Urban||2,902||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Woodridge||Cap City outer||18,039||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Woolloongabba||Cap City Inner||4,646||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wooloowin||Cap City Inner||5,453||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wynnum||Cap City middle||10,589||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wynnum West||Cap City middle||9,013||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Yeerongpilly||Cap City Inner||2,119||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Yeronga||Cap City Inner||4,638||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Zillmere||Cap City middle||7,651||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Unincorp. Islands||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|QLD Off-Shore & Migratory||Offshore||2,999||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Adelaide (C)||Cap City Inner||16,115||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Angaston (DC)||Within 75km||6,952||–||–||–||76.9||–||–||–||–||–||23.1||–|
|Barmera (DC)||Non Urban||4,278||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||48.9||51.1||–|
|Barossa (DC)||Non Urban||4,991||–||–||–||45.9||–||–||–||–||–||54.1||–|
|Beachport (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,572||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.9||47.1||–|
|Berri (DC)||Pop 2–10k||6,752||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||57.9||–||42.1||–|
|Blyth-Snowtown (DC)||Non Urban||1,970||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.1||63.9||–|
|Brighton (C)||Cap City middle||18,149||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Browns Well (DC)||Non Urban||289||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Burnside (C)||Cap City Inner||38,585||99.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.9||–|
|Burra Burra (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,824||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.3||44.7||–|
|Bute (DC)||Non Urban||962||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||26.8||73.2||–|
|Campbelltown (C) (SA)||Cap City middle||44,032||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Carrieton (DC)||Non Urban||163||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Ceduna (DC)||Pop 2–10k||3,559||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||73.0||–||27.0||–|
|Central Yorke Peninsula (DC)||Non Urban||4,957||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||48.2||51.8||–|
|Clare (DC)||Pop 2–10k||4,177||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||67.4||–||32.6||–|
|Cleve (DC)||Non Urban||1,884||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.6||60.4||–|
|Coober Pedy (DC)||Pop 2–10k||3,184||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||86.7||–||13.3||–|
|Coonalpyn Downs (DC)||Non Urban||1,383||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.3||61.7||–|
|Crystal Brook-Redhill (DC)||Pop < 2000||2,106||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.8||37.2||–|
|Dudley (DC)||Non Urban||695||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|East Torrens (DC)||Non Urban||6,653||–||–||–||12.4||–||–||–||–||–||56.6||–|
|Elizabeth (C)||Cap City outer||25,852||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Elliston (DC)||Non Urban||1,212||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||17.9||82.1||–|
|Enfield (C)—Pt A||Cap City Inner||44,338||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Enfield (C)—Pt B||Cap City middle||15,563||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Eudunda (DC)||Non Urban||1,310||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||49.0||51.0||–|
|Franklin Harbor (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,218||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||61.4||38.6||–|
|Gawler (M)||Within 75km||16,656||–||–||–||92.6||–||–||–||–||–||7.4||–|
|Glenelg (C)||Cap City middle||12,982||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gumeracha (DC)||Non Urban||6,034||–||–||–||34.5||–||–||–||–||–||65.5||–|
|Hallett (DC)||Non Urban||540||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Happy Valley (C)||Cap City outer||36,316||–||–||92.4||–||–||–||–||–||–||7.6||–|
|Hawker (DC)||Pop < 2000||498||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.1||35.9||–|
|Henley & Grange (C)||Cap City middle||13,811||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hindmarsh and Woodville (C)||Cap City Inner||85,157||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Jamestown (DC)||Pop < 2000||2,156||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||66.3||33.7||–|
|Kanyaka-Quorn (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,444||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||71.9||28.1||–|
|Kapunda (DC)||Within 75km||3,324||–||–||–||66.0||–||–||–||–||–||34.0||–|
|Karoonda East Murray (DC)||Non Urban||1,323||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||24.7||75.3||–|
|Kensington & Norwood (C)||Cap City Inner||8,952||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kimba (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,224||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.3||44.7||–|
|Kingscote (DC)||Non Urban||3,423||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.7||55.3||–|
|Lacepede (DC)||Pop < 2000||2,219||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||64.5||35.5||–|
