Number 8: Social indicators for regional Australia

This report was published by the former Department of Families, Community Services (FaCS).

Executive Summary

The purpose of this paper  is to examine a range  of social  measures to provide  an insight  into the relative outcomes of communities in different  parts of Australia. It is part of a project within the Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) to develop a comprehensive database to support needs  analysis. It primarily utilises 1996  Census  data, with  some administrative data also drawn  on to examine income support and some services.

The paper  does not use a specific definition of ‘Regional Australia’, but rather  reviews all regions of the nation  classified by State and Territory, and the characteristics of the location with respect to its urban  form and its relationship with  the State capital. Ten classifications have been used, each  of which represents those  Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) whose population is predominantly classified as living  in:

  •     the inner, middle  and outer  tiers of capital cities  (each  of these  represents one third of the locations within the capital);
  •     urban  centres or localities, within 75 kilometres of the capital cities;
  •     major non-capital cities  and towns;
  •     towns  of 40,000 people or more;
  •     towns  with  10,000 to 40,000 people;
  •     towns  with  2,000  to 10,000 people;
  •     towns, villages and localities of less than 2,000  people; and
  • non-urban  locations where most people do not live in any type  of urban  centre or locality.

The circumstances of these  locations are reviewed with  regard  to: demography; labour  force characteristics; income levels  and distribution; housing access, characteristics and costs; the role of income support payments; and the provision of childcare, and employment support services for persons with  disabilities. A number  of aggregate measures of social  outcome are also considered.

At the time of the 1996  Census, 57 per cent  of Australians lived in the capitals, with  a further 6.4 per cent  living  in towns  on the fringes  of these. The major non-capital cities  and other towns of more than 40,000 inhabitants accounted for a further  10.0  per cent. Nine per cent lived in towns  smaller  than these, but larger  than 10,000 people, with  7.4 per cent  living  in the next  group  of locations that included towns  of more than 2,000  people. Smaller  towns accounted for 1.8 per cent, with  the remaining 8.4 per cent  living  in non-urban  areas.

Key findings

Demography

Population growth has occurred across  all regions between 1986  and 1996, with  the exception of regions composed of small towns  of less than 2,000  people, many of which have lost population. The strongest growth was recorded in areas  immediately adjacent to State capitals. This growth was particularly strong  in Queensland, Western Australia  and Northern  Territory and weak  in South Australia, Tasmania  and the Australian  Capital  Territory.

There were particularly marked  differences in the location of migrants from non-English speaking countries by locations. This group  was predominantly located in Sydney  and Melbourne, and had a very low presence in smaller  towns  and cities, and in the Indigenous population which formed  a much  more significant share  of the population outside  of the capitals.

Analysis of population structures identified that non-urban  areas  had somewhat higher population dependency rates, in particular with  regard  to children, and had slightly higher numbers of children living  at home with  their  parents. The variation in sole parentage between locations was relatively low, although higher  rates were recorded in many of the larger non-capital locations as well  as inner  capital locations and lower rates in small towns  and non-urban  locations. While  people in smaller  towns  and locations had higher  numbers of people living  at the same address  as five years  earlier, the extent of the difference between these  areas and other  locations was not that great, with  an overall  picture of high geographic mobility emerging.

A very significant difference emerged, however, with  regard  to education, with  non-capital city locations showing very high levels  of relatively early  school  leaving, and low levels  of degree or higher  qualifications.

Labour market

Key differences between regions emerged with  respect to:

    industry composition and growth, with  the capital cities  having  a high proportion of employment in strongly growing sectors  such as finance and business services, and smaller centres having  a much  higher  proportion of their  employment in sectors  which lost employment, such as agriculture and mining. Notwithstanding this, some sectors  such as manufacturing showed growth outside  of the capitals, and decline within;

  • total employment: while all locations gained part-time  employment between 1986  and 1996, many lost full-time jobs. With the exception of small towns  of less than 2,000, all non-capital city locations showed some growth in total employment at the national level, although many locations in Victoria, South Australia  and Tasmania  lost employment;
  •  labour  force participation by women, which tended to be appreciably lower in smaller locations;
  • the level  of self-employment, which was much  stronger in country locations, especially small towns  and non-urban  locations; and
  • unemployment, which tended to be higher  in the larger  non-capital city locations, while durations were longest  in the smaller  towns.

Underlying these  were some strong  State trends, with  particularly poor outcomes in South Australia  and Tasmania.

Analysis of detailed service industry employment data suggests types  of government administration, education and community services are relatively evenly distributed across regions. In contrast, employment in health  was lower in smaller  locations—although there  was some evidence of larger  towns  playing a regional service role in this regard.

Income distribution

Incomes  in non-metropolitan areas, at both the individual and household level, tended to be lower than those  in the capitals, with  household incomes varying  between $914  per week in inner  suburbs  of the capitals to $675  in towns  of less than 2,000  people. This difference was also reflected in the proportion of equivalised ‘lower income’ households, which was around 10 to 15 percentage points  higher  outside  of the capitals. Notwithstanding this, most lower income households still lived in the capitals.

Income  distribution within locations was generally more equal  within the non-capital locations.

Findings  across  locations, however, need  to take into account some important State differences. In particular, there  were low levels  of income in South Australia  and Tasmania  across  all locations, while the non-metropolitan areas  in Western Australia  and Queensland recorded better outcomes than those  in other  States.

Housing

Differences between locations occurred with  regard  to the tenure, cost and form of housing. Rents, mortgages and home ownership rates were all higher  in the capitals than they  were in the remainder of States. While  rents and mortgage repayments tended to fall with  diminishing urban  centre size, home ownership rates tended to pick  up in the smaller  centres.

The major non-capital cities  and larger  towns  showed a number  of characteristics which differentiated them from other  locations; these  included high levels  of public housing, low levels  of home ownership, and in the major centres at least, moderate rent levels.

Smaller  locations, in addition  to their  lower costs, saw a relatively high incidence of alternative housing—either caravans or improvised housing. While  some of this may reflect  the nature  of the location and a flexible market  response to housing needs, it may give rise to some questions as to the adequacy of housing stock. The level  of public housing in small towns  and non-urban areas  is very low. The pattern of provision of this housing varied  considerably in different  States.

Transfer payments

Overall income support payments played a much  more important role in assisting people and families  outside  of the capitals. This was accentuated when  the financial value  of the assistance is considered relative to total income. While  some 15 per cent  of income in the capitals was derived from transfer  payments, this rose to 20 per cent  in other  areas. This was reflected within most payment types  with  capital cities  having  a below average rate of utilisation of all payment types  on a per capita  basis. The differences between similar  locations by State were even  more marked.

Some key features included: a very strong  division  between Sydney  and the balance of locations in NSW, poor outcomes for most payments in most locations of South Australia  and Tasmania, and in the middle  to larger  non-capital cities  in Queensland. With the exception of the band of locations around  Perth, Western Australian  outcomes were generally very good.

At the national level, there  was not a large  amount  of variation in the mix of payment types  by region. The most substantial differences related to the relative use of Newstart, Mature Age Allowance and Newstart Mature Age Allowance, family payments and a range  of small assistance programs.

FaCS services

FaCS is concerned with  the delivery and support of services including child  care  and employment support services for the disabled. Analysis shows  much  variation in the distribution of these, by both the nature  of the location and by State. There is a broad pattern of higher levels  of provision in the capital cities  with  some concentration within these  in the inner suburbs, and in the larger  non-capital locations relative to less urbanised localities. Interpretation of this must be tentative:

  • As the data are only benchmarked against  broad population aggregates, the extent to which this reflects variation in demand  cannot  be ascertained.
  • The higher  levels  of provision may, in part at least, reflect  the role of these  locations as regional service centres.

The promotion of access to services across  Australia  is identified, within each  program, as a high priority and initiatives are under  way  to both trial and develop approaches to enable services to be better  delivered, especially in rural and remote  locations.

Aggregate measures

The Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) has developed a number  of measures of socio-economic outcomes for locations. These, and an aggregate measure developed in the paper, show  a pattern of broadly  positive outcomes within capital cities, and poorer  outcomes in other  localities, especially smaller  towns  and non-urban  localities.

In addition, some important State characteristics emerge. Of note are the poor results  for Tasmania, and a tendency for Western Australia  non-capital city locations to show  more positive results  when  compared with  similar  locations in other  States.

The analysis also shows  some limitations in seeking to measure outcomes by a single  yardstick. Where  either  different  socio-economic indices are used, or the individual components of the aggregate measure is applied, a more complex picture emerges. Underlying this is that the causes of these  poor outcomes vary by location, with  few areas  recording consistently poor, or good, scores  across  all dimensions.

Conclusion

While  this paper  identifies higher  levels  of disadvantage and poorer  outcomes in many non-capital locations, there  are many diverse contributing factors. It concludes that in seeking to respond to these, the different  factors  that generate these  outcomes must be taken  into account. Most communities had both strengths and weaknesses, and recording a poor outcome in one area is not necessarily an indicator of a poor outcome against  other  measures.

Reflecting upon this, the paper  concludes that these  communities do not need  a generic form of ‘special area assistance’ but rather  that assistance needs  to focus on the particular circumstances of the location and the needs  of the individuals who  live there. This focus on individuals is also important, as, while many of these  areas  appear to have high levels  of needs, the proportion of people with  needs  who  actually live in the less advantaged areas  may be small. In addition, the needs  of an area may also be the reflection of a more widespread State-level  phenomenon. In such cases, the response would  appear to need  to be ‘State’ rather than ‘regionally’ based.

The issue  of service provision and access is important to all communities. While  this paper  only looks at a narrow band of these, the data highlight apparent low levels  of service provision in non-urban  locations and in smaller  towns.

The paper  suggests a need  for much  closer  consideration of the issues  associated with  access to service. It may be inappropriate to take the outcomes in some of the smallest locations at face value  without more detailed examination of the extent to which the higher  apparent service levels  in some larger  non-capital locations reflect  their  role as service centres for adjacent smaller locations.

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1 Introduction

1.1   Purpose

This paper  seeks  to provide  an insight  into the characteristics of regional Australia—with a particular focus on social  outcomes.

Specifically, it considers the relative outcomes of different  regions through the use of a range  of statistical indicators, identifying the extent to which systematic differences in outcomes occur for different  regions. In chapters 1 to 5, these  indicators are based  on 1996  Census  data, with Chapters 6 and 7 also utilising administrative data from the Department of Family and Community Services.

1.2   Approach

There is no consistent definition of ‘Regional Australia’, nor a single  set of consistent geographic classifications which permit  analysis of ‘regional outcomes’.

To assist in analysis of social  characteristics of regions, this paper  provides information on the basis of a regional classification, which considers two factors:

  • the relationship of locations to capital cities; and
  • the nature  of urbanisation of locations.

The basic  unit of analysis used is the Statistical Local Area (SLA). These are geographic areas defined  by the Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) and are used by the ABS in reporting small area data, such as that obtained from the Census. The areas  are either  whole Local Government Areas, or portions of these.

These areas  have been  used in this analysis as it is considered that:

  • Local Government Areas are geographic areas  that are relatively meaningful to people and relate  to areas  in terms  that are generally well  known. This is in contrast, for example, to data reported on the basis of postcode numbers which are difficult  to interpret without detailed mapping and cross reference to maps, town  names  and suburbs.
  • Local government is an important deliverer of community and other  services.

In the paper, these  SLAs have been  grouped on the basis of the main urban  form of each locality1 into:

  • the inner  tier of capital cities  (those  areas  which, on the basis of their  population, comprise approximately the one-third  of SLAs within each  capital city, as defined  under  the ABS urban centre classification,2 closest  to the Central  Business  District (CBD) of the capital);
  • the middle  tier of locations within capital cities  (representing a second  one-third  of the capital city population);
  • the outer  tier of locations, which account for the remaining one third of capital city population;
  • those  locations, identified by the ABS as urban  centres or localities, which, while outside  of the boundaries of the capitals, are within 75 kilometres (straight line)  of the CBD;
  • major non-capital city towns. (This classification comprises Wollongong, Newcastle, Geelong, Toowoomba, Gold Coast, Townsville, Cairns and Launceston.); those  other  SLAs where most of the population live in a town  of 40,000 or more;
  • those  where most of the population live in towns  with  10,000 to 40,000 inhabitants;
  • those  where most of the population live in towns  with  populations of 2,000  to 10,000 persons;
  • those  where most of the population live in towns, villages and localities of less than 2,000  persons; and
  • those  locations where most people do not live in any type  of urban  centre or locality.
Table1.1: Distribution of population by State and type of location,1996
  State
NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas NT ACT Aust.
Location Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop % Pop %
Capital City—Inner tier 1,153,004 19.2 967,775 22.2 405,902 12.2 347,851 20.3 324,468 22.8 46,372 10.1 22,490 11.9 94,908 31.9 3,362,770

18.9

Capital City—Middle tier 1,066,738 17.8 944,417 21.7 430,413 13.0 375,566 21.9 363,222 25.5 47,364 10.3 20,634 10.9 99,233 33.4 3,347,587

18.9

Capital City—Outer tier 1,135,166 18.9 948,077 21.8 434,913 13.1 424,068 24.8 300,299 21.1 43,001 9.4 26,944 14.2 100,849 33.9 3,413,317

19.2

Within 75km 350,625 5.8 295,152 6.8 154,331 4.6 124,075 7.2 124,584 8.8 52,655 11.5 26,136 13.8 320 0.1 1,127,878

6.4

Major non-Capital 531,590 8.9 145,627 3.3 563,231 17.0 83,281 18.2 1,323,729

7.5

Town Pop 40,000+ 146,945 2.5 142,476 3.3 162,238 4.9 451,659

2.5

Town Pop 10,000–40,000 700,585 11.7 275,491 6.3 291,224 8.8 171,713 10.0 85,916 6.0 40,949 8.9 23,108 12.2 1,588,986

9.0

Town Pop 2,000–10,000 622,404 10.4 170,218 3.9 293,312 8.8 118,950 6.9 49,784 3.5 40,390 8.8 21,544 11.4 1,316,602

7.4

Town Pop <2,000 86,912 1.4 40,521 0.9 37,665 1.1 64,248 3.8 37,805 2.7 25,882 5.6 25,324 13.4 318,357

1.8

Non Urban 198,997 3.3 423,647 9.7 543,710 16.4 83,657 4.9 135,937 9.6 78,091 17.0 22,769 12.0 1,870 0.6 1,488,678

8.4

Offshore 2,582 0.0 730 0.0 2249 0.1 2,893 0.2 525 0.0 613 0.1 419 0.2 10,011

0.1

Total 5,995,548 100 4,354,131 100 3,319,188 100 1,713,021 100 1,422,540 100 458,598 100 189,368 100 297,180 100 17,749,574 100

Attachment C provides a full listing  of SLAs, the type  of location to which they  have been assigned, and the distribution of their  population between the types  of locality.

The derivation of the cut off points  for these  classifications is essentially arbitrary and each classification does not necessarily represent an equal  proportion of the population. While, for example, SLAs with  population mainly  in urban  locations of less than 2,000  account for less than 2 per cent  of the total Australian  population, 13.4  per cent  of Northern  Territorians and 5.6 per cent  of Tasmanians live in such settlements.

It should  also be noted  that the allocation of locations to particular categories not only reflects the degree and nature  of urbanisation but also the structure of local  governments. In those states where it is common  to have separate local  government authorities for towns  and their surrounding regions (or even, as the SLA boundaries often reflect  historical structures such arrangements have adjusted in the past), there  is a tendency for the population to be more highly  polarised into urban  and non-urban  locations.

As illustrated in Table 1.1, Australians (57.0  per cent)  largely lived in the capital cities  with  a further  6.4 per cent  living  in SLAs within 75 kilometres of the centre of these cities.

A further  7.5 per cent  lived in the eight  identified major non-capital cities. Of the remaining 29.1  per cent:

  • 9.0 per cent  lived in SLAs which mainly  comprise towns  of between 10,000 and 40,000 people;
  • 8.4 per cent  lived in locations which were largely non-urban;
  • 7.4 per cent  lived in localities which comprise towns  of 2,000  to 10,000 people; and
  • the balance lived either  in areas  consisting of towns  of more than 40,000 (2.5  per cent)  or towns  of less than 2,000  (1.8  per cent).

The roles of these  different  locations varied  between States. Victoria, Western Australia  and South Australia  had a disproportionately higher  proportion of their  population in capital cities, while the converse was the case in Queensland, Tasmania  and the Northern  Territory.

Major non-capital city locations were particularly important in Queensland and Tasmania. In contrast, they  were absent  in Western Australia  and South Australia. Non-urban locations are most important in Tasmania  and Queensland but also played important roles in the Northern Territory, Victoria  and South Australia.

The distribution of population in New South Wales  generally reflected the national structure, except for its very small non-urban  population and a corresponding larger  proportion of population in towns  of 2,000  to 40,000 people.

Attachment B to this paper  provides maps of the distribution of locations by State.

1.3   Focus of the paper

In providing some social  indicators on these  locations, including with  respect to their  access to social  infrastructure, the outcomes for these  different  locations will  be considered in this paper with  regard  to:

  • demography, population structure and growth;
  • labour  force characteristics including the role of government and community service employment;
  • income levels  and distribution;
  • housing access, characteristics and costs;
  • the role of income support payments;

    These primarily relate  to income support programs within the Family and Community Services Portfolio, for which FaCS is responsible and which are delivered by Centrelink; and
     
  • the provision of childcare and employment support services for persons with  disabilities.

    These two groups  of services are two of the major service provision programs implemented by FaCS, and have a direct  impact  on the capacity of persons to participate in economic activity.

As indicators, the information set out in this paper  does not seek  to provide  detailed analysis of the factors  behind  the different  outcomes, or policy conclusions (including program evaluations and performance measurement), but rather  seeks  to inform decision making  and analysis.

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2 Demography

This section considers some of the factors  that underlie the overall  settlement pattern of Australia, as discussed above, and illustrated in Table 1.1.

2.1   Population growth

The Australian  population increased by 13.9  per cent  over the decade to 1996. This growth, as shown  in Table 2.1, varied  by location. However, with  the exception of inner  and middle  tiers of the capital cities, and locations with  centres of less than 2,000, the aggregate national rate of growth for all types  of locations exceeded 10 per cent.

Most marked  was the growth in those  areas  just outside  of capital cities. Here the population grew  by 47.2  per cent  nationally and accounted for 16.4  per cent  of the overall  increase of the Australian  population. The growth rate in these  locations in Queensland and in the Northern Territory  was around  double  the national rate with Western Australia  recording a rate of over 1.5 times above the national average. This growth in Western Australia  accounted for 2.4 per cent  of the national population increase (Table  2.2), with  the equivalent regions around both Sydney  and Melbourne each  contributing 4.1 per cent, and around  Brisbane, 3.7 per cent.

Though  population growth was most rapid  in urban  centres around  the capital cities, as a relative share  of the population change, growth was concentrated in the outer  tiers of the capitals. Such growth in Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Brisbane  accounted for 7.9, 6.9, 6.2 and 4.6 per cent  of national growth respectively. Similarly, high contributions to national growth were also recorded for non-urban  Queensland, 6.8 per cent, and, at 4.8 per cent  and 4.3 per cent  respectively, in New South Wales  and Queensland towns  of 10,000 to 40,000.

It can be considered that this likely  level  of growth would  place  a high demand  on the provision of infrastructure services in these  rapidly growing areas.

Unlike the positive picture of population growth recorded for most locations, locations consisting of small towns  of under  2,000  inhabitants experienced population declines in all States except Western Australia  and the Northern  Territory. In the Territory, these  towns, along with  towns  of 2,000  to 10,000, grew  very quickly.

The rate of decline in these  small towns  was strongest in South Australia  followed by Victoria and Tasmania. South Australia  and Tasmania  also recorded a fall in the population living  in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people, although, in contrast, these  grew  strongly in Queensland.