|Lameroo (DC)||Non Urban||1,234||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.8||58.2||–|
|Le Hunte (DC)||Non Urban||1,482||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.6||64.4||–|
|Light (DC)||Non Urban||5,892||–||–||–||43.1||–||–||–||–||–||56.9||–|
|Lower Eyre Peninsula (DC)||Non Urban||3,859||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||28.3||71.7||–|
|Loxton (DC)||Non Urban||6,836||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||48.4||2.9||48.6||–|
|Lucindale (DC)||Non Urban||1,274||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||21.4||78.6||–|
|Mallala (DC)||Non Urban||6,761||–||–||–||18.9||–||–||–||–||–||81.1||–|
|Mannum (DC)||Within 75km||3,069||–||–||–||64.1||–||–||–||–||–||35.9||–|
|Marion (C)||Cap City outer||74,317||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Meningie (DC)||Pop < 2000||3,826||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||62.9||37.1||–|
|Millicent (DC)||Pop 2–10k||7,247||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.1||3.6||31.3||–|
|Minlaton (DC)||Non Urban||2,216||–||–||–||20.1||–||–||–||–||33.1||46.8||–|
|Mitcham (C)||Cap City middle||59,289||–||99.1||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.9||–|
|Morgan (DC)||Non Urban||1,483||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||33.2||66.8||–|
|Mount Barker (DC)||Within 75km||20,303||–||–||–||69.5||–||–||–||–||–||30.5||–|
|Mount Gambier (C)||Pop 10–40k||22,037||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Mount Gambier (DC)||Non Urban||5,010||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||9.1||90.9||–|
|Mount Pleasant (DC)||Non Urban||2,249||–||–||–||33.5||–||–||–||–||–||66.5||–|
|Mount Remarkable (DC)||Non Urban||3,037||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.2||63.8||–|
|Munno Para (C)||Cap City outer||37,634||–||–||77.5||3.4||–||–||–||–||–||19.0||–|
|Murray Bridge (RC)||Within 75km||15,893||–||–||–||81.6||–||–||–||–||–||18.4||–|
|Naracoorte (M)||Pop 2–10k||4,674||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Naracoorte (DC)||Non Urban||1,878||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Noarlunga (C)||Cap City outer||89,377||–||–||97.4||–||–||–||–||–||–||2.6||–|
|Northern Yorke Peninsula (DC)||Pop 2–10k||7,594||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||88.4||–||11.6||–|
|Onkaparinga (DC)||Within 75km||7,585||–||–||–||57.1||–||–||–||–||–||42.9||–|
|Orroroo (DC)||Pop < 2000||882||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.2||36.8||–|
|Paringa (DC)||Non Urban||1,753||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.0||57.0||–|
|Payneham (C)||Cap City Inner||15,258||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Peake (DC)||Non Urban||744||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Penola (DC)||Pop < 2000||3,248||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.9||36.1||–|
|Peterborough (M)||Pop < 2000||1,855||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–|
|Peterborough (DC)||Non Urban||322||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Pinnaroo (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,074||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||56.4||43.6||–|
|Pirie (DC)||Non Urban||1,442||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||16.7||83.3||–|
|Port Adelaide (C)||Cap City outer||37,559||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Port Augusta (C)||Pop 10–40k||14,244||–||–||–||–||–||–||97.7||–||–||2.3||–|
|Port Broughton (DC)||Non Urban||1,311||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||47.9||52.1||–|
|Port Elliot & Goolwa (DC)||Within 75km||7,938||–||–||–||78.7||–||–||–||–||–||21.3||–|
|Port Lincoln (C)||Pop 10–40k||12,182||–||–||–||–||–||–||95.9||–||–||4.1||–|
|Port MacDonnell (DC)||Non Urban||2,430||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||27.2||72.8||–|
|Port Pirie (C)||Pop 10–40k||13,960||–||–||–||–||–||–||97.7||–||–||2.3||–|
|Prospect (C)||Cap City Inner||18,516||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Renmark (M)||Pop 2–10k||7,835||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||55.7||–||44.3||–|
|Ridley-Truro (DC)||Non Urban||2,796||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||18.3||81.7||–|
|Riverton (DC)||Non Urban||1,596||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.5||56.5||–|
|Robe (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,277||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||63.9||36.1||–|
|Robertstown (DC)||Non Urban||721||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Rocky River (DC)||Pop < 2000||2,208||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.9||47.1||–|
|Roxby Downs (M)||Pop 2–10k||2,670||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||91.6||–||8.4||–|
|Saddleworth & Auburn (DC)||Non Urban||2,046||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||34.8||65.2||–|
|St Peters (M)||Cap City Inner||8,173||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Salisbury (C)||Cap City middle||108,465||–||99.5||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.5||–|
|Spalding (DC)||Non Urban||458||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||44.5||55.5||–|
|Stirling (DC)||Within 75km||16,150||–||–||–||80.7||–||–||–||–||–||19.3||–|
|Strathalbyn (DC)||Non Urban||6,856||–||–||–||48.3||–||–||–||–||–||51.7||–|
|Streaky Bay (DC)||Pop < 2000||1,925||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||52.5||47.5||–|
|Tanunda (DC)||Within 75km||4,114||–||–||–||85.1||–||–||–||–||–||14.9||–|
|Tatiara (DC)||Non Urban||6,660||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.1||16.4||48.6||–|
|Tea Tree Gully (C)||Cap City middle||92,187||–||98.7||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||1.3||–|
|Thebarton (M)||Cap City Inner||7,530||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tumby Bay (DC)||Pop < 2000||2,553||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||53.2||46.8||–|
|Unley (C)||Cap City Inner||35,097||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Victor Harbor (DC)||Within 75km||8,656||–||–||–||84.8||–||–||–||–||–||15.2||–|
|Waikerie (DC)||Non Urban||4,713||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.1||61.9||–|
|Wakefield Plains (DC)||Pop < 2000||4,454||–||–||–||19.0||–||–||–||–||44.5||36.5||–|
|Walkerville (M)||Cap City Inner||6,726||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wallaroo (M)||Pop 2–10k||2,289||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Warooka (DC)||Non Urban||1,097||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||21.5||78.5||–|
|West Torrens (C)||Cap City Inner||42,155||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Whyalla (C)||Pop 10–40k||23,644||–||–||–||–||–||–||98.9||–||–||1.1||–|
|Willunga (DC)||Within 75km||14,234||–||–||–||75.7||–||–||–||–||–||24.3||–|
|Yankalilla (DC)||Non Urban||3,538||–||–||–||38.4||–||–||–||–||–||61.6||–|
|Yorketown (DC)||Non Urban||2,818||–||–||–||18.6||–||–||–||–||38.8||42.7||–|
|Unincorp. Western||Non Urban||26||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Unincorp. Yorke||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Unincorp. Riverland||Non Urban||177||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Unincorp. Murray Mallee||Non Urban||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Unincorp. Lincoln||Non Urban||32||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Unincorp. West Coast||Non Urban||740||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||36.9||63.1||–|
|Unincorp. Whyalla||Pop < 2000||335||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.0||–||66.9||33.1||–|
|Unincorp. Pirie||Non Urban||367||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Unincorp. Flinders Ranges||Non Urban||2,196||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||45.8||54.2||–|
|Unincorp. Far North||Non Urban||6,273||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||33.4||66.6||–|
|SA Off-Shore & Migratory||Offshore||598||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Break O’Day (M)||Pop < 2000||5,644||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||56.3||43.7||–|
|Brighton (M)||Within 75km||12,471||–||–||–||84.9||–||–||–||–||–||15.1||–|
|Burnie (C)—Pt A||Pop 10–40k||17,202||–||–||–||–||–||–||93.1||–||–||6.9||–|
|Burnie (C)—Pt B||Non Urban||2,081||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||20.5||79.5||–|
|Central Coast (M)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||17,148||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||74.8||14.3||10.9||–|
|Central Coast (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||3,232||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Central Highlands (M)||Non Urban||2,550||–||–||–||14.0||–||–||–||–||–||86.0||–|
|Circular Head (M)||Non Urban||8,108||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||40.9||6.7||52.4||–|
|Clarence (C)||Cap City middle||47,461||–||75.3||–||12.4||–||–||–||–||–||12.3||–|
|Derwent Valley (M)—Pt A||Within 75km||6,553||–||–||–||80.7||–||–||–||–||–||19.3||–|
|Derwent Valley (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||2,985||–||–||–||11.1||–||–||–||–||–||88.9||–|
|Devonport (C)||Pop 10–40k||23,814||–||–||–||–||–||–||93.6||–||–||6.4||–|
|Dorset (M)||Pop < 2000||7,095||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||51.5||48.5||–|
|Flinders (M)||Non Urban||924||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|George Town (M)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||5,654||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||80.0||8.2||11.8||–|
|George Town (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||999||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Glamorgan/Spring Bay (M)||Non Urban||4,035||–||–||–||30.4||–||–||–||–||29.6||40.0||–|
|Glenorchy (C)||Cap City outer||43,066||–||–||96.7||0.7||–||–||–||–||–||2.6||–|
|Hobart (C)—Inner||Cap City Inner||1,059||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hobart (C)—Remainder||Cap City Inner||45,617||98.2||–||–||1.3||–||–||–||–||–||0.5||–|
|Huon Valley (M)||Non Urban||12,907||–||–||–||33.2||–||–||–||–||–||66.8||–|
|Kentish (M)||Non Urban||5,331||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||35.5||64.5||–|
|King Island (M)||Non Urban||1,797||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||46.8||53.2||–|
|Kingborough (M)—Pt A||Within 75km||24,550||–||–||–||64.5||–||–||–||–||–||23.7||–|
|Kingborough (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||2,289||–||–||–||24.5||–||–||–||–||–||75.5||–|
|Latrobe (M)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||6,958||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||39.7||26.1||34.1||–|
|Latrobe (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||669||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Launceston (C)—Inner||Major non-Cap||428||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Launceston (C)—Pt B||Major non-Cap||59,178||–||–||–||–||95.7||–||–||–||0.5||3.7||–|