The pattern of non-urban  growth varied  between States, with  a particularly high rate, 37.8  per cent, recorded in Queensland. (It is possible that the data for this region  may disguise variance between the urbanisation of non-urban  locations close  to the capital, and other  major population centres, and more remote  localities.)

With respect to capital cities, growth in the inner  cities  was very slow  or sluggish compared to the faster growth of the other  parts of the city, particularly the out-skirts of the city. Of particular note is the population decline of the inner  cities  of Melbourne, Adelaide  and Hobart compared to the high growth of Darwin. This pattern reflects the level  of urbanisation in these locations which have resulted in there  being  little  land for development, with  reliance rather  on redevelopment such as adoption of higher  density housing forms balanced against  the impact of falling household size which reduces the overall  population density within an area.

Table 2.1: Population growth rate (percentage growth), 1986–1996a,b
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 2.3 –1.1 5.8 4.8 –2.1 –1.7 18.3 4.9 1.6
Cap City—Middle 6.8 5.0 23.0 18.3 7.6 1.1 0.8 –6.1 8.9
Cap City—Outer 18.1 19.2 30.2 47.2 14.2 5.3 3.4 21.8 22.3
Within  75k of Cap. 35.0 43.7 115.2 74.8 22.8 22.7 93.3 11.9 47.2
Major non-Capital 7.6 4.3 33.4 8.9 16.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 11.1 8.1 14.0 11.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 17.7 6.9 48.8 20.1 –5.2 –3.5 12.0 18.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 13.7 1.8 20.6 7.7 4.8 5.0 45.8 12.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 –2.9 –4.0 –1.8 4.2 –7.2 –3.6 33.3 0.0
Non-Urban 16.7 9.1 37.8 13.2 3.9 6.8 14.9 –10.7 18.8
Total 11.4 8.6 28.7 22.3 5.7 5.3 22.9 5.1 13.9

Notes
a   More detailed descriptions of the tables, the definition of variables and the source of data are provided in Attachment A.
b   A standard  deviation is a statistical measure of the spread  of observations around  the populations mean (average).
It provides a method  for identifying those observations which are furthest  away  from the mean. As a statistical measure of significance, it relies  upon the population to which the data relates being  distributed normally. This is not the case with  many of the variables being  examined in this paper  where the distribution is often skewed. (For example, with  a large  number  of ‘low’ observations just below the mean, and a small number  of very ‘high’ observations well  above the mean.)
Such skewing can result, for example, in a large  number  of observations being  more than one standard  deviation above the mean and few, if any, below. For this reason, the measure should  not be applied as a statistical test of significance as to the difference between locations but rather  as a more general indicator of the spread  of outcomes.

 

Table 2.2: Distribution of population growth, 1986–1996
  Cap. City–Inner Cap. City–Middle Cap. City–Outer Within 75k of Capital Major non- Capital Town Pop.40,000+ Town Pop.10,000–40,000 Town Pop.2,000–10,000 TownPop< 2,000 Non- Urban Total
New South Wales
Number 24,603 68,166 174,078 90,900 37,683 14,695 105,202 75,174 –2,568 28,439 614,473
% State 4.0 11.1 28.3 14.8 6.1 2.4 17.1 12.2 –0.4 4.6 100.0
% Australia 1.1 3.1 7.9 4.1 1.7 0.7 4.8 3.4 –0.1 1.3 27.8
Victoria
Number –11,202 45,100 152,850 89,692 6,039 10,679 17,874 2,979 –1,676 35,295 345,311
% State –3.2 13.1 44.3 26.0 1.7 3.1 5.2 0.9 –0.5 10.2 100.0
% Australia –0.5 2.0 6.9 4.1 0.3 0.5 0.8 0.1 –0.1 1.6 15.6
Queensland
Number 21,964 80,559 100,875 82,595 146,984 19,892 95,331 49,961 –720 149,087 746,511
% State 2.9 10.8 13.5 11.1 19.7 2.7 12.8 6.7 –0.1 20.0 100.0
% Australia 1.0 3.6 4.6 3.7 6.7 0.9 4.3 2.3 0.0 6.8 33.8
Western Australia
Number 16,015 57,994 136,003 53,086 28,808 8,535 2,582 9,775 312,972
% State                      5.1         18.5          43.5         17.0             –              –            9.2            2.7           0.8           3.1        100.0
% Australia 0.7 2.6 6.2 2.4 1.3 0.4 0.1 0.4 14.2
South Australia
Number –7,098 25,690 37,379 23,133 –4,693 4,807 –2,932 5,153 79,770
% State –8.9 32.2 46.9 29.0 –5.9 6.0 –3.7 6.5 100.0
% Australia –0.3 1.2 1.7 1.0 –0.2 0.2 –0.1 0.2 3.6
Tasmania
Number –821 534 2,152 9,744 6,795 –1,487 1,926 –967 4,953 22,996
% State –3.6 2.3 9.4 42.4 29.5 –6.5 8.4 –4.2 21.5 100.0
% Australia 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.3 –0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 1.0
Northern Territory
Number 3,468 169 870 12,619 2,495 6,751 6,336 3,704 36,053
% State 9.6 0.5 2.4 35.0 6.9 18.7 17.6 10.3 100.0
% Australia 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.6
Aust. Capital Territory
Number 4,358 8,876 36,446 34 –227 49,487
% State 8.8 17.9 73.6 0.1 –0.5 100.0
% Australia 0.2 0.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 2.2
Australia
Number 51,287 287,088 640,653 361,803 197,501 45,266 243,530 150,133 55 236,179   2,207,573
% Australia 2.3 13.0 29.0 16.4 8.9 2.1 11.0 6.8 0.0 10.7         100.0

Population change since 1996

While  population growth since  1996  largely reflects the patterns of the growth in the previous decade, a number  of changes have occurred. At a regional level, the balance between the growth rates of different  areas  of capital cities  has become much  more muted, with  the relatively low inner  urban  growth rate having  increased appreciably. Specifically, the negative growth in Melbourne and Adelaide  has been  replaced by a small positive growth. The low growth rate of Tasmania  has been  transformed into a decline that has affected  almost all areas  of the State.

Table 2.3: Population growth, 1996–1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 2.1 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 -0.8 5.9 -0.8 1.7
Cap. City—Middle 3.1 2.0 5.0 2.8 0.7 -0.8 -1.0 1.4 2.6
Cap. City—Outer 2.7 3.5 2.1 5.4 1.0 -0.7 -2.1 -0.5 2.8
Within 75k of Cap. 3.7 3.9 7.1 7.2 2.6 0.7 6.9 5.2 4.4
Major non-Capital 1.8 1.3 3.0 - - -0.5 - - 2.4
Town Pop. 40,000+ 1.8 1.7 1.7 - - - - - 1.7
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 1.7 1.6 4.7 5.1 -0.6 -1.2 1.9 - 2.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.1 0.0 2.2 3.6 2.1 -0.4 2.5 - 1.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 -1.7 -1.0 -2.2 1.8 -2.0 -1.7 3.8 - -0.6
Non-Urban 0.5 1.1 4.8 3.0 0.6 -0.3 20.9 -1.6 2.6
Total 2.2 2.2 3.5 3.8 0.9 -0.5 4.5 0.1 2.4

Similarly, small towns  of less than 2,000  inhabitants, which had previously just maintained their population, in aggregate, now  are recording a decline as the growth in these  towns  in Western Australia  and the Northern  Territory  is no longer  able to outweigh the falls in population in the other  States.

At a State level, the ranking  of the fastest growing States has changed; Queensland has moved from first ranking  to third, switching places with  the Northern  Territory. Western Australia  has maintained its ranking  as number  two.

2.2   Population composition

Child and old-age dependency rates provide  a measure of the relative size of the main components of the population (children—aged under  15 years, the working-age population— aged  15 to 64 years, and the old age population—those aged  65 years  and over).

The child  dependency rate in 1996  illustrated in Table 2.4 shows  some clear  patterns:

  • low levels  of child  dependency in the inner  part of capital cities, with  the rate increasing as one moves out from the inner  to the outer  ring of the city;
  • higher  rates in the outer  part of these  cities  and especially in the immediately adjoining locations within 75 kilometres of the capital; and
  • high rates in non-urban  locations and in towns  with  populations of less than 10,000. The nature  of this pattern tended to vary between States—with some States recording higher rates in the larger  of these  towns  and others  in the smaller.

Of particular interest, in a number  of these  less urbanised locations, high child  dependency rates are recorded for locations that have experienced population falls over recent years. Examples  of this include small towns  of under  2,000  inhabitants in South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and to a lesser  degree, New South Wales  and Queensland, and in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 population in South Australia  and Tasmania. This pattern would  be consistent with people moving  out of the area upon reaching workforce age. The extent of this, however, has not been  able to be fully established in this paper.

Table 2.4: Children to working age dependency ratio, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 21.9 22.6 21.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 21.5 24.9 22.4
Cap. City—Middle 31.0 29.4 31.4 30.8 30.3 34.9 28.6 28.7 30.5
Cap. City—Outer 36.9 34.9 39.0 38.4 35.0 32.9 37.2 43.2 36.8
Within 75k of Cap. 38.7 42.8 39.9 41.4 36.2 42.8 42.4 37.4 40.3
Major non-Capital 32.1 32.2 29.1 - - 32.6 - - 30.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 37.0 35.1 35.6 - - - - - 35.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 36.6 37.5 33.9 36.9 36.6 35.4 36.1 - 36.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 38.8 37.8 36.6 39.0 36.4 37.1 34.7 - 37.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 37.0 37.8 35.6 36.5 39.2 39.0 53.4 - 38.5
Non-Urban 37.9 38.6 38.9 38.1 36.7 39.0 37.0 36.1 38.4
Total 32.6 31.9 33.2 33.5 31.6 35.1 36.3 32.3 32.6

The pattern of old-age dependency is less consistent, and has some distinct State characteristics, although overall  non-capital city locations had higher  levels  of aged  dependency than most parts of the capital cities. Lower old-age dependency ratios were found in the outer  rings of all capital cities  except Hobart and in the non-urban  localities of the Northern  Territory, Western Australia, Queensland and Tasmania. The low old-age dependency ratios of these  non-urban localities and the small towns  of the Northern  Territory, Western Australia  and Queensland correspond to the relatively high proportion of Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  people in these  areas  and this population’s young  age structure. A further  factor in this pattern may be older  people moving  from farms to local  towns  when  they  retire.

As noted, there  were distinct differences in the overall  outcomes between States, with  South Australia, New South Wales  and Tasmania  having  age dependency rates above the national average and Western Australia, the Northern  Territory  and the Australian  Capital  Territory  being well  below.

In New South Wales, the highest levels  of older-aged dependency, one-third  above the national average, were recorded in locations of towns  of between 2,000  and 40,000 inhabitants, and in locations adjacent to Sydney. Victoria  showed higher  levels  of old-age dependency in most of its non-capital city locations—most markedly in very small towns  and those  between 2,000  and 10,000. In Queensland, there  were higher  concentrations in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people and in South Australia  in the smaller  towns  and in the inner  part of Adelaide.

Taking both of these  dependency rates together, the picture (Table  2.6)  becomes more consistent with  towns  of less than 40,000 persons, in most cases, showing markedly higher levels  of dependency, along  with  the ring of locations adjacent to State capitals.

Table 2.5: Old-age to working age dependency ratio, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 19.1 20.9 20.9 21.7 28.0 20.3 9.7 16.5 20.8
Cap. City—Middle 19.6 17.3 15.2 16.3 18.8 19.1 6.1 9.1 17.5
Cap. City—Outer 12.0 14.4 13.5 10.9 18.1 23.5 5.3 4.8 13.1
Within 75k of Cap. 24.3 12.4 17.8 19.6 22.0 14.1 6.3 6.8 18.5
Major non-Capital 21.2 20.9 21.6 - - 20.3 - - 21.3
Town Pop. 40,000+ 16.2 21.1 20.1 - - - - - 19.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 24.1 20.2 26.6 14.4 17.9 20.7 6.9 - 22.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 24.8 24.8 17.4 14.2 22.1 21.2 7.2 - 21.6
Town Pop. < 2,000 21.5 28.4 16.6 14.1 24.8 18.6 5.5 - 19.0
Non-Urban 18.0 18.7 14.4 11.9 18.3 15.9 9.2 7.6 16.3
Total 19.3 18.1 18.2 15.7 21.2 19.0 7.0 10.1 18.3

 

Table 2.6: Combined child and age dependency rates, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 2.1 2.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 -0.8 5.9 -0.8 1.7
Cap. City—Middle 3.1 2.0 5.0 2.8 0.7 -0.8 -1.0 1.4 2.6
Cap. City—Outer 2.7 3.5 2.1 5.4 1.0 -0.7 -2.1 -0.5 2.8
Within 75k of Cap. 3.7 3.9 7.1 7.2 2.6 0.7 6.9 5.2 4.4
Major non-Capital 1.8 1.3 3.0 - - -0.5 - - 2.4
Town Pop. 40,000+ 1.8 1.7 1.7 - - - - - 1.7
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 1.7 1.6 4.7 5.1 -0.6 -1.2 1.9 - 2.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.1 0.0 2.2 3.6 2.1 -0.4 2.5 - 1.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 -1.7 -1.0 -2.2 1.8 -2.0 -1.7 3.8 - -0.6
Non-Urban 0.5 1.1 4.8 3.0 0.6 -0.3 20.9 -1.6 2.6
Total 2.2 2.2 3.5 3.8 0.9 -0.5 4.5 0.1 2.4

The extent of these  higher  dependency rates is large—with the rate being  more than 10 percentage points  higher  than the national average in locations such as: the areas surrounding Sydney  and Perth, towns  of 2,000–40,000 in New South Wales, towns  of less than 10,000 in Victoria, and small towns  in South Australia.

Such high concentrations are likely  to place  a heavy  demand  upon the social  infrastructure of these  communities.

2.3   High needs groups

Two groups  with  well-identified needs  for strong  social  infrastructure are Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  peoples and migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds.

Indigenous Australians

Although  Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  peoples accounted for 2.0 per cent  of the nation’s  population in 1996, Indigenous Australians represented a much  more significant proportion of the population in many regions of Australia, in particular in non-capital city locations.

In the Northern  Territory, the Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  populations constituted 24.4  per cent  of the population, and accounted for 7.3 per cent  of people living  in inner Darwin, rising  to 50.7  per cent  in non-urban  localities and 74.3  per cent  in centres of less than 2,000  people.

Following the Northern  Territory, towns  of less than 2,000  in Queensland had the highest proportion, followed by non-capital city towns  and non-urban  localities of Western Australia, with  the exception of towns  of less than 2,000. New South Wales  also had higher  proportions of Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  people in towns  of under  2,000  population. The low proportion in Western Australia  for this particular type  of settlement appears to reflect  the nature  of many of these  locations as mining  communities.

Notwithstanding the high Indigenous proportion of the population in the Northern  Territory, only 13.1  per cent  of Australia’s Indigenous population lived in the Territory. This compares with 28.8  per cent  living  in New South Wales  (7.3  per cent  in towns  with  populations between 2,000  and 10,000 and 5.8 per cent  in towns  with  populations between 10,000 and 40,000). Queensland had 27.1  per cent  (6.4  per cent  in non-urban  areas  and 4.7 per cent  in major non- capitals), and Western Australia  had 14.4  per cent  (3.4  per cent  in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people and 3.3 per cent  in towns  with  populations between 2,000  and 10,000). Overall 26.8  per cent  lived in the capital cities, 15.7  per cent  in non-urban  areas, and 9.8 per cent  in small towns  and settlements of less than 2,000  people.

The Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  population experienced rapid  growth of 54.6  per cent between 1986  and 1996  compared to 13.9  per cent  for the general population.3Strong Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  population growth was observed in urban  areas  close  to capital cities, in the outer  zones of capital cities  (except in Darwin  and Adelaide) and in major non-capitals. In the capital cities, there  was slower growth in the inner  rings. South Australia recorded highest Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  growth in middle  Adelaide  and in locations within 75 kilometres of Adelaide.

Although  Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  growth outside  capital cities  and major non-capital cities  was slower, there  were important differences. In the towns  of under 40,000 population and non-urban  localities, Tasmania  stood up as showing the highest growth.

Table 2.7: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population as a proportion of total population, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 0.7 0.4 1.2 1.4 0.9 1.2 7.3 1.0 0.8
Cap City—Middle 0.6 0.3 1.3 1.3 0.8 2.4 7.9 0.8 0.8
Cap City—Outer 1.3 0.3 2.1 1.4 1.1 3.1 8.9 1.1 1.2
Within  75k of Cap. 1.3 0.5 1.6 1.8 1.0 3.2 10.1 0.0 1.5
Major non-Capital 1.5 0.6 3.0 2.0 2.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 2.0 0.8 4.0 2.3
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 2.9 1.5 2.5 7.0 4.1 3.6 14.8 - 3.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 4.2 0.7 5.3 9.9 3.5 4.5 19.3 - 4.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 7.2 0.4 14.8 4.0 1.8 2.5 74.3 - 10.9
Non-Urban 1.9 0.7 4.2 7.9 3.0 4.5 50.7 1.7 3.7
Total 1.7 0.5 2.9 3.0 1.4 3.0 24.4 1.0 2.0

 

Table 2.8: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population growth (percentage change) 1986–1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 58.5 29.9 39.7 42.9 33.2 89.4 36.2 174.5 46.5
Cap City—Middle 84.8 88.4 65.5 51.1 101.0 71.1 5.8 94.4 67.5
Cap City—Outer 83.8 108.7 119.8 106.8 56.4 184.7 18.5 127.5 89.6
Within  75k of Cap. 175.4 134.1 285.9 220.5 100.8 130.5 103.6 159.7
Major non-Capital 124.1 102.5 66.1 87.1 82.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 76.9 79.0 70.4 73.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 88.7 50.8 75.1 34.8 34.9 89.9 16.8 58.6
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 48.6 72.9 37.5 20.5 43.9 94.2 71.6 42.0
Town Pop. < 2,000 24.3 30.6 6.5 –4.5 –4.1 95.2 44.0 27.7
Non-Urban 90.4 82.8 44.4 5.0 16.8 119.6 12.5 –62.5 34.7
Total 72.0 69.9 55.4 34.3 42.0 106.6 33.1 129.6 54.6

Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  population growth was also high in all towns  with  a population of 40,000 or more and in New South Wales, and in Queensland in towns  with  a population of 10,000 to 40,000. Growth also occurred in towns  with  population of 2,000  to 10,000 in Victoria  and the Northern  Territory, and in non-urban  localities of New South Wales and Victoria.

However, Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  population growth was not universal. There were declines in the towns  of less than 2,000  population in Western Australia  and South Australia. There was hardly  any growth in the middle  portion  of Darwin, in towns  of under  2,000 population in Queensland and in non-urban  localities of Western Australia.

These data suggest that there  is a need  for strong  social  infrastructure support in a diverse range  of locations but in particular in small centres in the Northern  Territory, Queensland and Western Australia.

Migrants born in non-English speaking countries

The data in Table 2.9 show  a wide  divide  between capital cities  and other  areas  of Australia  in regard  to the composition of the population when  the country of origin  of migrants is considered. Migrants  from non-English speaking countries were highly  concentrated in capital cities  and in their  centres. The proportion of total population from non-English speaking backgrounds declined from: inner  to outer  rings of capital cities; from capital cities  to major non-capitals; and from major non-capitals to smaller  towns. Comparatively, the population of Australia, outside  the capitals, contained only a small proportion of migrants from non-English speaking countries. Indeed, two cities  accounted for 62.4  per cent  of this population—Sydney (34.6  per cent)  and Melbourne (27.8  per cent).

Although  13.3  per cent  of Australians were from a non-English speaking background, this figure varied  markedly from 2.7 per cent  in towns  of under  2,000  population and about 4 to 5 per cent  in non-urban  localities and towns  of over 2,000, to 22.5  per cent  in the inner capital cities.