|Launceston (C)—Pt C||Non Urban||2,825||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||12.1||87.9||–|
|Meander Valley (M)—Pt A||Major non-Cap||6,782||–||–||–||–||55.4||–||–||–||25.5||19.1||–|
|Meander Valley (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||9,991||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||21.7||22.4||55.9||–|
|Northern Midlands (M)—Pt A||Pop < 2000||6,833||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.4||42.4||16.2||–|
|Northern Midlands (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||4,538||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||38.1||61.9||–|
|Sorell (M)—Pt A||Within 75km||9,167||–||–||–||76.6||–||–||–||–||–||23.4||–|
|Sorell (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||947||–||–||–||30.2||–||–||–||–||–||69.8||–|
|Southern Midlands (M)||Non Urban||5,324||–||–||–||32.7||–||–||–||–||–||67.3||–|
|Tasman (M)||Non Urban||2,256||–||–||–||32.5||–||–||–||–||–||67.5||–|
|Waratah/Wynyard (M)—Pt A||Pop 2–10k||10,666||–||–||–||–||–||–||29.3||42.3||2.6||25.9||–|
|Waratah/Wynyard (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||2,684||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||8.6||91.4||–|
|West Coast (M)||Pop < 2000||6,337||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||41.5||55.6||2.9||–|
|West Tamar (M)—Pt A||Major non-Cap||17,107||–||–||–||–||40.1||–||–||–||32.9||27.0||–|
|West Tamar (M)—Pt B||Non Urban||1,766||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|TAS Off-Shore Areas & Migratory||Offshore||632||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Alice Springs (T)—Charles||Pop 10–40k||5,339||–||–||–||–||–||–||89.6||–||–||10.4||–|
|Alice Springs (T)—Heavitree||Non Urban||3,016||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Alice Springs (T)—Larapinta||Pop 10–40k||8,266||–||–||–||–||–||–||92.8||–||–||7.2||–|
|Alice Springs (T)—Ross||Pop 10–40k||7,113||–||–||–||–||–||–||93.8||–||–||6.2||–|
|Alice Springs (T)—Stuart||Pop 10–40k||3,358||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–|
|Bathurst-Melville||Pop < 2000||2,033||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||95.2||4.8||–|
|Coomalie (CGC)||Within 75km||1,411||–||–||–||45.7||–||–||–||–||19.8||34.5||–|
|Daly||Pop < 2000||3,718||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||58.1||41.9||–|
|Alawa||Cap City middle||2,282||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Anula||Cap City middle||2,753||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Brinkin||Cap City outer||1,170||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|City—Inner (Darwin)||Cap City Inner||4,269||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Coconut Grove||Cap City Inner||2,147||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fannie Bay||Cap City Inner||2,771||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Jingili||Cap City middle||2,046||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Karama||Cap City outer||5,220||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Larrakeyah||Cap City Inner||3,108||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Leanyer||Cap City outer||5,042||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Lee Point-Leanyer Swamp||Non Urban||850||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Ludmilla||Cap City Inner||1,924||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Malak||Cap City outer||3,516||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Marrara||Cap City middle||2,018||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Millner||Cap City middle||2,649||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Moil||Cap City middle||2,291||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nakara||Cap City outer||2,167||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Narrows||Cap City Inner||540||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nightcliff||Cap City middle||3,642||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Parap||Cap City Inner||1,750||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rapid Creek||Cap City middle||3,183||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stuart Park||Cap City Inner||2,860||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|The Gardens||Cap City Inner||829||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tiwi||Cap City outer||2,975||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wagaman||Cap City outer||2,299||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wanguri||Cap City outer||2,009||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Winnellie||Cap City Inner||749||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wulagi||Cap City outer||2,716||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|City—Remainder (Darwin)||Cap City Inner||2,847||46.6||–||–||31.7||–||–||–||–||–||21.7||–|
|East Arm||Non Urban||371||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|East Arnhem—Bal||Pop < 2000||5,926||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||78.6||21.4||–|
|Groote Eylandt||Pop < 2000||2,551||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||91.7||8.3||–|
|Gulf||Pop < 2000||2,880||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.5||49.5||–|
|Jabiru (T)||Pop < 2000||1,696||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–|