Over the decade to 1996, there  was particularly rapid  growth in this population in urban  areas close  to Brisbane, Darwin, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, and in the middle  and outer  parts of Brisbane  and Sydney, as well  as the outer  parts of Perth and Melbourne (Table  2.10). There was also relatively rapid  growth in the number  of migrants from non-English speaking countries in Queensland in the major non-capitals and in towns  with  populations of 10,000 to 40,000. The growth of this group  in Queensland was from a relatively low base, especially when  compared with  the share  of the population this group  represents in New South Wales  and Victoria. In total, Sydney  accounted for 42.4  per cent  of the increase in this population over the decade.

In contrast, there  were declines of non-English speaking background population in some of the small towns  of under  40,000 population in Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern  Territory.

These data suggest that the need  for infrastructure to meet  the needs  of this population is primarily within State capitals. The pattern of growth indicates that there  is a need  for some attention also to be given  in the country towns  of New South Wales  and in Queensland.

Table 2.9: Migrants  from  non-English speaking backgrounds as a proportion of the total population, 1996 (%)

Table 2.9: Migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds as a proportion of the total population, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 28.5 24.4 11.2 19.7 17.3 8.4 10.4 15.7 22.5
Cap City—Middle 23.9 27.5 12.3 15.7 13.5 3.0 14.3 14.4 20.7
Cap City—Outer 20.6 16.9 7.6 11.2 8.7 5.9 17.3 11.6 15.2
Within  75k of Cap. 4.8 8.7 5.4 5.5 4.6 3.7 7.3 4.4 6.0
Major non-Capital 9.7 11.3 7.9 4.4 8.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 4.0 3.1 3.4 3.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 3.9 6.2 4.8 5.4 5.3 2.5 5.3 4.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 3.2 3.6 4.2 4.9 6.1 2.5 5.9 3.8
Town Pop. < 2,000 2.7 2.1 2.6 3.8 2.3 2.3 1.6 2.7
Non-Urban 3.1 4.3 4.5 3.6 3.9 2.4 2.7 5.0 4.0
Total 15.8 17.1 7.3 11.8 10.6 3.9 8.1 13.8 13.3

 

Table 2.10: Migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds population growth (percentage change) 1986–1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 20.6 6.2 32.9 24.0 2.4 4.6 13.7 10.3 14.8
Cap City—Middle 64.1 27.9 87.1 50.1 22.2 4.2 7.3 2.3 43.6
Cap City—Outer 60.9 54.1 64.7 59.3 15.1 13.4 3.3 14.6 53.7
Within  75k of Cap. 58.2 80.9 136.7 72.5 12.3 26.2 84.2 0.0 68.2
Major non-Capital 5.2 –0.7 91.6 27.7 26.6
Town Pop. 40,000+ 9.0 5.7 34.1 15.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 25.4 –2.0 69.3 4.9 –20.2 1.6 5.8 16.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 29.0 –0.6 19.8 –18.8 2.1 0.1 24.0 12.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 3.6 9.9 19.3 –0.2 –15.1 –14.8 –17.6 –0.4
Non-Urban 35.1 12.7 52.4 21.8 4.5 10.7 –3.3 –19.0 27.8
Total 38.8 23.1 62.2 35.3 9.6 11.2 12.5 8.3 31.9

2.4   Families

Three indicators were selected to describe the situation of families  in regional Australia.These are: the proportions of all families  with  children that are sole-parent families, the average number  of children per family, and the proportion of married women in de facto marriages.

Nation-wide  in 1996, families  headed by a sole parent  accounted for 22.6  per cent  of all families with  children. The rates of sole parentage, however, showed some quite  strong  regional patterns with  a number  of distinct clusters. These included high levels  in:

  • inner  capital cities  in all of the States and within some States another, generally less marked concentration in the outer  ring of these  cities;
  • in Queensland, major non-capital cities  and towns  with  populations of over 10,000, in Victoria  in towns  of over 40,000 people and in Tasmania  in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000;
  • towns  of under  2,000  population and non-urban  localities of the Northern  Territory, which is likely  to be associated with  the strong  Indigenous communities.

In contrast, the rates of sole parentage in small towns  and in non-urban  areas  were generally relatively low, in a number  of cases  being  only two-thirds, or even  half as high as that in inner capital city zones.

However, even  where the overall  rate is relatively low, it represented a minimum of one in six families  with  children. This rose in other  locations to close  to one in three  families. To the extent such families  do need  particular social  infrastructure this would  suggest a need  for a wide  geographic spread, with  some focus on larger  non-capital cities  and in the inner  areas  of capital cities.

Table 2.11: Sole-parent families as a proportion of all families with children, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 25.1 25.6 29.1 28.1 27.0 27.5 25.2 27.2 26.3
Cap City—Middle 20.4 20.2 21.6 23.2 22.4 24.0 25.3 21.7 21.1
Cap City—Outer 21.2 19.8 25.0 19.1 25.8 30.0 23.9 20.1 21.5
Within  75k of Cap. 24.0 19.0 22.0 23.0 21.7 23.1 24.3 5.2 22.0
Major non-Capital 24.5 24.5 27.5 25.6 25.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 25.1 27.1 26.0 26.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 25.3 24.7 25.8 22.1 25.2 27.6 23.8 25.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 24.0 23.0 20.1 19.4 19.9 21.8 20.3 22.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 20.0 18.1 20.5 14.9 17.2 18.2 31.1 19.2
Non-Urban 18.9 16.7 17.1 15.5 14.7 17.0 27.9 13.8 17.0
Total 22.9 21.4 23.4 21.9 23.3 23.6 25.2 22.4 22.6

De facto marriages constituted 10.0  per cent  of all marriages in 1996. De facto marriage rates of double  the national average were common  in all localities of the Northern Territory, except in outer  Darwin, towns  with  fewer  than 2,000  population and in non-urban  localities.

While  above-average rates were observed in the inner  parts of capital cities, rates were much lower than the average in the middle  and outer  parts of most cities, with  some exceptions. A higher  rate of de facto marriages was found in the towns  of under  40,000 population in Western Australia  and Queensland, and in the major non-capitals of Queensland. Victoria  had the lowest de facto marriages in all its localities except inner  Melbourne. New South Wales  also had low rates in the middle  and outer  parts of Sydney, the urban  centres around  it and in the major non-capitals.

Table 2.12: Proportion of marriages which are de facto relationships, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 12.5 11.0 14.1 12.8 9.9 12.4 22.7 12.8 12.1
Cap City—Middle 6.5 5.9 8.5 10.5 8.7 9.4 20.4 10.8 7.5
Cap City—Outer 7.7 7.9 11.8 9.8 10.6 11.6 17.8 10.6 9.0
Within  75k of Cap. 9.8 9.4 11.2 11.6 9.9 12.1 24.6 11.8 10.5
Major non-Capital 8.9 7.8 13.8 10.4 10.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 10.2 9.1 12.0 10.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 10.5 9.8 12.1 17.6 12.4 10.9 21.8 11.6
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 10.3 8.6 13.0 15.5 11.7 9.4 22.6 11.2
Town Pop. < 2,000 10.7 6.2 15.8 14.3 9.2 12.2 10.0 11.3
Non-Urban 9.6 7.8 10.6 11.8 8.9 11.5 13.5 20.2 9.6
Total 9.3 8.3 11.8 12.0 9.8 11.0 19.6 11.3 10.0

Table 2.13: Average number  of children living  in families, 1996

Table 2.13: Average number of children living in families, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1.71 1.75 1.73 1.74 1.70 1.73 1.69 1.74 1.73
Cap City—Middle 1.87 1.84 1.86 1.83 1.79 1.83 1.83 1.81 1.85
Cap City—Outer 1.94 1.89 1.91 1.92 1.81 1.78 1.91 1.93 1.91
Within  75k of Cap. 1.88 1.97 1.92 1.92 1.85 1.91 1.87 2.28 1.91
Major non-Capital 1.82 1.84 1.78 1.81 1.81
Town Pop. 40,000+ 1.90 1.89 1.88 1.89
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 1.88 1.89 1.84 1.93 1.83 1.82 1.91 1.88
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.90 1.90 1.92 2.00 1.87 1.85 2.02 1.91
Town Pop. < 2,000 1.90 1.93 1.86 1.87 1.90 1.85 2.79 1.96
Non-Urban 1.93 1.97 1.95 1.95 1.90 1.89 2.38 1.75 1.95
Total 1.86 1.87 1.87 1.88 1.80 1.84 2.05 1.84 1.86

On average, in 1996  there  were 1.86  children4 living  in each  family with  children. Generally families  with  children in non-urban  localities and in small towns, particularly those  with  under 2,000  population, had more children living  with  them. In contrast, families  in inner  tiers of capital cities  had a smaller  number  of children living  with  them, with  the number  increasing as one moves out of the urban  centre.

In noting  this pattern, it is important to recognise the limitations of the measure. In particular, the data report  children currently living  in families  and do not reflect  therefore the average size of completed families, that is the number  of children actually born into the family. While comparisons of the number  of children currently living  in a family may provide  some insight into the relative sizes of completed families  in different  locations it may though  suffer from some distortions. For example where children in a location are more likely  to leave  home to take up education or employment the measure may tend to underestimate real family size. Similar distortions can occur  where a location may have a high number  of families  at a particular point in the family lifecycle.

2.5   Education

Two indicators are used to analyse the regional educational profile  of the population as of 1996. These are the proportions of the population who  left school  when  they  were aged  15 years  or less and the proportions of the population with  a degree or higher  qualification.

A high proportion of the population, 38.2  per cent, reported having  left school  at age 15 or earlier. The proportion that left school  at this age was low in capital cities, particularly in the inner  parts and high elsewhere, particularly in the small towns  and non-urban  localities.
Low proportions were found in the Australian  Capital  Territory  and its surroundings (19.7–22.9 per cent), in the inner  parts of Hobart (25.3  per cent), Melbourne (26.2  per cent)  and Sydney (27.1  per cent). By contrast very high proportions, with  about 50 per cent  or more leaving before  or at age 15, were observed in many other  areas. These were all areas  of Queensland except inner  and middle  Brisbane  and its major non-capitals, all areas  of Western Australia except Perth, the towns  and non-urban  localities of Tasmania  and outer  Hobart, and the towns of under  10,000 population in South Australia. While  some of the variation can be explained through differences in the population structure—with school  leaving  ages of 15 and below being  much  more common  up until the 1970s—this is only a partial  explanation.

The regional pattern of educational qualification is broadly  the inverse of those  who  left school aged  15 or less, though  the differences between locations are much  more marked  with  the highest ranked  areas  recording rates of such qualifications at over six times the rate recorded in the lowest.

The proportion of population with  degree or higher  qualifications declined along  the urban hierarchy from 21.5  per cent  in inner  parts of capital cities  to 9.0 per cent  in outer  parts and major non-capitals, and to 6.1 per cent  in small towns  of under  2,000  population. The rate for non-urban  localities was 7.3 per cent  compared to a national figure  of 11.7  per cent.

Relatively high proportions of the population with  degree or higher  qualifications were found in the inner  city of the Australian  Capital  Territory  (33.1  per cent), Hobart (24.3  per cent), Melbourne (23.1  per cent), Sydney  (22.4  per cent)  and Brisbane  (21.0  per cent). While  the ratesr ecorded in inner  core  of Perth (17.1  per cent), Adelaide (15.5  per cent)  and Darwin (16.0  per cent)  were much  lower, they  remained high compared to the national average. Low rates, of about 4–6 per cent, were found in the following areas: towns  of less than 40,000 and non-urban  localities in Tasmania  and South Australia; towns  of less than 2,000  in New South Wales  and the Northern  Territory; the outer  suburbs  of Hobart and Brisbane; and urban  centres close  to Perth.

The extent of variation between locations, both with  regard  to the age at which the population left school, and the achievement of degree or higher  qualifications, has important implications for locations. While  neither of these  measures fully capture the level  of skills and knowledge communities have, they  do suggest that the extent of such resources are not evenly distributed and, in particular, the stock of these  outside  of the capitals is much  lower.

Table 2.14: Proportion of the population who left school aged 15 years or less, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 27.1 26.2 31.1 37.0 34.7 25.3 30.1 20.3 28.9
Cap City—Middle 33.3 32.4 39.2 39.6 37.3 39.5 30.3 22.0 34.7
Cap City—Outer 36.5 32.0 47.5 44.2 42.0 47.3 29.7 22.9 37.9
Within  75k of Cap. 45.0 35.1 49.1 55.9 42.0 40.4 38.9 19.7 43.6
Major non-Capital 43.8 37.1 41.9 43.0 42.2
Town Pop. 40,000+ 38.2 37.2 52.3 42.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 44.3 39.2 48.9 47.9 45.0 48.8 33.3 44.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 45.6 41.6 50.0 49.9 46.6 49.7 37.0 46.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 45.6 41.9 51.1 49.5 47.7 49.2 42.6 47.0
Non-Urban 41.5 39.2 51.0 48.6 44.8 47.9 47.6 31.1 45.4
Total 37.3 32.8 44.5 43.5 39.7 43.1 35.8 21.8 38.2

 

Table 2.15: Proportion of the population with a degree or higher qualification, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 22.4 23.1 21.0 17.1 15.5 24.3 16.0 33.1 21.5
Cap City—Middle 15.0 12.6 12.3 13.9 10.0 9.2 15.4 24.3 13.5
Cap City—Outer 9.8 9.9 5.7 8.6 6.4 4.2 13.8 16.9 9.0
Within  75k of Cap. 7.0 7.2 6.1 4.2 8.6 9.1 7.6 26.8 6.9
Major non-Capital 9.1 8.8 8.9 9.4 9.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 8.4 9.2 7.0 8.2
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 7.4 7.0 7.3 7.8 5.4 5.4 13.4 7.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.1 5.2 5.4 10.3 6.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 5.2 7.3 6.4 7.6 4.8 5.7 4.9 6.1
Non-Urban 9.0 8.0 6.7 6.8 6.1 5.5 6.6 17.1 7.3
Total 12.3 12.9 9.6 11.0 9.5 8.9 11.1 24.9 11.7

2.6   Mobility

Nationally, in 1996, only 54.9  per cent  of Australians aged  over five years  reported that they lived at the same address  as they  did five years  previously. This reflects a number  of factors: internal and external migration into locations; people moving  address  within a location; and people who  did not record  in the Census  their  location five years  ago.

In the context of this analysis, the focus is on the extent to which there  is population stability within locations—that is the degree to which localities comprise relatively stable  communities. While  some insight  into this question can be gained from considering the proportion of current residents who  have been  in the location for more than five years, it must be noted  that this can be misleading where a population is growing.

Table 2.16: Proportion of the population living at the same address in 1996 as 5 years earlier (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 51.3 54.5 47.0 49.7 57.4 48.2 34.8 48.4 51.9
Cap City—Middle 60.0 65.2 50.7 51.6 60.1 60.6 43.2 51.4 59.0
Cap City—Outer 61.0 60.8 48.1 48.9 57.2 56.2 47.5 49.3 57.0
Within  75k of Cap. 55.0 58.2 40.2 39.7 55.0 53.1 37.9 61.8 51.7
Major non-Capital 60.7 61.4 40.8 53.6 51.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 53.2 54.6 48.0 51.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 53.5 54.3 42.5 42.6 56.0 55.1 39.2 50.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 56.4 60.5 48.6 48.3 56.1 57.3 39.4 54.2
Town Pop. < 2,000 63.0 66.9 55.9 48.5 63.8 56.5 74.1 60.2
Non-Urban 60.1 64.1 52.2 53.3 61.6 60.4 61.1 48.9 58.1
Total 57.0 60.0 47.0 48.5 58.3 55.7 47.5 49.7 54.9

Notwithstanding this limitation, the overall  picture from these  data is a widespread tendency to mobility. Only in two locations—Victorian and Northern  Territory  towns  of less than 2,000— had two-thirds or more of the residents remained at the same address  over the five-year  period. After these  towns, the most stable  locations were the middle  ring of suburbs  in the capitals, where 59.0  per cent  of the population still lived in the same location. Higher levels  of stability were also recorded in non-urban  locations, except Queensland and the two territories.

Some areas  experienced very high mobility rates, with  about 60 per cent  of their  population changing their  address  in the past five years. These included the inner  and middle  zones in Darwin; the urban  centres around  the capitals of Queensland, Western Australia  and the Northern Territory; the towns  with  10,000 to 40,000 population in the Northern  Territory, Queensland and Western Australia, the major non-capital cities  of Queensland; and the locations consisting of towns  with  populations of 2,000  to 10,000 in the Northern  Territory.

2.7   Summary

The data show  a complex set of demographic outcomes across  regions and States. With the exception of small towns  of less than 2,000  people, population growth occurred across  all regions—with the strongest growth rates being  recorded in areas  immediately adjacent to State capitals. It was particularly strong  in Queensland, Western Australia  and the Northern  Territory and weak  in South Australia, Tasmania  and the Australian  Capital  Territory.

Non-urban areas  had somewhat higher  dependency rates, in particular with  regard  to children and had slightly higher  numbers of children living  at home. The variation in sole parentage between locations was relatively low. While  people in smaller  towns  and locations had a higher degree of residential stability, the extent of this difference, on the whole, was not particularly high.

Particularly marked  differences were recorded in the location of migrants from non-English speaking countries. These people were predominantly located in Sydney  and Melbourne but had a very low presence in smaller  towns  and cities, and in the Indigenous population which formed  a much  more significant share  of the population outside  of the capitals.

A very significant difference emerged also with  regard  to education, with  non-capital city locations showing very high levels  of relatively early  school  leaving  and low levels  of tertiary education or higher  qualifications.

[ Return to Top   Return to Section ]

3 Labour force

Access  to, and performance of, local labour  markets  are important determinants of outcomes in communities. This section considers a number  of dimensions of such access, and the relative performance of regional labour  markets. In addition, it considers some aspects of the composition of employment to provide  some information on the extent to which social infrastructure is being  provided.

3.1   Labour force participation

Labour force participation (the  proportion of persons aged  over 15 who  are either  employed or are looking  for work) provides an important measure of the attachment of the population to the labour  market.

In 1996  nationally, 71.4  per cent  of males  over 15 years  and over were employed, or looking  for work. This proportion, however, varied  substantially by region. Lower participation rates, around 60 per cent, were recorded in the non-urban  and small towns  of the Northern  Territory, and 65 per cent  in the towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people in Queensland. In contrast, participation rates were over 80 per cent  in the outer  suburbs  of Canberra and at levels  close  to this in many areas  in Western Australia.

Identifying a pattern to the data is difficult, although it can be concluded that:

  • Generally male participation rates were higher  in outer  rings of capital cities  (except in Hobart and Adelaide), and slightly above average in the middle  ring of capital cities  (except in Hobart, Adelaide  and Melbourne) and in non-urban  localities (except in the Northern Territory  and Tasmania).
  • Male participation rates were lower in major non-capitals, inner-capital cities  (excluding Darwin, Sydney  and Brisbane), and in towns  with  over 2,000  inhabitants. The exception is Western Australia  where towns  showed higher  rates, as well  as the towns  of between 2,000 to 40,000 population in the Northern  Territory.
  • Rates close  to the national average were observed in small towns  of under  2,000  population and in urban  areas  close  to capital cities. (In these  latter  locations, this result  was an average of the high rates in Victoria, the Northern  Territory  and the Australian  Capital  Territory, and low rates in the other  States.)

Unlike males, female  labour  force participation was not only high in the outer  rings of capital cities  but also in the inner  and middle  parts of cities. Comparatively high participation rates were observed in Darwin  and the Australian  Capital  Territory, in the towns  of 2,000  to 40,000 population of the Northern  Territory  and generally in Western Australia, with  the exception of the band of locations around  Perth.

A measure closely related to labour  force participation is the employment-to-population ratio. This provides an indication of what  portion  of the relevant working age population is employed at any given  time. While  these  showed a similar  pattern to participation rates, some features
were emphasised.

Particularly noticeable in these  data are the low male ratios recorded almost uniformly throughout Tasmania, and to a lesser  extent in South Australia, as well  as a pattern which sees the higher  rates being  recorded at both ends of the population density distribution—within State capitals and in non-urban  areas  (Table  3.3). The small-to-medium sized towns  of Western Australia  stand in contrast to similarly sized settlements in other  States, although relatively high rates were also recorded in some Queensland localities.

Table 3.1: Male labour force participation rate, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 71.4 69.2 71.0 68.8 64.3 67.8 77.2 70.9 69.7
Cap City—Middle 71.8 70.9 74.4 73.1 70.8 69.6 79.8 79.3 72.1
Cap City—Outer 75.5 75.5 75.1 77.5 70.3 67.1 79.7 83.6 75.4
Within  75k of Cap. 68.3 77.2 69.7 68.2 69.3 71.1 77.8 78.7 71.2
Major non-Capital 67.8 69.5 69.6 68.4 68.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 74.4 67.6 70.5 70.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 66.1 70.2 65.3 75.6 71.5 68.6 80.3 68.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 65.9 68.7 72.8 76.0 69.0 66.7 78.0 69.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 70.2 68.8 75.3 78.8 69.6 70.4 61.0 71.8
Non-Urban 71.4 72.7 72.7 78.8 73.0 70.6 58.7 82.4 72.6
Total 70.6 71.8 71.6 74.0 69.2 69.0 74.2 77.8 71.4

 

Table 3.2: Female labour force participation rate, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 56.8 54.3 56.7 52.3 49.1 55.7 65.7 59.1 54.9
Cap City—Middle 52.8 52.3 56.6 55.0 52.4 52.1 68.2 67.8 53.9
Cap City—Outer 55.7 55.7 53.2 57.8 50.4 48.3 67.5 69.5 55.6
Within  75k of Cap. 48.9 54.9 50.6 45.5 50.4 51.8 62.9 78.8 50.9
Major non-Capital 47.8 48.8 53.1 49.5 50.3
Town Pop. 40,000+ 53.2 48.1 50.0 50.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 47.4 49.4 46.8 55.0 48.9 45.6 69.4 48.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 45.7 46.9 51.8 53.1 49.4 44.2 62.6 48.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 47.1 46.9 51.5 54.1 47.4 45.4 41.9 48.4
Non-Urban 52.3 52.8 53.1 58.1 52.9 48.8 42.1 70.8 52.8
Total 52.1 53.0 53.1 54.4 50.6 49.4 60.5 65.4 52.8

While  females  in the capital cities  also showed a high employment-to-population ratio, this tended to continue to decrease with  locality size, rather  than showing a rebound in the smaller locations, in contrast to the pattern for males. Also, in contrast to males, female  employment-to- population ratios decreased between the inner  and outer  suburbs  of the capitals.

Table 3.3: Male employment-to-population ratio (persons aged 15–64 years), 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 74.9 71.2 74.1 71.9 68.5 69.8 76.1 72.3 72.7
Cap City—Middle 75.9 72.6 76.6 74.9 72.1 72.3 77.0 78.2 74.5
Cap City—Outer 75.6 76.9 74.1 77.6 70.3 70.2 77.2 80.4 75.7
Within  75k of Cap. 73.9 77.8 71.3 70.5 72.5 69.9 75.0 73.5 73.9
Major non-Capital 69.4 70.6 72.5 69.6 70.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 74.9 67.2 72.3 71.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 68.7 70.8 69.1 77.1 69.8 67.8 80.8 70.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 68.6 72.8 76.1 79.7 73.0 67.0 78.7 72.2
Town Pop. < 2,000 70.5 74.2 78.5 81.0 72.1 71.5 58.7 73.6
Non-Urban 71.5 74.5 72.7 79.7 75.6 68.6 57.5 78.1 73.3
Total 73.2 73.4 73.6 75.8 71.2 69.6 72.8 77.0 73.4

 

Table 3.4: Female employment-to-population ratio (persons aged 15–59 years), 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 67.4 63.8 68.0 63.3 62.7 66.2 69.0 66.6 65.5
Cap City—Middle 63.1 59.5 64.1 62.7 60.7 61.9 69.7 72.1 62.2
Cap City—Outer 60.4 61.8 57.2 62.3 57.1 58.8 68.0 69.9 60.7
Within  75k of Cap. 59.9 58.9 56.2 51.4 59.8 56.8 63.0 83.0 58.1
Major non-Capital 56.1 56.4 62.2 57.8 58.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 59.3 55.8 57.7 57.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 56.5 56.7 56.6 61.2 54.7 51.9 72.5 57.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 54.2 57.3 58.8 59.8 59.7 51.1 65.6 56.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 53.7 59.6 57.2 59.6 56.6 51.6 41.2 55.2
Non-Urban 57.4 59.7 57.1 62.3 60.3 52.8 43.5 66.2 58.0
Total 60.7 60.5 60.5 61.5 59.8 56.9 62.0 69.6 60.7

One striking  feature  of these  data is for inner  Hobart. Here the female  employment-to- population ratio of 66.2  per cent  was only 3.6 percentage points  lower than the male rate, despite the national average gap of 12.7  percentage points. With the exception of this, and the adjacent middle  suburbs  of Hobart, female  employment-to-population ratios in Tasmania  was amongst  the lowest in the nation.

An important issue  which needs  to be considered in comparing these  data with  that of labour force participation rates and unemployment rates is whether or not the low participation rate, especially for women in some smaller  locations, is a full measure of attachment to the labour market  or whether the apparently lower unemployment rate in these  locations may reflect higher  levels  of job search  discouragement.

3.2   Employment growth5

Over the decade to 1996, there  have been  divergent patterns in employment growth. In particular, while full-time employment increased by only 6.2 per cent, part-time  employment grew  by 54.1  per cent  over the period. The two trends  are considered below.

Full-time employment

Marked  increases in full-time employment occurred in the urban  centres around  capital cities: in Brisbane’s middle  and outer  suburbs; in Queensland’s major non-capitals, towns  with  10,000 to 40,000 population and non-urban  localities; and in towns  with  2,000  to 10,000 population in the Northern  Territory. In addition, relatively high growth was observed in outer  parts of Perth and Sydney, and in the non-urban  localities of Western Australia, the Northern  Territory  and New South Wales.

Table 3.5: Growth in full-time employment (percentage change), 1986–1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner -0.3 -7.8 6.1 -1.7 -12.7 -10.3 5.6 -13.0 -3.5
Cap City—Middle -0.6 -8.4 25.2 13.8 -5.6 -8.7 -2.1 -14.9 0.0
Cap City—Outer 14.7 9.1 30.6 46.2 0.3 –12.6 –3.1 2.7 15.7
Within  75k of Cap. 37.2 35.5 119.7 69.7 8.2 12.5 96.2 4.1 42.0
Major non-Capital –2.9 –7.3 36.7 –5.9 10.4
Town Pop. 40,000+ 2.3 –6.3 12.3 2.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 7.6 –9.8 47.3 23.1 –18.1 –15.7 9.0 8.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.9 –10.6 22.8 5.0 –5.2 –11.1 42.6 4.8
Town Pop. < 2,000 -13.0 -13.1 -3.6 8.0 -21.6 -15.7 12.1 -8.1
Non-Urban 10.1 -0.9 32.5 15.8 -10.4 -7.5 12.5 -20.6 10.3
Total 4.8 -2.0 27.9 19.0 -7.3 -7.9 15.3 -9.9 6.2

In contrast, there  was no full-time employment growth amongst  people living  in the inner  and middle  parts of capital cities  except in Brisbane  and Perth. Towns with  populations of between 2,000  and 40,000 in South Australia  and the Northern  Territory, and the major non-capitals in New South Wales  and Victoria  all recorded declines in employment, as did all locations in Tasmania, except those  in the locations surrounding Hobart.

Specifically there  were:

  • falls in full-time employment in almost all regions of Victoria—with the exception of very strong  growth in the areas  surrounding the capitals, and above-average growth in the outer urban  tier; and
  • very strong  falls in full-time employment in towns  of less than 2,000  especially in South Australia  and Tasmania, as well  as Victoria  and New South Wales.

Part-time employment

Unlike full-time employment, growth in part-time  employment has been  universal in all localities at the aggregation considered in this paper. Even where this growth was at its lowest, most regions generally recorded at least 20 to 30 per cent  increases in the number  of residents with  part-time  jobs.

In structure, the regional pattern of part-time  employment growth is similar  to that of full-time employment growth:

  • The urban  centres within close  proximity to capital cities  recorded the highest growth, which was twice the national average of 54.1  per cent. Of these  centres, particularly high growth was recorded in Queensland (190.6 per cent), the Northern  Territory (173.4 per cent)  and Western Australia  (125.5 per cent).
Table 3.6: Growth in part-time employment (percentage change) 1986–1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 35.8 36.9 41.1 34.9 28.4 33.9 64.0 33.5 35.9
Cap City—Middle 39.4 39.1 57.5 53.1 38.9 39.2 52.6 30.8 42.9
Cap City—Outer 69.0 65.0 74.6 93.3 51.3 33.1 71.7 65.5 69.1
Within  75k of Cap. 100.1 100.3 190.6 125.5 63.8 75.7 173.4 78.1 105.3
Major non-Capital 62.6 53.2 77.6 51.6 66.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 63.0 59.3 42.2 54.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 64.7 45.0 96.5 49.9 29.6 26.4 43.1 59.9
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 55.5 43.6 61.4 36.5 37.8 42.6 84.5 52.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 31.1 29.4 39.3 20.4 23.7 5.5 153.8 31.6
Non-Urban 63.0 50.1 90.0 50.7 36.7 45.7 81.2 13.4 62.6
Total 53.8 49.4 70.4 57.2 39.3 41.4 81.9 40.0 54.1

 

Table 3.7: Distribution of growth in employment, 1986–1996
  Cap. City–Inner Cap. City >Cap. City–Outer Within 5k of Capital Major non-Capital Town Pop.40,000+ Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 Town Pop < 2,000 Non-Urban Total
New South Wales
Number 35,859 35,898 103,377 47,523 21,936 8,517 46,314 28,706 –1,440 14,668 341,785
% State 10.5 10.5 30.2 13.9 6.4 2.5 13.6 8.4 –0.4 4.3 100.0
% Australia 3.2 3.2 9.1 4.2 1.9 0.8 4.1 2.5 –0.1 1.3 30.2
Victoria                      
Number 4,902 5,316 74,078 41,627 3,342 4,626 2,898 779 –816 15,708 151,365
% State 3.2 3.5 48.9 27.5 2.2 3.1 1.9 0.5 –0.5 10.4 100.0
% Australia 0.4 0.5 6.6 3.7 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.1 –0.1 1.4 13.4
Queensland
Number 24,352 50,064 52,688 34,648 79,596 10,718 41,014 29,446 675 69,235 392,935
% State 6.2 12.7 13.4 8.8 20.3 2.7 10.4 7.5 0.2 17.6 100.0
% Australia 2.2 4.4 4.7 3.1 7.0 0.9 3.6 2.6 0.1 6.1 34.7
Western Australia
Number 10,290 32,702 71,250 20,461 17,032 5,736 2,796 7,240 168,410
% State 6.1  19.4 42.3 12.1 –  –   10.1 3.4 1.7 4.3  100.0
% Australia 0.9 2.9 6.3 1.8 1.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 14.9
South Australia
Number –3,654 8,345 13,606 9,185 –2,383 2,452 –1,999 –145 24,222
% State –15.0 34.5 56.2 37.9 –9.8 10.1 –8.3 –0.6 100.0
% Australia –0.3 0.7 1.2 0.8 –0.2 0.2 –0.2 0.0 2.1
Tasmania
Number 227 758 –227 4,557 2,595 –798 275 –1,074 1,620 7,949
% State 2.9 9.5 –2.9 57.3 32.6 –10.0 3.5 –14.0 20.4 100.0
% Australia 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.2 –0.1 0.0 –0.1 0.1 0.7
Northern Territory
Number 1,593 769 1,230 5,911 1,564 3,377 2,518 1,835 18,663
% State 8.5 4.1 6.6 31.7 8.4 18.1 13.5 9.8 100.0
% Australia 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 1.7
Aust. Capital Territory
Number –767 6,623 19,829 37 –192 25,530
% State –3.0 25.9 77.7 0.1 –0.8 100.0
% Australia –0.1 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.0 2.3
Australia
Number 72,802 140,475 335,831 163,949 107,469 23,861 105,641 70,771 660 >109,969  1,130,859
% Australia 6.4 12.4 29.7 14.5 9.5 2.1 9.3 6.3 0.1 9.7         100.0

Higher rates of part-time  growth were also observed in outer  capital cities, except Tasmania, major non-capitals in New South Wales  and Queensland, and non-urban  localities, except South Australia, Tasmania  and the Northern  Territory.

By State and Territory, the highest part-time  growth was in the Northern  Territory, owing  to very high growth in all localities except in middle  Darwin  and towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people. This was followed by Queensland, which had high growth in most locations other  than in inner  Brisbane, towns  with  populations of more than 40,000 and in towns  of under  2,000 population.

The sluggish growth in South Australia  and Tasmania  reflected these  States’ overall  performance with  regard  to employment growth.

The relative roles of these  localities in overall  national outcomes can be seen  in Table 3.7 which shows  the contributions of regions, by State, to the national increase in total (full-time  and part- time)  employment of 1,130,859. This pattern generally reflects that of population growth. Specifically, the table  shows  that 29.7  per cent  of the increase in the employed population was located in the outer  tier of capital cities, 14.5  per cent  in the surrounding periphery, and 12.4  per cent  in the middle  ring of the capitals. Queensland accounted for 34.7  per cent  of the national growth—with the major non-capital towns  and non-urban  areas  both playing a major role in this, followed by New South Wales  (30.2  per cent). The next  largest  contributors were Western Australia  (14.9  per cent)  and Victoria  (13.4  per cent).

3.3   Structure of employment

One factor that is important in these  changes is the nature  of industry in different  locations and changes in the level  of activity within this sector. Table 3.8 shows, for regions at the national level, the composition of employment by industry, and also the overall  change in the industries’ employment over the decade to 1996.

This shows  the strong  differences between locations in their  share  of employment by sector. Some sectors, such as agriculture and mining, were highly  represented in the smaller  regions, with  others, including finance and business services, more important in the capitals. Similar differences were recorded for other  sectors; however, their  patterns were not always as clear cut or consistent.

For example, manufacturing played an important role in the outer  regions of capitals and adjacent areas. In major non-capital and other  large  cities, it provided over 10 per cent  of employment for residents in towns  of 2,000  to 10,000 people and 10,000 to 40,000, as well  as in non-urban  locations (compared to the national average of just 13.1  per cent). Similarly, employment in government administration, health, community services and defence varied  only from 20.2  per cent  to 24.9  per cent  across  locations. (This sector  is considered further  below.)

Table 3.8: Industry composition of workforce, 1996a
SLA Type Agriculture Mining Manufacturing Electricity and Water Construction Wholesale and Retail Transport and Communications Finance and Business Services Govt, Health and Community Accommodation, Restaurant and Service Total
Structure of Employment
Cap. City—Inner 0.4 0.4 10.6 0.5 4.5 17.8 6.9 20.9 24.9 13.2 100.0
Cap City—Middle 0.6 0.4 14.6 0.6 6.4 21.3 7.1 17.0 22.0 10.2 100.0
Cap City—Outer 1.0 0.4 16.8 0.7 7.7 22.5 7.1 14.0 20.2 9.5 100.0
Within  75k of Cap. 3.6 0.8 15.4 0.8 8.7 21.3 6.7 11.2 21.1 10.4 100.0
Major non-Capital 1.0 1.3 13.2 0.9 7.6 21.4 6.2 12.4 22.8 13.3 100.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 2.7 1.0 13.6 1.1 6.5 23.0 6.1 10.2 24.7 11.0 100.0
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 4.7 3.2 10.8 1.6 7.7 21.8 5.8 9.9 22.5 12.0 100.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 13.5 3.7 10.8 1.2 6.5 18.5 5.5 7.8 21.6 11.0 100.0
Town Pop. < 2,000 27.8 7.2 6.5 1.0 4.8 12.9 4.8 5.0 21.4 8.6 100.0
Non-Urban 23.1 1.5 10.3 0.9 6.4 15.7 5.3 7.3 20.3 9.3 100.0
Total 4.4 1.2 13.1 0.8 6.6 20.1 6.5 14.2 22.2 11.0 100.0
Sector  Growth Rate
Growth 1986–1996 -11.1 -7.9 1.32 -53.5 13.1 18.7 0.1 48.6 20.3 54.6 17.8

Note
a   ABS advises  that as the industry classifications have undergone a major review since  the 1991  Census, comparisons drawn  from their  time series  of Census  data should ‘be used as an indicator only’. [ABS 2019]

Most significantly, however, is the relationship between the industry structure locations and the rate of growth in each  sector. For example, capital cities  have a much  higher  concentration  of employment in the finance sector—which had the second  highest rate of growth, while smaller towns  and non-urban  areas  had a disproportionate reliance upon sectors  such as mining  and agriculture which experienced a decline over the decade.

It must be noted, however, that individual industry growth rates were not consistent across locations. Manufacturing employment fell in the inner  and middle  tiers of capital cities
(by 23.3  per cent  and 8.9 per cent  respectively) as well  as in major non-capitals (composed of falls of some 20 per cent  in New South Wales  and Victoria, but an increase of 35.5  per cent  in Queensland). In contrast, it grew  by 47.1  per cent  in non-urban  localities and in excess of 20 per cent  in areas  composed of towns  of 2,000  to 10,000 people and those  with  fewer  than2,000  inhabitants.

3.4   Self-employment

While  most Australians in the workforce are employees, a substantial proportion are self-employed, employers or act as unpaid  family workers. The variation in this self-employment (which encompasses all of these  forms of self-employment) is an important characteristic  of different  regions. In particular, self-employment was very high in small towns  and non-urban localities and relatively low in capital cities  and major non-capitals. The Northern  Territory  small towns  and non-urban  localities were an exception.

Table 3.9: Self-employed as a proportion of all employed persons, 1996a (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 7.2 7.2 7.4 8.8 8.4 9.2 6.4 5.8 7.5
Cap City—Middle 6.9 6.2 7.4 9.1 7.4 7.8 5.9 5.6 7.0
Cap City—Outer 6.2 7.2 7.2 9.7 7.2 6.1 5.3 5.2 7.1
Within  75k of Cap. 9.2 8.2 10.3 9.7 14.1 8.4 8.1 13.9 9.6
Major non-Capital 6.2 6.7 9.2 8.3 7.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 8.2 7.8 8.6 8.2
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 11.1 9.4 11.2 10.5 7.6 8.2 5.5 10.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 16.6 14.1 12.6 11.5 14.3 9.2 4.9 14.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 23.9 23.1 17.7 18.8 25.8 12.1 3.7 20.0
Non-Urban 20.8 20.5 18.0 23.8 22.4 17.5 7.1 9.0 19.7
Total 8.9 8.8 10.4 10.6 10.4 9.9 5.9 5.6 9.4

a   ABS advise  that the data from the 1996  Census  may tend to underestimate the level  of self-employment as a result of changes to the Census  schedule which may have led to some persons misreporting their  employment status. [ABS 1999]

Self-employment rates varied  from a low of 7.0 per cent  in the middle  tiers of capital cities, and 14.3  per cent  in towns  with  a population of between 2,000  and 10,000, to a high of around 20 per cent  in towns  of under  2,000  population and non-urban  localities. The rate in these towns  is almost double  the national average of 9.4 per cent.

In the capital cities, self-employment was relatively higher  in inner  cities  and in the urban centres around  them, particularly in the Australian  Capital  Territory  and South Australia. Particularly low rates of self-employment were recorded overall  in the two territories.

3.5   Unemployment

The pattern of unemployment rates from the 1996  Census  is, in many ways, the inverse of the male employment-to-population ratio. These rates were relatively low in capital cities  and most significant in the major non-capital cities  and other  large  and medium towns  and declining in smaller  centres.