|Katherine (T)||Pop 2–10k||10,809||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||73.8||–||26.2||–|
|Litchfield (S)—Pt A||Non Urban||1,229||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Litchfield (S)—Pt B||Within 75km||12,629||–||–||–||80.6||–||–||–||–||–||19.4||–|
|Palmerston (T) Bal||Non Urban||517||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|South Alligator||Non Urban||1,625||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Tennant Creek (T)||Pop 2–10k||3,856||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–||–|
|Tennant Creek—Bal||Non Urban||1,942||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||43.8||56.2||–|
|Victoria||Pop < 2000||2,805||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||50.5||49.5||–|
|West Arnhem||Pop < 2000||3,916||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||65.6||34.4||–|
|NT Off-Shore & Migratory||Offshore||513||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0|
|Statistical Local Area||Classification||Population||Inner Cap.||Mid. Cap.||Outer Cap.||Near Cap.||Maj Nom Cap.||40,000+||10-20,000||2-10,000||<2,000||Non Urban||Off Shore|
|Australian Capital Territory|
|Acton||Cap City Inner||1,748||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ainslie||Cap City Inner||4,444||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Amaroo||Cap City middle||620||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Aranda||Cap City Inner||2,519||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Banks||Cap City outer||3,440||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Barton||Cap City Inner||712||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Belconnen Town Centre||Cap City Inner||2,695||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Belconnen—SSD Bal||Non Urban||55||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Bonython||Cap City outer||3,430||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Braddon||Cap City Inner||3,093||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Bruce||Cap City Inner||2,525||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Calwell||Cap City outer||5,932||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Campbell||Cap City Inner||3,024||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chapman||Cap City middle||2,859||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Charnwood||Cap City outer||3,313||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chifley||Cap City middle||2,210||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Chisholm||Cap City outer||5,805||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|City (Canberra)||Cap City Inner||574||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Conder||Cap City outer||3,365||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Cook||Cap City Inner||2,814||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Curtin||Cap City Inner||5,004||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Deakin||Cap City Inner||2,577||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Dickson||Cap City Inner||2,037||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Downer||Cap City Inner||3,247||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Duffy||Cap City middle||3,312||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Dunlop||Cap City outer||706||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Duntroon||Cap City Inner||1,906||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Evatt||Cap City middle||5,969||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fadden||Cap City outer||3,463||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Farrer||Cap City middle||3,379||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fisher||Cap City middle||3,040||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Florey||Cap City middle||5,430||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Flynn||Cap City middle||3,760||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Forrest||Cap City Inner||1,365||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fraser||Cap City outer||2,307||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Fyshwick||Cap City Inner||68||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Garran||Cap City Inner||3,277||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gilmore||Cap City outer||3,111||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Giralang||Cap City middle||3,730||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gordon||Cap City outer||6,498||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||0.0||–|
|Gowrie||Cap City outer||3,485||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Greenway||Cap City outer||937||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Griffith||Cap City Inner||3,796||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Gungahlin-Hall—SSD Bal||Non Urban||45||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Hackett||Cap City Inner||2,907||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Harman||Cap City middle||227||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hawker||Cap City middle||2,890||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Higgins||Cap City middle||3,239||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Holder||Cap City middle||2,793||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Holt||Cap City outer||4,427||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Hughes||Cap City