In particular, unemployment rates of 11 to 12 per cent  were recorded in major non-capitals, in towns  of over 40,000 and in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000. Relatively low rates were observed in towns  of under  2,000  and in capital cities. Non-urban localities had unemployment rates close to the national average.

There were important State components to the distribution. The States with  highest unemployment levels  were: Tasmania  (with consistently high levels, except in the inner  and middle  zones of Hobart); South Australia  (with high rates in all areas  except towns  with between 2,000  and 10,000 and the non-urban  localities); and Queensland (with high rates except in towns  of less than 10,000, non-urban  localities, and the inner  and middle  zones of Brisbane).

Table 3.10: Unemployment rate, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 7.1 9.9 8.3 8.9 10.3 8.9 8.0 8.4 8.6
Cap City—Middle 6.8 9.4 7.4 8.1 10.0 8.7 7.7 6.8 8.1
Cap City—Outer 8.0 8.4 10.6 7.5 11.9 11.0 6.7 6.8 8.7
Within  75k of Cap. 9.0 8.4 11.5 12.1 9.8 10.6 8.8 6.5 9.7
Major non-Capital 11.7 12.0 10.7 10.9 11.2
Town Pop. 40,000+ 9.7 12.6 11.0 11.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 11.8 11.7 13.2 8.3 13.4 13.7 4.8 11.6
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 11.6 9.8 8.2 6.2 9.2 13.4 6.1 9.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 10.2 7.3 6.3 6.6 9.5 10.8 8.1 8.4
Non-Urban 9.9 8.3 9.3 5.8 7.7 11.8 10.2 9.9 8.9
Total 8.8 9.4 9.7 8.1 10.4 11.0 7.4 7.3 9.2

In both Victoria  and New South Wales, the broad national pattern was reflected, with  high unemployment rates being  concentrated in the major non-capitals and towns  of over 10,000 population. In New South Wales, the rate of unemployment within Sydney  was around  two thirds  of the rate in these  locations.

Western Australia  had the lowest rate of any State that reflected the low rates recorded in all its localities, except urban  localities close  to Perth.

As noted  previously, it is possible that the reported level  of unemployment may understate the level  of demand  for employment, especially in smaller  centres and non-urban  locations.

3.6   Long-term unemployed

An indicator of the duration of unemployment can be derived from the period  of receipt of income support. Two indicators are analysed here: the proportion of recipients who  had been in receipt of this assistance for more than 12 months  and the average duration of receipt. These indicators were derived from 1998  FaCS administrative data and relate  to uncompleted spells  of assistance to recipients of Newstart and the Mature Age Allowance.

Nationally, 46.4  per cent  of income support recipients had been  in receipt of assistance for 12 months  or more and under  this definition were long-term  unemployed. This figure  varies from 42.6  per cent  in inner  capital cities, to about 48–50  per cent  in towns  of fewer  than 10,000 people, of over 40,000 people, as well  as in non-urban  localities.

In the capital cities, relatively low long-term  reliance upon unemployment income support was observed in Darwin, Perth and inner  Brisbane.

Table 3.11: Unemployed persons in receipt of income support for 12 months or more as a proportion of all unemployed recipients, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 40.1 47.1 36.6 36.6 46.9 42.0 29.8 45.4 42.6
Cap City—Middle 46.3 50.2 38.3 36.6 49.9 53.0 32.9 43.8 46.0
Cap City—Outer 46.7 45.3 43.4 36.1 50.4 54.0 33.8 45.3 45.2
Within  75k of Cap. 45.8 48.7 46.2 37.6 50.8 55.5 32.9 46.4 46.3
Major non-Capital 52.0 54.5 39.4 51.6 47.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 48.9 54.7 46.4 50.0
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 51.0 48.1 46.8 31.0 51.9 50.9 29.5 47.9
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 51.3 53.3 43.0 32.5 47.6 55.2 34.6 48.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 52.6 54.6 42.6 36.9 56.0 59.5 32.3 49.6
Non-Urban 52.6 52.2 48.0 38.6 52.4 57.1 41.1 36.9 8.9
Total 48.0 49.0 43.0 35.9 49.9 53.4 33.2 44.7 46.4

More generally, the proportion of long-term  recipients was low in all areas  of Western Australia and also in the Northern  Territory, with  this latter  possibly reflecting the substitution of such benefits by participation in Community Development Employment Program  (CDEP) schemes. In contrast, high levels  of long-term  receipt of unemployment-related income support were recorded in all of Tasmania  except inner  Hobart.

The national pattern was reflected in New South Wales  and Victorian  non-capital locations.

The higher  proportions in smaller  towns, notwithstanding the lower unemployment rates in these  centres, suggest a higher  level  of inertia  in these  markets—with lower rates of employment turnover being  reflected in longer  durations.

These patterns are also reflected, as shown  in Table 3.12, in the average period  of receipt of this assistance. The average duration in weeks varied  from a low of 63.8  weeks in inner  capital cities to a high of 71–74  weeks in all towns  of less than 40,000 people and non-urban  localities. The national average was 68.8  weeks.

In general, the cities  followed by the urban  centres around  them, and major non-capital cities, had lower unemployment benefit  duration. Very high benefit  durations of 77–88  weeks were observed in towns  of under  10,000 population and in non-urban  localities of Tasmania, South Australia  (other  than towns  of between 2,000  and 10,000 people) and Victoria, major non- capitals of New South Wales  and Victoria, towns  with  population of over 40,000 in Victoria, and the outer  part of Hobart and the urban  centres around  it. Durations  of less than one year  were observed in all areas  of the Northern  Territory  (except in non-urban  localities where it was 63.9  weeks). Western Australia  also recorded the next  lowest duration (53.9  weeks). Lower average durations were also observed in inner  and middle  Brisbane, and in inner  Sydney.

Table 3.12: Unemployed persons in receipt of income support, average duration of receipt (weeks), 1998
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 60.1 71.3 53.3 54.7 69.4 62.3 48.1 64.7 63.8
Cap City—Middle 68.6 75.2 56.1 54.6 73.8 75.7 49.2 60.9 68.2
Cap City—Outer 68.9 68.4 62.0 54.2 75.1 78.7 51.0 62.4 66.9
Within  75k of Cap. 68.0 71.6 66.4 56.4 76.5 78.5 50.7 65.5 68.3
Major non-Capital 78.2 83.6 57.1 75.3 69.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 70.8 81.7 67.9 73.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 75.1 70.9 69.5 47.8 81.0 75.8 46.5 71.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 75.3 77.4 63.4 50.0 74.4 79.8 51.5 71.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 76.3 78.9 61.8 55.4 85.4 88.0 50.1 73.1
Non-Urban 75.8 77.6 70.2 58.4 80.0 82.1 63.9 54.0 74.1
Total 71.0 73.4 62,6 53.9 74.8 77.6 51.3 62.6 68.8

3.7   Families and employment

Labour market  access also varies  between families. Nationally  in 1996  14.3  per cent  of couple families  with  children had neither partner in the workforce (Table  3.13). This compares with other  data which show  that 21.7  per cent  of couple families  which have both partners employed full-time, and 24.7  per cent  which have neither partner employed on a full-time basis.

While  in a number  of these  cases  these  people may voluntarily be out of the labour  market, inability to access employment is probably the more pervasive explanation. The distribution of this experience has both strong  State and regional components. For example, the lowest proportions were found in urban  Canberra and Darwin—as  well  as country Western Australia and Queensland—while such joblessness was most frequently encountered in the inner  suburbs of Melbourne and Adelaide—as well  as country Tasmania  and the Northern  Territory.

At a national level, the pattern can be considered to be a declining incidence in the cities  with distance from the CBD, and a relatively even  national level  distribution outside  of the capitals— this though  hides  much  variation at the State level.

The extent of dual full-time employment in couple families  also showed a very even distribution. It ranged  from 22.0  per cent  to 22.3  per cent  in the cities, falling to a low of 19.5  per cent  in towns  of 40,000 or more people before  rising  to 23.9  per cent  in non-urban areas, as well  as in towns  of less than 2,000  people.

The incidence of family joblessness was much  higher  amongst  sole parents—with 57.2  per cent of sole parents not being  employed, and indeed only 23.6  per cent  of such parents were employed on a full-time basis.

Table 3.13: Proportion of couples with children where neither parent is in employment, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 16.9 19.5 13.2 15.6 18.9 9.4 8.5 11.7 17.1
Cap City—Middle 15.3 18.2 11.5 12.1 14.7 13.3 9.6 7.9 15.0
Cap City—Outer 13.7 11.2 13.6 9.9 15.4 17.2 9.4 6.4 12.4
Within  75k of Cap. 11.9 9.7 14.9 15.0 12.4 14.9 9.5 0.0 12.1
Major non-Capital 16.2 15.6 13.0 14.8 14.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 10.8 16.1 14.2 13.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 15.2 15.3 16.3 10.3 15.7 18.3 4.4 14.9
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 15.6 13.2 10.8 8.8 14.3 18.1 9.0 13.6
Town Pop. < 2,000 15.5 11.0 11.0 10.6 13.8 16.5 36.6 14.6
Non-Urban 15.1 11.9 13.7 10.5 11.2 17.9 40.4 16.0 13.4
Total 15.0 14.9 13.2 11.7 15.1 15.7 14.9 8.2 14.3

Table 3.14: Proportion of sole-parent families where the parent is not in employment, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 54.2 59.7 52.9 54.6 58.2 46.1 40.4 50.8 55.8
Cap City—Middle 55.4 56.7 51.4 51.0 55.7 56.2 44.4 39.1 54.2
Cap City—Outer 58.7 52.7 58.9 50.1 59.7 58.0 45.5 40.8 55.7
Within  75k of Cap. 58.6 54.2 59.4 62.9 56.7 58.1 51.6 0.0 57.7
Major non-Capital 62.4 62.9 54.8 59.4 59.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 60.1 61.8 60.1 60.7
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 61.1 61.9 59.8 54.3 63.7 64.4 41.3 60.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 64.5 61.9 58.3 57.3 60.7 66.1 44.3 62.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 66.3 63.2 59.1 56.7 63.2 61.6 69.8 63.3
Non-Urban 62.7 58.6 60.0 52.9 55.8 64.5 70.8 61.5 59.7
Total 58.8 57.5 56.6 53.4 58.2 59.3 51.8 43.4 57.2

3.8   Employment in selected service industry sectors

The relatively even  spread  of government administration, health  and community services, and defence employment in 1996  was noted  above. This is examined further  below, looking  firstly at a broader  sector  which also includes culture and recreation employment, and then key elements of this grouping, along  with  some specific sub-industry groups.

As discussed earlier, these  data have a dual interpretation. At one level  they  represent merely a characteristic of employment in the locations, and at the other, they  provide  an insight  into the level  of actual  services available to others  in the location. This is particularly true in non-capital locations where the geographic level  of analysis is more likely  to reflect  both employment and residential location.

The distribution of this broader  services sector  is largely consistent with  the pattern of government administration and defence employment and varied  narrowly between regions. It ranged  from around  22 per cent  in non-urban  localities, small towns  and outer  rings of capital cities  to 26–27  per cent  in major non-capitals and towns  of over 40,000 population to almost 29 per cent  in inner  capital cities. The variation within capitals may not be particularly informative as these  cities  reflect  a series  of interlocked labour  markets, and the residential location of employees (which the tables  are based  upon)  may not reflect  the location of the actual  service.

Very high contributions by these  sectors  were observed in the Australian  Capital  Territory  (47.9 per cent), the Northern  Territory  (37.9  per cent)  and Tasmania  (due  to high rates in Hobart and towns  around  it and in Launceston). The inner  suburbs  of Brisbane  and Adelaide  also had relatively high rates, around  31 per cent. The lowest contributions were in Victoria  and New South Wales  due to lower contributions in all localities, except in the inner  capital cities  and towns  with  a population over 40,000.

The patterns for each  of these  individual industry components are considered below.

The regional pattern of government administration and defence employment is similar  to the contribution of the broader  sector, as illustrated in Table 3.15, and is relatively evenly distributed across  areas  nationally. (To the extent there  is variation, in particular within States, this tends to be a small number  of locations with  particularly high rates, rather  than areas  with  very low rates.)

Table 3.15: Employed persons, proportion working in government, education, health, community and cultural industries, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 25.1 28.0 31.4 27.8 30.8 42.8 38.1 52.6 28.6
Cap City—Middle 22.0 21.2 25.4 26.0 27.2 34.5 36.2 47.9 24.4
Cap City—Outer 20.6 19.9 22.4 22.9 24.6 28.3 37.4 43.8 22.2
Within  75k of Cap. 24.1 20.8 22.2 21.5 24.9 33.5 29.2 41.7 23.3
Major non-Capital 25.1 23.7 26.2 29.7 25.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 27.3 28.7 24.7 26.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 25.7 25.5 22.2 20.6 23.8 24.4 34.3 24.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 23.3 25.0 20.8 22.1 20.2 24.6 35.9 22.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 20.3 22.3 25.3 15.6 19.8 20.1 60.3 22.4
Non-Urban 22.8 21.4 22.5 18.1 20.5 21.0 39.8 46.8 21.9
Total 23.5 23.1 24.7 23.9 26.0 29.2 37.9 47.9 24.6

Also of interest is the split between the two components. This is shown, at the national level, in Table 3.20. Defence  employment, as may be anticipated, varied  significantly between locations but overall  was more highly  concentrated in the larger  non-capital city locations. This is even more marked  when  analysed by State and reached a peak  in New South Wales  where the sector accounted for 36.6  in every  thousand employees in towns  of more than 40,000. It should  be noted, however, that this remained below the rate of 84.3  per 1,000  employed persons in inner Canberra.

The pattern of government administrative employment has two elements. Firstly, within capitals there  was a decrease with  movement towards the periphery and secondly, there was a sharp  fall in the rate in the major and large  non-capital city locations, with  some upwards movement in the smaller  locations. (The sharp  rise for towns  of fewer  than 2,000  was not a consistent component across  States but rather  an aberration due to the high level  of this type  of employment in the Northern  Territory.)

The share  of employment in the education and the health  and community services sectors, at 7.3 and 9.8 per cent  of employment respectively, represented a more significant component than government administration. This employment formed  an essential part of providing the social  infrastructure of the region, including the formation  of human  capital.

Table 3.16: Employed persons, proportion working in government administration and defence, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 4.3 4.2 6.5 4.6 5.0 12.7 20.0 28.8 5.6
Cap City—Middle 3.9 3.6 5.4 4.0 4.9 11.0 13.0 26.5 5.1
Cap City—Outer 3.8 3.3 5.3 4.1 4.3 9.3 13.4 25.3 4.8
Within  75k of Cap. 4.8 4.7 4.0 5.7 3.7 9.5 10.6 14.9 5.0
Major non-Capital 4.0 3.6 5.3 3.7 4.5
Town Pop. 40,000+ 7.1 3.3 3.7 4.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 4.8 5.3 3.5 3.2 3.0 3.8 8.5 4.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 5.4 5.1 4.2 3.5 3.2 3.7 16.3 5.0
Town Pop. < 2,000 4.9 4.1 10.0 3.3 3.4 3.7 30.1 6.3
Non-Urban 5.3 4.0 5.5 3.5 3.8 4.4 19.0 28.0 4.9
Total 4.4 3.9 5.2 4.3 4.4 6.9 15.7 26.8 5.1

 

Table 3.17: Employed persons, proportion working in education, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 6.9 8.7 9.6 8.4 8.9 12.6 5.5 11.6 8.3
Cap City—Middle 6.5 6.5 8.0 8.7 7.8 8.9 9.4 9.6 7.2
Cap City—Outer 6.4 6.2 5.9 7.1 6.4 5.9 8.7 7.1 6.4
Within  75k of Cap. 6.6 5.9 6.0 5.9 8.0 8.6 8.1 8.9 6.5
Major non-Capital 8.1 8.1 7.1 8.6 7.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 8.5 9.1 8.4 8.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 8.0 7.9 7.2 7.3 7.9 7.8 8.2 7.8
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 7.2 7.7 7.2 7.3 6.7 8.3 6.8 7.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 6.9 7.4 6.4 6.4 7.3 6.6 7.8 6.9
Non-Urban 7.5 7.0 7.2 6.5 6.8 6.4 7.3 9.7 7.0
Total 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.6 8.3 7.7 9.4 7.3

Overall distribution of education employment was even—with the biggest variations occurring within capitals, although this may be more an issue  of location of residence rather  than of activity. The high rate in towns  of more than 40,000 may suggest that these  locations play an important role in providing educational services to surrounding locations, and hence may mitigate the slightly lower than average rate in the smallest locations.

Employment in the health  and community sectors  showed a similar  pattern to education but with  a much  more marked  decline in the smaller  locations. This is a clear  pattern across  all States. While  showing a similar  pattern to education in having  a concentration in the larger  non- capital city towns, the low levels  of employment in smaller  locations were more marked.

Looking at a number  of individual components of these  sectors  in Table 3.20, it can be seen that this pattern of decline is largely reflecting health  employment rather  than community services employment, which appears to fall only in the non-urban  locations—and even  then from relatively high rates in the larger  of the smaller  towns. In contrast to this, health employment fell very steeply for all locations under  40,000 persons. Within  the capitals, this employment had a very strong  bias towards inner  locations. The data also demonstrated some strong  State employment patterns. In Victoria, employment in this sector  in towns  of over 40,000 people was 101.7  per 1,000  employed, compared to a State average of 73.4; similarly in Tasmania  the rate in Launceston was 106.4  compared to that State’s  average of 87.8. In aggregate, while the State level  of employment in the sector  was 66.6  in the Northern  Territory, and even  lower in the Australian  Capital  Territory, in South Australia  it was 90.8  per 1,000 employed.

Set against  these  patterns, the culture and recreation sector, as well  as being  very small, shows  a strong  orientation towards State capitals, although again  a service function  role might  be seen in some of the major non-capitals and large  towns.

Table 3.18: Employed persons, proportion working in health and community sector, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 9.8 11.2 12.1 11.7 13.8 13.5 7.7 7.8 11.0
Cap City—Middle 9.3 8.9 9.8 10.7 12.2 11.6 9.8 8.5 9.7
Cap City—Outer 8.5 8.4 9.6 9.5 11.8 10.8 12.3 8.8 9.1
Within  75k of Cap. 10.5 8.2 9.3 8.1 11.1 12.8 7.7 13.7 9.5
Major non-Capital 11.2 10.3 9.7 13.2 10.6
Town Pop. 40,000+ 10.0 13.5 10.8 11.3
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 10.9 10.6 9.4 8.5 11.0 11.5 13.5 10.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 9.2 10.7 8.0 10.1 9.2 11.5 11.5 9.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 7.6 9.9 7.5 5.2 8.3 8.0 21.2 8.2
Non-Urban 8.4 8.7 8.1 7.2 8.5 8.4 11.0 5.3 8.3
Total 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.7 11.8 11.4 11.4 8.4 9.8

The other  detailed industry sector  shown  in Table 3.20  is employment in the finance sector including banks. As with  the much  broader  finance and business services sector  discussed above, this shows  a much  lower presence in smaller  communities.

While  it is difficult  to draw  too strong  a conclusion from these  data, it is reasonable to consider that it indicates:

  • The social  infrastructure represented by education, government administration, and community services is relatively evenly distributed across  the regions of Australia.
  • Health infrastructure appears to be less well  distributed and has pronounced State differences. There is some evidence suggesting that this employment, in the non-capital cities, is concentrated in the larger  towns.

It is not possible to identify  whether this reflects the optimal  distribution of these  services, that is with  regard  to a critical mass of activity or not.