Inner||2,939||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Isaacs||Cap City middle||2,545||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Isabella Plains||Cap City outer||4,346||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kaleen||Cap City Inner||8,197||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kambah||Cap City outer||17,056||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Kingston (ACT)||Cap City Inner||1,600||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Latham||Cap City middle||3,925||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Lyneham||Cap City Inner||4,097||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Lyons||Cap City middle||2,618||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|McKellar||Cap City Inner||2,912||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Macarthur||Cap City outer||1,688||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Macgregor (ACT)||Cap City outer||3,745||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Macquarie||Cap City Inner||2,433||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mawson||Cap City middle||2,669||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Melba||Cap City middle||3,392||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Mitchell||Cap City Inner||6||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Monash||Cap City outer||5,740||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Narrabundah||Cap City Inner||5,629||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Ngunnawal||Cap City middle||4,409||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nicholls||Cap City middle||1,788||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Oaks EState||Cap City middle||312||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|O’Connor||Cap City Inner||4,916||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|O’Malley||Cap City middle||733||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Oxley (ACT)||Cap City outer||1,908||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Page||Cap City middle||2,547||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Palmerston||Cap City middle||5,157||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Parkes||Cap City Inner||6||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Pearce||Cap City middle||2,437||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Phillip||Cap City middle||1,691||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Red Hill (ACT)||Cap City Inner||3,104||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Reid||Cap City Inner||1,581||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Richardson||Cap City outer||3,585||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Rivett||Cap City middle||3,296||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Russell||Cap City Inner||0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Scullin||Cap City middle||2,930||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Spence||Cap City middle||2,882||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Stirling||Cap City middle||2,175||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Theodore||Cap City outer||4,093||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Torrens||Cap City middle||2,182||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Tuggeranong—SSD Bal||Non Urban||62||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Turner||Cap City Inner||1,848||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Wanniassa||Cap City outer||8,722||–||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Waramanga||Cap City middle||2,637||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Watson||Cap City Inner||3,748||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Weetangera||Cap City middle||2,611||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Weston||Cap City middle||3,298||–||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Weston Creek-Stromlo SSDBal||Non Urban||28||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Yarralumla||Cap City Inner||2,892||100.0||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Remainder of ACT||Non Urban||398||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Jervis Bay Territory||Non Urban||762||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–|
|Territory of Christmas Island||Pop < 2000||1,906||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–|
|Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Is||Pop < 2000||655||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||–||100.0||–||–|
- The urban localities have been derived from the ABS Urban Centre and Location (UCL) classification which allocates Collection Districts (CDs), which are the smallest geographic classification used by ABS, to urban centres and localities on the basis of population density and contiguity with similar CDs.
The key principle of the definition is that urban centres comprise contiguous CDs which have a population density of 200 persons or more per square kilometre. In addition, where the distance between localities is less than three kilometres—by road or train—they are considered to be contiguous. The separation of some related urban centres by distances more than three kilometres can result in some large agglomerations being treated as a series of smaller settlements. A case of this is the Sunshine Coast which does not appear as an urban centre although its components do.