Table 3.19: Employed persons, proportion working in culture and recreation industries, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 4.0 3.9 3.3 3.2 3.1 4.1 4.9 4.3 3.8
Cap City—Middle 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.6 2.4 3.0 4.0 3.4 2.4
Cap City—Outer 1.9 2.0 1.7 2.3 2.1 2.2 3.0 2.6 2.0
Within  75k of Cap. 2.2 2.0 3.0 1.8 2.1 2.6 2.9 4.2 2.3
Major non-Capital 1.9 1.7 4.0 4.3 2.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 1.7 2.8 1.9 2.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 2.0 1.6 2.2 1.6 1.9 1.4 4.1 1.9
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 1.0 0.9 1.5 0.7 0.7 1.8 1.2 1.0
Non-Urban 1.7 1.8 1.7 0.9 1.4 1.9 2.4 3.8 1.7
Total 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.7 3.1 3.4 2.4

Table 3.20: Selected detailed industry sectors, employment per 1000 employed persons, 1996
SLA Type Finance Government Administration Defence Health Community Serves Other Services including Public Order
Cap. City—Inner 31.8 45.4 9.7 87.8 21.8 18.9
Cap City—Middle 30.7 41.5 8.4 74.4 22.0 19.8
Cap City—Outer 28.0 38.1 9.1 66.5 23.3 21.2
Within  75k of Cap. 20.9 36.2 13.5 69.7 24.7 21.1
Major non-Capital 19.9 33.5 11.6 80.1 24.5 17.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 18.8 33.4 14.2 84.8 27.1 17.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 17.4 36.2 7.5 76.6 26.0 20.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 15.5 38.8 10.8 65.2 27.3 15.6
Town Pop. < 2,000 11.6 61.6 1.4 54.0 27.6 13.6
Non-Urban 12.1 41.5 7.2 61.0 21.5 15.2

Total

24.8

40.3

9.9

74.0

23.4

19.0

3.9   Summary

Key differences between regions emerged with  respect to employment. These related to:

industry composition and growth, with  the capital cities  having  a high proportion of employment in strongly growing sectors  such as finance and business services, and with smaller  centres having  much  higher  employment in sectors  in which employment had declined, such as agriculture and mining. Notwithstanding this, some sectors  such as manufacturing showed growth outside  the capitals, and decline within;

  • labour  force participation by women, which tended to be appreciably lower in smaller locations;
  • the level  of self employment, which was much  stronger in country locations;
  • unemployment, which tended to be higher  in the non-capital city locations and where durations were longest  in the smaller  towns. (This raised  the possibility of higher  levels  of discouraged job seekers, especially women, in these  locations.)

Overlaid  on these  were some strong  State trends, with  particularly poor outcomes in South Australia  and Tasmania.

Analysis of more detailed service industry employment suggests that areas  of government administration, education and community services are well  distributed. In contrast, employment in health  showed some lower levels  in smaller  locations although there  was some evidence of larger  towns  playing regional service role.

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4 Income distribution

Income  is a major determinant of living  standards and social  outcomes in Australia. While  these outcomes can be influenced by many factors, and high levels  of income do not guarantee good outcomes, low incomes are often associated with  poorer  outcomes. This section considers the level  of income6 in regions throughout Australia  and the pattern of distribution.

4.1   Income

By location, average individual weekly income ranged  from around  $560  in inner  Sydney, Darwin  and Canberra, to around  $340  in the outer  suburbs  of Hobart, and a number  of other locations in Tasmania. The lowest average individual income, $315  per week, was recorded in small settlements in the Northern  Territory. As previously noted, these  locations have a high Indigenous population and low levels  of labour  market  participation.

At the national level, a relatively clear  pattern emerges. Within  capital cities, individual income averaged some $450  per week (higher in the inner  suburbs  and lower in the outer), while outside  of the capitals it ranged  nationally between $380  and $400.

The pattern recorded for individual income was even  more marked  when  household incomes are considered (Table  4.2). Households in the capitals averaged almost $900  per week. This declined, through the adjacent locations and major non-capital cities, to just under  $750  per week. The average then fell again, to below $700  per week in all locations of less than 40,000 people.

Table 4.1: Average individual income 1996, $ per week
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 559.0 502.1 476.7 459.6 421.8 471.5 568.4 564.6 507.4
Cap City—Middle 494.6 421.9 441.1 455.2 394.4 400.9 521.7 559.6 452.4
Cap City—Outer 454.0 432.4 382.6 435.6 363.4 342.1 505.7 539.8 429.6
Within  75k of Cap. 398.5 416.1 375.1 377.9 375.7 388.4 459.7 636.1 395.7
Major non-Capital 399.8 382.4 406.0 371.3 398.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 405.5 352.4 381.3 379.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 372.9 364.1 378.8 470.1 368.6 349.1 514.7 383.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 354.6 354.3 440.2 466.9 367.2 341.5 530.0 386.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 343.0 356.6 428.7 515.4 348.0 372.1 315.8 390.7
Non-Urban 384.7 382.8 382.3 456.8 375.8 340.6 370.1 539.8 384.1
Total 450.0 428.8 411.8 451.4 387.9 375.3 475.9 555.1 432.8

The broad elements of the regional pattern of individual income within States also remain— with  households in country Western Australia  having  incomes around  the national average, and in Queensland somewhat below, while those  in other States receive incomes well  below the national rate.

In aggregate by State, household incomes in both Tasmania  ($675 per week) and South Australia ($706 per week) were well  below the rates recorded in other  States. In contrast, average household incomes in both the Australian  Capital Territory  and the Northern  Territory  were over $1000 per week.

Table 4.2: Average household income, 1996, $ per week
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1019.3 909.2 857.1 800.5 745.4 813.2 1053.4 1045.0 913.6
Cap City—Middle 998.4 864.0 902.6 856.2 750.1 756.2 1085.2 1091.2 902.4
Cap City—Outer 949.3 859.5 750.2 864.0 675.5 620.4 1097.6 1075.7 859.3
Within  75k of Cap. 745.2 800.6 714.9 688.2 679.0 728.3 911.5 1292.0 742.8
Major non-Capital 758.7 709.7 755.4 672.3 746.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 749.3 652.0 709.7 703.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 677.9 653.9 683.9 865.9 638.1 613.6 1014.8 692.6
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 628.0 618.6 792.9 832.1 638.2 612.1 1056.1 680.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 597.2 623.6 746.0 824.8 592.7 644.0 901.9 674.7
Non-Urban 657.6 681.6 723.0 747.8 673.9 614.1 765.1 772.5 692.7
Total 856.5 814.9 775.9 826.3 706.2 675.3 1002.7 1069.6 815.1

4.2   Taxation

A natural  corollary of income is income tax. The patterns of personal income tax payments, illustrated in Table 4.3, hence largely reflect  the pattern of income shown  in Table 4.2.

Table 4.3: Average annual personal income tax ($’000) paid per taxpayer, 1996–97
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 10.1 9.2 8.0 7.8 6.8 8.2 8.6 9.9 9.0
Cap City—Middle 8.9 7.3 7.1 7.4 6.4 6.5 7.7 9.1 7.7
Cap City—Outer 7.8 7.1 6.1 6.8 6.0 5.5 7.7 8.8 7.1
Within  75k of Cap. 6.8 6.7 5.7 6.6 6.0 6.4 7.2 8.7 6.5
Major non-Capital 7.7 6.7 6.2 6.0 6.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 7.0 5.8 6.4 6.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 6.4 5.9 5.9 8.0 6.4 6.0 7.2 6.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 5.7 5.5 7.0 7.3 5.7 5.8 7.4 6.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 5.1 5.4 6.5 7.3 5.2 6.6 8.1 6.0
Non-Urban 5.5 5.5 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.2 6.5 7.9 5.6
Total 8.0 7.3 6.5 7.3 6.2 6.2 7.6 9.2 7.3

4.3   Income Distribution

In addition  to the average level  of income in an area, the distribution of income between households is important in determining the outcomes of families  and individuals. Table 4.4 shows  the proportion of households with  equivalised ‘lower income’7 in each  location in 1996. (Equivalisation involves  adjustment to the level  of household income to account for different household composition.)

As with  raw income, there  are distinct State and regional patterns. The incidence of ‘lower income’ households was lower in the capitals and higher  in country areas  with  population under  40,000, and particularly high rates were recorded in Tasmania  and South Australia.

While  the incidence of ‘lower income’ households was lower in the capital cities, a majority (51.2  per cent)  of ‘lower income’ households lived in these  locations, with  a further 6.8 per cent  living  on the fringe  of these  cities. 11.2  per cent  lived in either  major non-capital cities, or in towns  of more than 40,000, with  the remaining 30.7  per cent  living  in smaller locations.

Another approach to the measurement of income distribution is the use of a measure such as the Gini Coefficient that considers the ‘equality’ of income distribution. The measure returns  a value  of between 0 (where income is distributed equally to all households) and 1 (where for example, a single  household received all the income). While  the measure provides a useful measure of the ‘equity’ of distribution, it has significant limitations in comparative analysis as it does not reflect  the nuances of distributions. (For example, two distributions may rate the same score, yet be very different  in their  outcomes, depending upon whether one or another  segmen of the distribution is different.) Hence, while comparing the coefficient between locations is useful  for gaining some understanding of the differences, it is not sufficient to claim  that income is distributed ‘more’ or ‘less’ equitably.

       

Table 4.4: ‘Lower income’ households as a proportion of households, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 32.9 38.2 38.2 42.0 46.4 39.2 27.0 29.7 37.4
Cap City—Middle 35.1 39.7 36.2 38.9 44.0 43.8 23.7 23.2 37.7
Cap City—Outer 36.0 38.2 45.1 37.2 49.7 52.4 23.6 23.5 39.1
Within  75k of Cap. 47.5 41.2 49.3 51.1 51.5 47.1 33.6 17.2 46.8
Major non-Capital 48.1 48.5 44.5 50.9 46.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 45.4 52.8 49.8 49.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 52.8         52.9 52.7 40.0 53.0 56.4 22.8 - 51.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000  56.9         55.4         46.2         41.0 55.0 57.3 24.1 - 52.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 59.3   56.2    50.5 43.4 59.7 55.4 60.7 - 54.7
Non-Urban 56.5 52.7 51.1 48.5 52.7   58.0 56.9 39.3 52.7
Total  42.4 42.7 45.0 40.9 48.5 51.1 32.3 25.5 43.2

Given the nature  of the measure, and its derivation, no estimates of variance of the distribution have been  made.

A review of the results  for this measure suggests its key indication is that there  tends to be a high degree of homogeneity within locations, especially outside  of the capitals.

Within  the capitals it points  to higher  income disparities within the inner  ring of suburbs  of the capital cities  confirming other  analysis which has indicated that these  locations have a mix of both high and low income households. The extent of disparity tends to decline with  distance as one moves to the middle  and outer  ring, before  increasing in the peri-urban zone.

Outside  of the capital cities  a range  of features are revealed. In New South Wales, Victoria  and South Australia  all non-capital locations had lower coefficients than their  State average. In Queensland all non-capital locations had higher  coefficients than capital locations with  the exception of inner  Brisbane. At the national level  it must be noted  that the differences in the coefficients for locations not only reflect  the variation within this type  of location in each  State, but also between States. In a number  of cases  the resulting national coefficient is therefore higher than it may have been  expected based  upon the individual State results.

Table 4.5: Household income distribution, Gini Coefficients, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 0.421 0.430 0.414 0.426 0.426 0.415 0.389 0.411 0.427
Cap City—Middle 0.406 0.386 0.375 0.398 0.380 0.379 0.356 0.362 0.395
Cap City—Outer 0.378 0.373 0.355 0.361 0.370 0.367 0.335 0.332 0.375
Within  75k of Cap. 0.393 0.355 0.366 0.378 0.388 0.371 0.344 0.361 0.378
Major non-Capital 0.406 0.390 0.382     0.385     0.394
Town Pop. 40,000+ 0.384 0.376 0.383           0.383
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 0.393 0.379 0.390 0.398 0.385 0.383 0.336   0.393
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 0.386 0.377 0.404 0.380 0.388 0.378 0.333   0.393
Town Pop. < 2,000 0.384 0.390 0.407 0.408 0.387 0.394 0.351   0.400
Non-Urban 0.393 0.390 0.385 0.390 0.385 0.373 0.376 0.421 0.388
Total 0.413 0.399 0.388 0.396 0.394 0.387 0.355 0.370 0.402

4.4   Summary

Taken together, the data indicate that incomes in non-metropolitan areas, at both the individual and the household level, tend to be lower than in the capital cities. This is also reflected in the proportion of lower income households in these  areas, around  10 to 15 percentage points higher  outside  of the capitals. Notwithstanding this, most low income households still live in the capitals.

Income  distribution within locations is generally more equal  in the non-capital locations.

These findings  across  locations, however, need  to take into account some important State characteristics, such as the low levels  of income in South Australia  and Tasmania, across  all locations, and the comparatively better  performance of non-metropolitan areas  in Western Australia  and Queensland.

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5 Housing

Housing is an important component of both the physical and social  infrastructure of communities. Home ownership is not only important as a means  of building family wealth and in providing affordable housing over a family’s  lifecycle but also provides a strong  link for people with  the community in which they  have invested. At the same time, it may act as an impediment to regional mobility.

5.1   Commonwealth housing assistance

The Commonwealth provides housing assistance through both the social  security system  and through the Commonwealth–State Housing Agreement (CSHA).

Rent Assistance is a non-taxable income supplement paid to social  security recipients to assist with  the cost of private rent. Rates depend upon the amount  of rent paid and the size of the family unit. Total outlays  on Rent Assistance for the 1997–98 financial year  were estimated at $1.5  billion. This program expenditure has been  included in the data used in analysing the distribution of income support payments.

The CSHA is a formal agreement between the Commonwealth and the States and Territories for the provision of housing assistance. Administration of housing programs under  the CSHA is the responsibility of State and Territory  governments while the Commonwealth is involved in setting strategic directions and priorities. The priority client  group  for public rental  housing is people on low incomes, primarily those  receiving social  security payments.

Under the CSHA in 1998–99, the Commonwealth made  available $967  million  to States and Territories. This included $773  million  in general funding, primarily for the provision of public rental  housing, $91 million  for the Aboriginal  Rental Housing Program, $64 million  for the Community Housing Program  and $40 million  for the Crisis Accommodation Program. Housing Ministers  have agreed in principle to a new  agreement for the period  July 1999  to June 2003.

As at September 1998, there  were 940,460 families  receiving Rent Assistance. Of these, 42 per cent  lived outside  of the capital cities. Average  rents in the capital cities  are higher  than in regional areas  ($112.32 per week compared to $103.23 per week) and the average amount  of Rent Assistance paid is therefore less. However, the difference in the average amount  paid ($30.02 per week compared to $29.40 per week) is not substantial. Non-metropolitan private renters tend to receive proportionately more assistance in relation to the rents  they  pay. This is because Rent Assistance only continues to increase until rent reaches a cut-off level  that is different  for different  family types. More people in non-metropolitan areas  pay rents above this level  and consequently Rent Assistance represents a smaller  proportion of their  rent.

5.2   Tenure

Housing tenure has three  main forms—home ownership, private  rental  and public housing. The first and last of these  are considered below, with  private rental  representing the balance in most locations.

Home ownership

Home ownership rates are lowest in the inner  city locations and highest in non-urban  locations and smaller  towns. The low level  of ownership in inner  cities  results  from the concentration  of rental  accommodation in these  locations and high dwelling costs.

Within  the capitals, home ownership rates tended to be higher  in the middle  and outer  parts of capital cities  and surrounding locations. In contrast to these  rates, the levels  of home ownership in the large  non-capital cities, in almost all States, are relatively low. The rates increase with diminishing size of location before  increasing very strongly in non-urban  communities.

There are also some strong  State patterns. There were extremely high levels  of home ownership in Victoria  in all locations other  than central Melbourne and very low rates in the Northern Territory. Lower levels  of home ownership also occurred in Queensland, except in non-urban localities.

Public housing

The distribution of households in public rental  accommodation reflects historic and current State Government policies regarding the amount  and location of public housing. Under the current CSHA, the distribution of public housing is determined by State and Territory  housing authorities, in line with  strategic directions agreed with  the Commonwealth.

Table 5.1: Home ownership rate, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 57.6 62.7 59.5 62.5 65.0 63.3 37.8 56.3 60.5
Cap City—Middle 72.3 80.2 75.1 73.9 75.2 77.3 52.4 69.5 75.3
Cap City—Outer 74.6 81.4 69.1 81.6 72.2 70.7 55.0 74.1 76.2
Within  75k of Cap. 75.3 83.5 72.6 75.2 78.2 75.1 65.2 83.2 77.1
Major non-Capital 70.6 75.1 60.0 71.8 66.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 67.0 72.8 65.5 68.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000  70.0 70.5 64.6 60.9 60.3 70.3 46.2 - 67.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 72.3 76.5 64.2 64.7 71.0 75.0 24.0 - 70.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 75.9 82.5 60.5 70.2 79.0 78.4 11.4 - 72.8
Non-Urban 79.2 83.6 80.0 76.2 80.9 81.8 46.7 32.1 80.7
Total 69.5 75.5 67.6 71.4 71.9 73.8 46.0 66.5 70.9

In 1996  overall, the Northern  Territory, South Australia  and the Australian  Capital  Territory  had the highest proportions of households in public housing, followed by Tasmania. The most distinctive single  regional feature  is the very low provision of this form of housing in non-urban areas  and in small towns. Indeed  the rate of provision in non-urban  areas  was only one-third  of the national average.

Within  States, however, patterns of provision vary:

New South Wales  had a concentration in the outer  ring of Sydney  (but not in the adjacent region) and in its largest  non-capital regions.

The level  of provision of public housing in Melbourne was relatively low, and was concentrated in the inner  city region. In contrast, while provision in medium-sized towns  in Victoria  was quite  low in comparison with  national rates, it was well  above the State average.

As with  New South Wales, public housing in Brisbane  was concentrated in the outer suburbs, with  rates a little  above the State average in the larger  non-capital city locations.

  • South Australia  and the Northern  Territory  had similar  patterns within their  capitals of concentrations on the fringe, but also, to a lesser  extent in the centre of the city, they  also had a very strong  concentration in the larger  of the non-capital cities.

The high level  of public housing in a number  of the larger  non-capital centres often reflects a previous period  when  housing was offered  as an incentive for workers to relocate to particular regional industries. Many of these  centres have seen  major declines in employment in recent years  and workers who  were not home-owners have tended to leave the area. Surplus  public housing has then been  taken  up by people from capital cities  and other  locations because waiting list times were far shorter  or even  non-existent. Public  housing, therefore, may have reduced the degree of depopulation that might  have otherwise occurred. There has though, in the process, been  a change in community identity and a number  of issues  associated with concentrations of disadvantage and distance from usual  family supports. In some areas, the availability of excess public housing may make it hard for private landlords to let their properties at economic rents and this has been  the source of some complaint.

Table 5.2: Proportion of households renting from state housing authorities, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 5.3 4.9 4.2 5.8 9.7 3.7 13.2 15.3 5.8
Cap City—Middle 5.9 - 5.1 5.5 8.1 9.7 12.4 7.9 5.2
Cap City—Outer 7.5 - 7.1 3.5 14.7 10.3 18.1 8.4 6.3
Within  75k of Cap. 3.9 - 4.5 4.4 5.8 11.4 17.2 3.2 4.4
Major non-Capital 8.4 5.3 4.3 7.7 6.3
Town Pop. 40,000+ 8.0 5.5 5.3 6.2
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 5.6 7.0 3.9 9.1 24.9 12.4 21.9 7.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 4.6 4.8 2.8 7.8 9.2 9.2 24.1 5.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 2.6 2.8 3.4 3.7 4.4 3.5 10.9 3.5
Non-Urban 1.2 1.9 1.2 3.0 2.5 1.9 1.5 20.8 1.7
Total 5.9 3.5 4.2 5.3 10.2 7.6 16.2 10.5 5.5

5.3   Dwelling structure

Most housing in Australia  is in the form of detached dwellings, with  attached housing playing an increasingly important role in capital cities, especially in inner  urban  locations and in Sydney. In addition, the quality of the Australian  housing stock is high, with  other  data indicating that this holds across  most locations. While  detailed data on housing quality are not available at this level of analysis, the incidence of two forms of dwellings does provide  some indication of whether problems occur  in the housing infrastructure of regions. These are the use of caravans and improvised dwellings. These measures are, however, not unambiguous in their  interpretation and should  be viewed as broad indicators and not specific measures.

While  caravans played only a small (1.4  per cent)  role in meeting national housing need  in 1996, this response has very distinct regional incidence. At a national level  of aggregation, living in caravans accounted for some 4 per cent  of housing in locations of 2,000  to 40,000 people. Rates much  higher  than this were, however, recorded in parts of the Northern  Territory, Western Australia  and Queensland.

Table 5.3: Proportion of households living in caravans, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 5.5 0.1 0.1
Cap City—Middle 0.2 0.2 1.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 4.7 0.0 0.4
Cap City—Outer 0.5 0.6 1.2 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.6
Within  75k of Cap. 1.9 0.8 2.8 1.4 1.5 0.3 6.9 0.0 1.7
Major non-Capital 0.9 0.9 2.7 0.4 1.6
Town Pop. 40,000+ 0.7 0.6 3.1 1.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 3.2 2.0 5.2 6.2 1.0 1.0 3.1 3.5
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 3.1 1.1 7.5 9.7 3.0 1.0 16.1 4.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 2.9 0.7 8.3 6.5 1.8 0.6 9.8 3.8
Non-Urban 3.2 1.5 3.8 2.7 2.4 1.0 35.9 39.6 3.1
Total 1.2 0.6 2.9 2.0 0.7 0.6 9.3 0.3 1.4

This pattern is likely  to reflect  three  factors:

  • lack of adequate housing;
  • the extent to which some of these  locations reflect  tourist  and retirement locations; and
  • the capacity of this form of housing to meet  varying  rental  needs  in smaller  locations.

This latter  response takes  account of the relatively higher  risks for investors in providing rental housing in smaller  locations where there  is often less certainty about the long-term demand  for housing.

The incidence of the use of improvised dwellings8  largely corresponds with  those  areas  with high Indigenous populations. This would  appear to confirm  the inadequacy of housing infrastructure within the Indigenous population.

Reflecting this need  under  the CSHA, $91 million  is provided under  the Aboriginal  Rental Housing Program. Most of these  funds are directed to rural and remote  areas  where there  is insufficient housing. A further  $229  million  is provided for housing and infrastructure through the Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  Commission (ATSIC). Despite  substantial funding, progress in meeting the backlog of need  has been  very slow. The cost of building in remote areas  is very high and, once  built, large  numbers of houses  have not stayed  operational. It is estimated that 40 per cent  of the 12,000 homes  provided for Indigenous people in remote Australia  are currently uninhabitable. Much of the problem can be traced  to poor initial  design and an emphasis on building new  houses  with  too little  attention to how  communities could carry  out the on-going maintenance work  that would  be required. The old ‘build  and forget’ policies are now  being  changed but addressing the problem will  still require significant resources for a significant period  of time.

Table 5.4: Proportion of households living in improvised dwellings, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0
Cap City—Middle 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Cap City—Outer 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
Within  75k of Cap. 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 1.9 0.0 0.1
Major non-Capital 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 0.1 0.1 0.4 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 0.2 0.1 0.8 1.2 0.4 0.1 7.3 0.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 2.8 0.1 1.9 0.9 0.2 0.2 17.0 1.9
Non-Urban 0.5 0.2 1.0 0.8 0.5 0.2 17.6 0.0 0.8
Total 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 4.7 0.0 0.2

5.4   Housing costs

Private  rental  and average mortgage payments are highest in the inner  city and lowest in non- urban  locations, and generally follow  a linear  relationship between these  extremes. There are some exceptions with  high housing costs in some attractive locations (such  as coastal  locations) outside  the capital cities. In other  cases, high housing costs reflect  the high cost of building in remote  locations (for instance, non-urban  Northern  Territory).

Private rents

In 1996, private rents varied  dramatically by region—from a high of an average of $234  per week in inner  Sydney  to $89 in small towns  of less than 2,000  people in South Australia.

In large  part, these  costs appear to reflect  dwelling values, although the very low rates in locations such as South Australia  may reflect  surplus housing stock associated with  the population decline experienced by those  regions.

With the exception of the Northern  Territory, the lower rents in non-capital cities  would suggest that there  is no systematic shortage of private rental  accommodation in smaller  centres, notwithstanding the low level  of public housing availability and generally smaller  private rental sectors. As noted  above, this may in part be as a result  of the market  responding in flexible ways to transient housing needs  through alternatives to conventional rental  housing, such as caravans.

Table 5.5: Private renters, average weekly rents ($ per week), 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 234.3 169.9 157.4   140.6 137.0 135.5 202.7 187.2 187.0
Cap City—Middle 209.8  156.7 163.8 152.3 137.1        142.2 199.5 164.8       173.8
Cap City—Outer 178.4 146.1  145.4  147.8        136.7       131.5 222.3 167.4 156.9
Within  75k of Cap. 154.4  142.6 155.8   130.8        130.8        133.4         182.9 202.9 146.9
Major non-Capital 148.2 129.1 172.1 128.3 158.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 130.3 132.7 138.9 134.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 139.9 129.9 164.4 160.0 113.4 118.7 187.2 145.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 130.6 118.0 135.9 127.1 114.7 122.9 181.7 129.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 102.4 102.1 114.0 116.4 89.1 100.9 145.9 105.2
Non-Urban 141.0 112.8 130.2 109.6 100.9 103.9 159.7 136.7 122.9
Total 186.4 151.7 155.3 143.7 131.7 126.1 196.9 174.3 163.1

Mortgage repayments

The variance in mortgage repayments (from an average of $277  per week, again  in inner  Sydney to $114  per week, again  in towns  of under  2,000  in South Australia)  while not as great  as the variation in rents, was still high. The pattern of repayments also resembled the pattern of rents.

In large  part, this reflects the underlying variation in house  values  that result  in households taking  out smaller  mortgages to achieve home ownership. A second  factor that influences the average rate of mortgage repayment is the age composition and growth rate of the population. Where  the population is older, and has fewer  new  settlers, the pool of mortgages reflected in the data tends to be older  than would  otherwise be the case. As most loans are credit  foncier loans with  fixed  nominal  repayments comprising both interest and principal, this means  that the average level  of repayments tends to decline over time.

As with  rents, higher  mortgage repayments were recorded in 1996  in the Northern  Territory, the Australian  Capital  Territory  and Sydney.

Table 5.6: Purchasers with mortgages, average weekly mortgage repayments ($ per week), 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 277.3 229.0 227.9 201.7 195.0 191.1 228.5 225.8 235.2
Cap City—Middle 256.3 196.8 210.4 197.6 170.1 153.4 212.1 223.3 210.9
Cap City—Outer 234.7 193.7 190.3 196.1 161.6 140.8 219.3 232.9 203.2
Within  75k of Cap. 222.6 187.3 207.1 178.8 165.9 163.1 216.4 325.0 195.4
Major non-Capital 206.7 158.6 214.9 153.2 199.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 187.4 151.4 185.2 174.2
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 192.2 153.8 192.3 183.7 146.7 136.1 218.8 179.8
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 174.9 145.6 173.6 147.6 140.6 141.5 192.7 164.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 145.0 136.5 144.5 151.9 114.1 140.3 120.2 139.8
Non-Urban 177.9 160.5 189.7 158.6 149.1 142.4 223.0 246.7 172.0
Total 226.6 189.6 200.6 190.3 166.9 151.9 216.4 228.2 200.5

5.5   Summary

Differences between locations occurred with  regard  to the tenure, cost and form of housing. Rents, mortgages and home ownership rates were all higher  in the capitals than in the remainder of States. While  rents and mortgage repayments tended to fall with  diminishing centre size, home ownership rates tended to pick  up in the smaller  centres.

The major non-capital cities  and larger  towns  showed a number  of characteristics which differentiated them from other  locations. These included high levels  of public housing, low levels  of home ownership, and in the major centres at least, moderate rent levels.

Smaller  locations, in addition  to their  lower costs saw, however, a relatively high incidence of the use of alternative housing—either caravans or improvised housing. While  some of this may reflect  the nature  of the location and a flexible market  response to housing needs, it may give rise to some questions as to the adequacy of housing stock.

[ Return to Top   Return to Section ]

6 Department of Family and Community Services: income support

The Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) is responsible for the Commonwealth’s major income support programs. This section considers the relative impact  of these  programs in different  locations.

It considers the current pattern of assistance, based  upon 1998  recipient data, and also draws upon more detailed analysis of the role of income support in 1996. This analysis is based  upon research (Bray & Mudd 1998) which was undertaken to estimate the contribution transfer payments, and in particular those  payments made  by the then Department of Social Security (DSS), made  to local  economies. The analysis has been  revised for this paper  to incorporate updated taxation and other  data and an expanded methodology. The date of the ‘snapshot’ remains 1996  as this allows  for a point-in-time  comparison of both income support and Census  data.

6.1   Role of income support: 1996

The contribution of income support payments to total income of an area was derived by taking the total value  of income support payments in a location as a proportion of the net income in the location as estimated from Census  and taxation data.

The contribution of payments by DSS is shown  in Table 6.1. This shows  rises from low rates in the most urbanised areas  to peak  in those  areas  where a majority of the population live in larger towns  of between 10,000 and 40,000 people. It then falls in the least urbanised areas  but remains at rates higher  than those  in the most urbanised areas.

Across the States, the greatest reliance upon this source of income occurs  in Tasmania  followed by South Australia. Queensland is slightly above the national average, Victoria  almost on the average while New South Wales  is slightly below. Western Australia  is below the average and the two Territories are significantly below the average, the Australian  Capital  Territory  being  the lowest. In the Northern  Territory, larger  contributions from this source were found in smaller towns  of under  2,000  people.

The pattern changes only slightly across  locations with  the expansion of the measure of income support to incorporate a wider range  of payments by including those  made  through the Community Development Employment Program  (CDEP) operated by the Aboriginal  and Torres Strait Islander  Commission, Department of Veterans  Affairs (DVA) pensions, and payments to students by the former Department of Employment, Education, Training  and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). Overall, these  additional payments tend to reinforce the pattern of contributions  of DSS payments.

As such, while the contribution to income of payments in the centre of cities  rises, the extent of the contribution in these  locations remains at a level  significantly below the national average. Meanwhile, the rates in locations that are already high grew  more strongly. This is largely as a result  of the pattern of DVA payments, which were the largest  component, reinforcing the pattern of payment of other  assistance. While  the Northern  Territory  remains the State with  the second  lowest contribution to income from these  sources, the inclusion of the additional payments has significant effects  in the least urbanised areas  due to the impact  of CDEP.

As a result, such transfer  payments account for some 15 per cent  of income in the capital cities, rising  to 20 per cent  in other  locations. This reflects both higher  levels  of use of such transfers and lower incomes in these  locations. More than 25 per cent  of the net income is derived from transfer  payments in a number  of locations. These include small towns  of fewer  than 2,000  in New South Wales, towns  of over 40,000 in Victoria, a range  of both capital city and other locations in Tasmania, as well  as smaller  settlements in the Northern  Territory, where CDEP is a major source of income.

                                                                                                      

Table 6.1: Proportion of net disposable income derived from DSS transfer payments, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 9.9 12.9 10.7 13.3 16.3 10.9 6.3 7.5 11.6
Cap City—Middle  10.8 14.1 11.4 12.2 15.4 15.7 8.2 5.9 12.3
Cap City—Outer 12.4 12.5 17.2 11.4 19.5 22.5 8.5 6.1 13.3
Within  75k of Cap. 17.2 13.2 17.4 19.6 17.5 17.5 12.8 6.1 16.3
Major non-Capital 18.5 18.8 14.6 18.2 16.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 15.7 21.0 18.4 18.3
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 19.5 19.3 18.2 11.8 21.1 23.6 7.7 18.2
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 20.5 20.1 14.1 11.3 19.1 22.7 8.2 17.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 22.4 18.1 13.4 9.2 19.8 19.5 17.5 16.6
Non-Urban 18.2 15.5 16.9 10.1 15.6 21.9 13.9 5.8 16.3
Total 14.0 14.3 14.7 12.3 17.2 18.7 9.8 6.5 14.2

 

14.9 14.9

Table 6.2: Proportion of net disposable income derived from all transfer payments, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 11.7 15.1 13.8 16.0 19.6 14.8 7.4 9.7 140
Cap City—Middle 13.1 16.6 14.1 14.9 18.3 19.9 9.3 7.4 14.8
Cap City—Outer 14.3 14.9 19.9 13.4 22.8 27.7 9.6 7.2 15.5
Within  75k of Cap. 21.0 15.4 20.8 23.4 20.6 20.4 16.0 9.4 19.5
Major non-Capital 21.3 22.0 17.6 22.9 19.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 18.6 25.5 21.4 21.7
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 23.2 22.7 21.5 14.8 24.6 27.4 9.0 - 21.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 24.4 23.6 16.6 22.6 26.3 12.4 - 21.2
Town Pop. < 2,000-10,000 26.4 21.8 16.9 11.0 22.9 22.7 34.5 - 20.6
Non-Urban 21.3 18.2 20.2 13.4 18.7 25.1 24.3 6.2 19.5
Total 16.5 16.9 17.7 15.0 20.3 22.6 13.8 8.1 16.9

A second  measure from this study  was the proportion of children for whom  the payment of family assistance was claimed at above minimum rates. This shows  a similar  pattern with  a greater concentration in the least urbanised areas  and non-urban  localities. While  in a number  of less ‘dependent’ locations such assistance was claimed for a quarter or less of children, this rises to over half in many other  areas.

The most striking  feature  is the relatively higher  proportion of children assisted  in the Northern Territory  compared to the proportion of adults. A consequence of this is that the Territory’s ranking  increases from below New South Wales  and Victoria  to above. Non-urban areas  in Queensland, locations in the outer  tier of Brisbane, as well  as locations within 75 kilometres of Brisbane, also have notably  high proportions of children assisted.

The proportion of adults  assisted  by DSS payments shows  a similar  pattern to the contribution of payments to income. One point of difference is the slightly higher  ranking  of Victoria  relative to Queensland in terms  of the number  of people assisted.

                         

Table 6.3: Proportion of children for whom family allowance was claimed at above minimum rates, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 31.5 35.2 30.5 38.3 38.0 29.8 23.2 26.5 33.5
Cap City—Middle 32.0 37.5 35.4 36.9 42.3 44.2 36.7 23.8 35.6
Cap City—Outer 36.3 35.0 50.1 36.3 48.2 54.3 33.0 24.6 38.6
Within  75k of Cap. 41.4 38.4 48.3 44.4 46.2 48.2 47.8 19.9 42.8
Major non-Capital 39.3 42.9 44.9 49.2 42.6
Town Pop. 40,000+ 40.7 54.0 49.4 47.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 49.0 50.4 52.5 42.0 50.1 55.3 34.3 - 49
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 50.9 51.8 44.9 41.6 52.4 49.8 43.2 - 48.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 58.6 47.5 46.3 37.6 49.9 47.5 45.7 - 48.4
Non-Urban 48.7 45.4 48.5 43.8 44.4 55.2 54.0 13.3 47.4
Total 39.7 39.9 45.0 38.9 44.7 49.2 40.9 24.7 41.1

Table 6.4: Proportion of adults benefitinga from DSS transfer payments, 1996 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 24.4 29.8 24.6 29.0 34.2 25.5 15.9 19.7 27.2
Cap. City—Middle 24.3 29.3 24.3 26.7 31.4 32.5 18.9 15.7 26.6
Cap City—Outer 25.6 26.7 32.0 24.3 36.6 40.3 18.8 15.3 27.4
Within  75k of Cap. 33.7 27.0 32.5 36.8 34.0 33.8 25.1 17.2 32.0
Major non-Capital 36.1 36.2 29.2 34.8 33.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 31.1 38.2 34.7 34.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 36.1 36.3 34.7 25.6 39.9 42.2 17.7 34.9
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 36.2 37.3 28.7 23.7 36.3 40.3 18.2 33.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 37.6 34.2 25.9 22.0 35.7 36.4 23.4 31.3
Non-Urban 33.7 30.2 31.2 21.7 30.6 38.2 21.7 13.5 30.9
Total 29.4 30.1 29.4 26.6 34.0 35.7 19.9 16.9 29.5

Note
a   As this analysis has sought  to identify  the number  of people who  benefit  from transfers, rather  than from actual claimants, both members of couples have been  included in measuring the impact  of family payments.

6.2   Income support recipients 1998

Significant changes in the structure of income support payments, in particular relating to youth between 1996  and 1998, make inter-temporal comparisons difficult  to measure. Table 6.5 provides an estimate of the underlying trend  in recipient levels, excluding youth.

Evident from this is the overall  increase in the number  of recipients over the period. The exceptions to this increase have been  in the central city locations of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane  and Perth, all of which have witnessed declines in the overall  number  of recipients. Locations  within 75 kilometres of the capital city have experienced the greatest increase in the number  of recipients over the period. This was more moderate in New South Wales, and is not inconsistent with  the higher  rates of population growth in these  locations over the same period.

As in New South Wales, Victoria  had stronger increases in medium sized towns  and the outer and middle  tiers of the capital city. Larger towns  with  a population of 40,000 along  with  small towns  had lower growth in Queensland. Tasmania  had a high growth rate overall, with  higher rates of growth across  most of the State. However, the territories show  the highest rates of growth. The Northern  Territory  saw a decline in smaller  towns  but a large  increase in medium size towns  of between 2,000  and 40,000 people, as well  as a large  increase in the centre of the city.

While  the smaller  centres of fewer  than 2,000  people showed a lower growth rate than other locations, this needs  to set against  their  population that fell over the period.

Table 6.5: Changes in number of income support recipients (excluding youth), 1996–1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner –3.2 –1.4 –0.4 –1.9 2.3 7.4 19.1 0.9 –1.2
Cap City—Middle 6.8 6.6 8.6 3.2 5.7 9.1 2.7 18.7 6.6
Cap City—Outer 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.7 6.7 9.2 2.8 16.4 8.7
Within  75k of Cap. 7.4 11.7 17.2 10.0 10.9 12.4 14.3 27.6 10.8
Major non-Capital 5.6 5.7 8.4 7.5 6.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 6.4 4.4 4.4 5.0
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 8.1 7.7 9.2 5.0 3.5 5.7 35.0 7.8
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 9.0 6.1 5.2 6.4 6.2 9.1 25.7 7.7
Town Pop. < 2,000 5.2 2.3 5.7 9.0 5.4 8.4 –5.5 5.1
Non-Urban 8.3 7.1 9.2 6.9 6.9 9.7 2.4 3.8 8.1
Total 5.8 5.4 7.7 4.8 5.5 8.7 11.0 11.0 6.1

Current recipients

It is estimated that 34.7  per cent  of the population aged  over 15 years  gained a benefit  from income transfers  from FaCS in 1998. (This proportion differs from other  estimates of the impact as it relates to persons gaining benefit  from the payment rather  than being  recipients of assistance. As such, in general, where a family payment is made  at above minimum rates to a couple, the data count  both members of the couple as ‘benefiting’ from the payment. Similarly, when  only one member of a couple is a beneficiary of a payment both are counted. Given this and the inclusion of persons on partial  rates of assistance, it is also important to note that the data do not report ‘dependence’ upon the assistance; in many cases  the financial support may represent a small proportion of a household’s total income.)