Small localities require a non-farm population of at least 200 with a minimum of 40 occupied, non- farm dwellings and a ‘discernible urban street pattern’. [ABS 2909.0]
The allocations of SLAs to particular urban type has been based on the highest proportion of the population living in a single type of urban location. In most cases, this represents the majority of the population of the SLA, although this is not always the case. (See Attachment C)
- The classification of a capital city urban location does not necessarily match the more usual use of a capital city Statistical Division, which may include areas which it is anticipated may become urbanised over coming decades. In contrast, this definition only considers those areas currently urbanised. In addition, as urban localities are based upon contiguous dense settlement, their boundaries can go beyond more accepted definitions of locations.
An example of the variation is the urban centre of Sydney with a population of 3,354,908 compared with the more usual use of the Statistical District that has a population of 3,741,290. This is a consequence of SLAs, such as Wollondilly, Hawkesbury, Gosford and Wyong, being excluded from the UCL definition of Sydney as they do not form part of the continuous settlement of the Sydney region. They are, however, captured in the classification of urban locations within 75 kilometres of the CBD.
- It is not clear whether this growth reflects higher population growth per se, or higher levels of self- identification as being an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.
- The measure used is the average number of children living with their parent(s), regardless of the status or age of the children. While other measures, such as the number of dependent children, show a similar pattern, the count of all children is used to avoid distortion as a result of varying rates of educational participation. (The ABS measure of dependency only considers children over the age of 15 as being dependent if they are engaged in full-time study.)
- As the data relate to the characteristics of individuals by place of enumeration, these results reflect the residential location of employed persons and not the physical location of the jobs in which they work.
- In looking at both household and individual incomes, the data represent average gross income for those respondents with a non-negative and non-nil income, as recorded in the 1996 Census.
- It is important to note that the measure is essentially descriptive, with the ‘lower income’ referring to those households in the bottom 43.2 per cent of the income distribution, rather than a normative measure which suggests that the particular income cut off used represents a qualitatively ‘low’ income. The measure used is an approximated equivalised household income derived from the Census. As these data use grouped income ranges and detailed family composition was not available in the data source used, both the equivalising (which uses the OECD scale to adjust for household size and composition) and the cut off point (the lowest 43.2 per cent rather than more conventional measures such as the lower two quintiles, or below half median income) are broad approximations. In addition, there are a number of other limitations including its insensitivity to variance in living costs between locations and, in the way it needed to be calculated from grouped data, including using aggregate household composition estimates for equivalisation purposes.
- This Census classification includes ‘improvised housing’, tents and ‘sleepers out’.
- As such, each of the individual factors within components have been given an equal weighting in determining the ranking of the component, and each component has been given equal weighting in the combined ranking.
- Indeed, statistical testing shows relative low correlations between the individual measures. The most highly correlated measure were the labour market which had a strong positive correlation with income R = 0.789, and income support R = 0.639, and a negative correlation with housing R = –0.576.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1996, 1996 Census Dictionary Catalogue no. 2901.0, ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1997,‘Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Urban Centres/Localities’, 1996 Edition, Statistical Geography vol. 3, Catalogue no. 2909.0, ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), CDATA96, Final Release, Catalogue no. 2019.0.30.001, ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1998, Census of Population and Housing, Selected Characteristics for Urban Centres, Australia, Catalogue no. 2016.0, ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1998,‘Socio-economic indexes for areas’, 1996 Census of Population and Housing Information Paper, Catalogue no. 2039.0ABS.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 1999, 1996 Census, Labour Force Status, Census Working Paper 99/2, ABS.
Australian Taxation Office (ATO) 1998, Taxation Statistics 1996–97, ATO, Canberra.
Bray, J. R. & Mudd, W. 1998,‘The contribution of DSS payments to regional income’, DSS Technical Series Number 2, DSS.
Riley Research 1996,‘OSHC family preferences, specifically the child’s preferred care’, Consumer Research Study Report October 1995 to March 1996, Riley Research Pty Ltd, Sydney.
National Planning Advisory Committees (PACs) 1998,‘Feedback 1998’, Child Care Services Branch, Department of Family and Community Services, Canberra.