Table 6.6: Estimated proportion of the population over 15 years assisted by FaCS income support payment (excluding minimum rate Family Assistance), 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 26.2 32.5 27.4 31.6 37.9 31.4 20.4 22.6 29.8
Cap City—Middle 28.9 34.7 29.8 31.1 36.7 38.6 21.9 21.3 31.6
Cap City—Outer 31.1 32.7 39.1 30.4 42.7 47.3 22.1 20.5 33.3
Within  75k of Cap. 38.9 34.2 42.2 43.5 41.4 42.5 31.6 24.7 38.9
Major non-Capital 40.7 41.5 34.6 41.5 38.2
Town Pop. 40,000+ 36.4 44.9 39.5 40.2
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 42.6 43.3 41.2 29.5 44.2 48.4 25.3 41.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 43.1 44.1 33.2 27.9 42.2 47.6 25.1 39.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 43.8 39.5 30.2 26.8 41.5 43.4 24.3 36.5
Non-Urban 40.7 37.0 38.3 27.0 36.5 46.8 24.3 16.0 37.6
Total 34.1 35.4 35.1 31.1 39.3 42.8 24.3 21.5 34.7

On this basis, it is estimated that 34.7  per cent  of the population aged  over 15 years  gained some benefit. This proportion ranged  from 29.8  per cent  in inner  capital city locations to 41.1  per cent  in towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people, and by State from 21.5  per cent  in the Australian  Capital  Territory  to 42.8  per cent  in Tasmania  and 39.3  per cent  in South Australia.

This assistance is provided through a wide  range  of programs. The focus in this discussion is on the major forms of income support: pensions for the aged, support for people seeking employment, support for those  with  a longer  term disability, support for sole parents and the payment of Youth Allowance to young  people undertaking education, training and job search. In all cases, partners have been  included in the numbers, unless  they  obtain  a separate benefit  in their own  right.

Table 6.7: Estimated proportion of the population over 15 years benefiting from a FaCS income support payment by type of assistance, 1998 (%)
SLA Type Age pension Newstart, MAAa& NMAb Disability Support Pension Parenting Payment(Single) Youth Allowance Other Total
Persons  Benefiting as a Proportion of Population Aged Over 15
Cap. City—Inner 11.84 5.49 3.79 1.63 2.28 4.72 29.75
Cap. City—Middle 11.37 5.28 3.84 2.13 2.66 6.35 31.63
Cap. City—Outer 10.11 5.99 4.09 3.13 2.85 7.17 33.34
Within  75k of Cap. 12.97 6.77 4.81 3.57 2.57 8.25 38.94
Major non-Capital 13.44 7.84 4.76 3.04 2.80 6.29 38.17
Town Pop. 40,000+ 12.95 7.79 5.10 3.41 3.54 7.44 40.23
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 13.31 8.29 5.27 3.42 2.95 7.81 41.05
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 12.87 7.47 5.01 3.02 2.54 8.58 39.49
Total Pop. < 2,000 11.31 6.77 4.56 2.48 2.16 9.19 36.47
Non-Urban 10.91 7.14 4.71 2.55 2.67 9.66 37.64
Total 11.76 6.40 4.33 2.62 2.65 6.90 34.66
Distribution by Type of Assistance
Cap. City—Inner 39.8 18.5 12.7 5.5 7.7 15.9 100.0
Cap. City—Middle 35.9 16.7 12.1 6.7 8.4 20.1 100.0
Cap. City—Outer 30.3 18.0 12.3 9.4 8.5 21.5 100.0
Within  75k of Cap. 33.3 17.4 12.4 9.2 6.6 21.2 100.0
Major non-Capital 35.2 20.5 12.5 8.0 7.3 16.5 100.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 32.2 19.4 12.7 8.5 8.8 18.5 100.0
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 32.4 20.2 12.8 8.3 7.2 19.0 100.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 32.6 18.9 12.7 7.6 6.4 21.7 100.0
Total Pop. < 2,000 31.0 18.6 12.5 6.8 5.9 25.2 100.0
Non-Urban 29.0 19.0 12.5 6.8 7.1 25.7 100.0
Total 33.9 18.5 12.5 7.6 7.6 19.9 100.0

Notes
a   Mature Age Allowance
b   Newstart Mature Age Allowance

In addition  to these  main payments, substantial assistance is provided through payments to low income households with  children, and a number  of smaller  income support programs including: Carer Payment, Widow  Allowance, Drought Relief Payment, Special  Benefit, Family Payment (Workforce), Austudy  for persons over 25 years  and Rehabilitation Allowance.

The relative roles of these  programs is illustrated in Table 6.7 which shows, in aggregate, the distribution of persons benefiting from these  programs as a proportion of the population aged over 15, and the mix of programs within locations.

Aged pensions were the largest  single  payment, and represented just over a third of the total, followed by assistance to the unemployed (18.5  per cent)  and those  with  a long-term  disability (12.5  per cent). Approximately the same numbers were assisted  by aid to sole parents and to students (7.6  per cent)  with  the balancing 19.9  per cent  receiving another  form of support. The major element was family workforce payments.

The mix of assistance varied  between locations. Much of this was driven  by the differences in family support. This was particularly noticeable in inner  urban  locations where the numbers of families  relatively were small and those  who  lived there  tended to be more affluent. Once these variations are taken  out, the aggregate proportions in receipt of assistance become much  more stable.

While  there  is a tendency for there  to be slightly more age pensioners in the population aged over 15 in non-metropolitan areas, this is swamped by the even  higher  propensity for other types  of assistance and the age pensioner share  of assistance falls.

Each of the major groups  is considered below.

Age pensioners

Age pensioners and their  spouses represented a higher  proportion of the population than any other  groups  of recipients. In total, persons being  assisted  by age pensions represented 33.9  per cent  of all recipients.

In urban  areas, the distribution of these  pensioners, as shown  in Table 6.8, differed  from other groups  by having  a stronger level  of representation in the middle  suburbs. This, however, was not a consistent pattern, with  Perth showing a strong  pattern of higher  rates in the inner locations, and Hobart, where a higher  rate is recorded in the outer  suburbs.

The rate of receipt relative to the population, in all non-capital cities  other  than in the smallest towns  and non-urban  areas, where levels  are broadly  on par with  the capitals, was surprisingly even  at the national level  and was about 1.5 percentage points  above that recorded in the capital.

Much variance occurred by State. In Queensland, there  was a strong  relationship between the size of towns  and receipt, while in New South Wales, towns  of over 40,000 had relatively low rates. Western Australia  showed higher  levels, both in the inner  and middle  regions of Perth and in the area surrounding the city, while its overall  rate, along  with  the two territories, was low.

Table 6.9 shows  aged  pensioners as a proportion of those  aged  over 65 years  of age—in  effect the extent of take up of the Age Pension. The pattern has many points  of similarity with  the actual  distribution of the payments; however, the outer  ring of the capitals showed very high rates. A similar  upward shift occurs  in non-urban  locations.

Table 6.8: Estimated persons assisted by the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over, September 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 10.6 12.7 10.7 12.5 16.4 10.4 2.9 7.9 11.8
Cap City—Middle 11.0 12.6 10.2 10.7 13.1 12.6 3.4 5.9 11.4
Cap City—Outer 9.2 11.1 10.1 8.8 13.9 15.5 3.3 3.8 10.1
Within  75k of Cap. 15.5 9.9 12.0 14.9 14.9 10.7 4.0 7.0 13.0
Major non-Capital 15.6 15.7 10.9 13.3 13.4
Town Pop. 40,000+ 12.0 14.6 12.4 13.0
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 14.5 14.0 13.0 8.4 14.2 14.1 4.0 13.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 14.5 16.4 9.6 7.8 14.0 14.5 2.8 12.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 13.2 16.2 8.0 7.7 14.8 13.1 2.6 11.3
Non-Urban 12.1 12.2 10.0 6.7 12.5 11.8 3.2 2.5 10.9
Total 12.1 12.5 10.7 10.2 14.3 12.7 3.3 5.9 11.8

Table 6.9: Persons assisted by the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 65 years and over, September 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 66.0 73.4 61.6 69.9 75.1 61.4 33.3 55.5 68.7
Cap City—Middle 67.1 85.3 77.4 76.7 82.9 78.9 59.5 70.4 76.4
Cap City—Outer 85.5 88.5 84.6 89.0 90.8 81.6 65.3 83.4 87.1
Within  75k of Cap. 79.2 89.9 79.4 90.6 82.6 86.2 67.1 111.0 83.0
Major non-Capital 88.8 90.8 61.6 79.1 76.6
Town Pop. 40,000+ 85.8 83.9 73.9 80.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 74.7 83.4 61.6 66.5 93.4 82.2 61.8 - 73.6
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 73.1 82.4 65.0 62.9 77.3 82.6 42.2 - 72.6
Town Pop. < 2,000 74.9 73.4 56.3 62.6 74.6 83.4 48.8 - 70.7
Non-Urban 78.9 77.4 79.3 63.0 80.9 86.2 37.5 33.5 78.0
Total 74.7 81.8 69.5 75.2 81.8 79.7 50.0 64.4 76.1

By State, very high ratios were recorded in Victoria  and South Australia  as well  as Tasmania—all of which recorded rates above or near 80 per cent. In New South Wales  and Western Australia, the rates were around  75 per cent. They were even  lower at around  70 per cent  in Queensland, 65 per cent  in the Australian  Capital  Territory  and 50 per cent  in the Northern  Territory.

The magnitude of these  State differences well  overshadowed some of the locational patterns.

Income support for the unemployed

The three  main forms of assistance to this group  are: Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA) and Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA). (As these  data cover  those  who benefit  from the payment, the data also include people who  receive parenting and partnering payments as spouses of these  recipients.)

The distribution of persons assisted  shows  strong  regional components and similarities with  the data in Section  3 on unemployment. Overall, rates of assistance in non-capitals were around 1.5 to 2.0 percentage points  higher  than in the capital cities.

This difference is particularly apparent in New South Wales. In the locations that are most urbanised the proportion of people on unemployment programs is significantly below the national average. In the least urbanised locations, this group  represents a significantly greater proportion of the population than for Australia  as a whole, with  all localities composed of towns with  populations of less than 40,000 people having  rates of 8.1 or higher. In Victoria, the highest use of this assistance is evident in the population in locations ranging  from the major non-capital cities  to locations that have populations predominantly in towns  with  populations of more than 10,000.

In Queensland, while the picture is not as clearly delineated, this population is evident in the middle  group  of non-capital locations. Locations  within 75 kilometres of Brisbane  also have high proportions. A similar  picture emerges in Western Australia  where this is the only location with an above average level  of assistance through these  payments. This is in contrast to the distribution seen  in New South Wales, Victoria  and South Australia.

In contrast to Western Australia, Tasmania  shows  high proportions of people receiving this assistance in all locations, other  than the more central areas  of Hobart, but even  here  the rate was well  above the national average.

If this population is considered as a proportion of those  that are aged  between 15 to 64 years, only the effect of differences in the distribution of the aged  population emerge. In particular, once  the younger age of the Northern  Territory  is taken  into account, the proportion of the population in receipt of unemployment benefits across  that Territory  decreases and does not significantly differ from the proportion for Australia  as a whole. The effect of this change in the population base to those  of working age also becomes apparent in the major non-capital cites of New South Wales  where the rate increases, highlighting the different  capital city and rest of State outcome.

Table 6.10: Persons assisted by Newstart/Mature Age Allowance as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 4.2 6.7 5.2 5.7 6.5 7.1 8.3 4.4 5.5
Cap City—Middle 4.4 6.1 4.7 5.4 6.5 7.7 5.9 4.3 5.3
Cap City—Outer 5.6 5.6 7.5 5.0 8.2 9.2 5.7 4.0 6.0
Within  75k of Cap. 5.8 6.1 8.1 7.8 6.9 9.5 8.4 5.3 6.8
Major non-Capital 7.9 8.3 7.6 8.6 7.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 8.2 8.2 9.3 5.8 10.0 11.2 7.3 8.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 8.1 7.1 6.7 5.0 7.8 10.9 8.2 - 7.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 8.3 5.3 5.5 5.0 7.7 9.8 5.6 - 6.8
Non-Urban 8.3 6.1 7.5 4.4 6.3 11.5 7.0o 6.1 7.1
Total 6.0 6.4 7.0 5.5 7.1 9.5 7.0 4.2 6.4

 

Table 6.11: Persons assisted by Newstart/Mature Age Allowance as a proportion of the population aged 15 to 64, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 5.0 8.1 6.3 6.9 8.4 8.5 9.1 5.1 6.6
Cap City—Middle 5.2 7.1 5.4 6.3 7.7 9.2 6.3 4.7 6.2
Cap City—Outer 6.3 6.4 8.5 5.6 9.7 11.4 6.0 4.2 6.8
Within  75k of Cap. 7.2 6.9 9.6 9.3 8.5 10.8 8.9 5.7 8.0
Major non-Capital 9.5 10.1 9.2 10.4 9.5
Town Pop. 40,000+ 7.6 10.4 9.9 9.3
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 10.2 9.8 11.8 6.6 11.8 13.6 7.8 - 10.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 10.1 8.9 7.9 5.7 9.5 13.2 8.8 - 9.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 10.1 6.8 6.4 5.7 9.7 11.7 6.0 - 8.1
Non-Urban 9.8 7.2 8.6 5.0 7.4 13.4 7.7 6.5 8.3
Total 7.2 7.6 8.2 6.3 8.7 11.3 7.5 4.7 7.6

Payment of Disability Support Pension

These payments are made  to persons with  long-term  disabilities that impair  their  capacity for employment. The general pattern of the ratio of persons assisted  through the Disability  Support Pension  to population closely resembles that of unemployment related payments.

The features of this distribution are:

  • Lower rates in the capitals—with the pattern of variation between tiers differing  by State. In Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide  and Hobart there  was a marked  concentration in the outer ring. In contrast in Melbourne, the peak  concentration was in the middle  suburbs.
  • Higher rates of assistance in the areas  adjacent to the capitals and in major non-capital city cities, rising  to a peak  for towns  of 10,000 to 40,000 people and remaining relatively high for the next  group  of locations. In Western Australia, it was again  the group  of locations within 75 kilometres of Perth which had the highest rates.
  • The rates then tended (although not in all States)  to fall in small towns  of fewer  than
    2,000  people and in non-urban  locations. As a result  of this fall, these  localities have rates between those  recorded in the capitals and the larger  towns.
  • High levels  of receipt occurred in Tasmania  and in South Australia, and lower rates in Western Australia  and the Australian  Capital  Territory. In contrast to support for persons who  are unemployed, the rate in the Northern  Territory  is also low.

Once this ratio is limited  to the population of working age only, non-urban  areas  of New South Wales  move slightly closer  to the national average. However, this is not sufficient to reduce the above average rate for New South Wales, making  this the only payment considered here  where this occurs. Queensland now  shows  a significant divergence from the national average in the outer  tier of Brisbane. In South Australia, a similar  pattern to the spread  of all recipients is evident, with  the exception of higher  concentrations of this population in the centre of Adelaide.

Table 6.12: Persons assisted by the Disability Support Pension as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 3.3 4.1 3.4 3.9 5.2 4.0 3.2 2.6 3.8
Cap City—Middle 3.4 4.4 3.5 3.6 4.8 5.5 3.0 2.2 3.8
Cap City—Outer 4.0 3.4 5.3 3.6 5.9 7.6 2.8 2.1 4.1
Within  75k of Cap. 4.9 3.6 5.5 6.1 4.8 6.7 3.6 2.5 4.8
Major non-Capital 5.7 4.6 3.8 5.3 4.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 4.9 5.6 4.9 5.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 5.7 5.6 4.6  3.5 6.2 7.8 3.7 - 5.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 5.6 5.3 3.9 3.5 5.9 7.7 2.6 - 5.0
Town Pop. < 2,000 5.8 4.2 3.7 3.4 5.0 6.7 2.1 - 4.6
Non-Urban 5.3 4.3 4.9 3.2 4.3 7.2 2.1 2.7 4.7
Total 4.4 4.2 4.3 3.8 5.2 6.4 2.9 2.3 4.3

Table 6.13: Persons assisted by the Disability Support Pension as a proportion of the population aged 15 to 64 years, September 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 4.0 5.0 4.1 4.8 6.7 4.8 3.6 3.1 4.6
Cap City—Middle 4.1 5.1 4.0 4.2 5.6 6.6 3.1 2.4 4.5
Cap City—Outer 4.4 3.9 6.1 3.9 7.0 9.4 2.9 2.2 4.6
Within  75k of Cap. 6.1 4.0 6.5 7.3 5.9 7.6 3.9 2.6 5.7
Major non-Capital 6.9 5.6 4.6 6.4 5.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 5.7 6.8 5.8 6.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 7.0 6.7 5.8 4.0 7.3 9.5 3.9 - 6.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 7.0 6.6 4.6 4.0 7.2 9.3 2.8 - 6.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 7.0 5.4 4.3 3.9 6.2 7.9 2.2 - 5.4
Non-Urban 6.3 5.1 5.6 3.6 5.1 8.3 2.3 2.9 5.5
Total 5.2 5.0 5.0 4.4 6.3 7.6 3.1 2.5 5.1

Sole parents

The distribution of recipients of single  rate partnering payments to sole parents, relative to the population over 15 years, has a distinct pattern which is relatively consistent across  States.

  • In the capitals, they  are concentrated in the outer  band of suburbs, with  low numbers in the innermost suburbs.
  • The areas  immediately adjacent to the capitals also have high proportion of recipients. This is particularly marked  in Western Australia  and the Northern  Territory.
  • While  the major non-capitals tend to have rates higher  than both their  State and the national averages, the level  of incidence was lower than that in the locations closer  to the capitals, as well  as the next  group  of locations.
  • Towns of over 40,000 have high concentrations in all States.
  • The rate declines in towns  of fewer  than 2,000  people, and in non-urban  locations, although the average for these  is close  to the national average.

The pattern of these  recipients relative to the population aged  over 15 years  largely remains intact  when  this group  is compared with  families  with  children. The main difference occurs within the capitals. As a result  of the distribution of families  with  children in the outer  locations of these  cities, the differences in the distribution of recipients within these  cities, and the adjacent band of towns, becomes more muted, with  the proportion relative to families  in inner capital city locations rising  marginally above that of the middle  ring of suburbs.

By State, a more consistently higher  use of this assistance in Queensland and the Northern Territory  is apparent.

Table 6.14: Persons assisted by Parenting Payment (Single) as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1.4 1.7 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.6
Cap City—Middle 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.1 2.6 2.0 2.1
Cap City—Outer 3.1 2.6 4.1 2.9 3.7 4.0 2.8 2.8 3.1
Within  75k of Cap. 3.6 3.3 3.8 4.1 3.1 3.7 5.2 1.3 3.6
Major non-Capital 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.0
Town Pop. 40,000+ 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.9 3.8 3.4 3.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 3.3 2.8 2.7 3.0 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.0
Town Pop. < 2,000 2.7 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.6 3.9 2.5
Non-Urban 3.0 2.2 2.9 2.2 1.9 2.8 2.6 0.9 2.6
Total 2.6 2.4 2.9 2.7 2.7 3.1 3.1 2.2 2.6

Table 6.15: Persons assisted by Parenting Payment (Single) as a proportion of families with children, 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 8.1 9.6 10.0 11.8 11.6 10.8 13.5 10.4 9.6
Cap City—Middle 8.0 8.7 10.0 11.7 11.8 13.4 12.5 8.6 9.4
Cap City—Outer 12.0 10.6 16.4 11.4 15.8 18.3 11.3 9.6 12.4
Within  75k of Cap. 15.8 12.4 16.5 17.6 14.2 14.2 21.2 5.2 15.0
Major non-Capital 13.7 13.7 17.0 15.2 15.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 15.0 16.2 15.7 15.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 16.4 15.3 18.1 16.2 17.7 16.9 17.0 16.5
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 15.5 13.4 13.3 14.9 12.8 13.2 17.2 14.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 12.9 9.0 11.6 11.9 10.6 12.0 17.4 12.0
Non-Urban 14.1 9.8 13.0 10.5 8.8 12.1 17.2 7.5 11.7
Total 11.9 10.7 14.1 12.7 13.0 14.1 15.9 9.4 12.2

Youth payments

Youth payment recipients, along  with  persons receiving single  rate parenting payments, represent a relatively small proportion of payments. From Table 6.7, it can be seen  that they represent, at 8 per cent, a greater proportion of all recipients in capital cities, in contrast to7 per cent  or lower in all non-capital locations, other  than towns  of 40,000 people or more, where their  share  is 8.8 per cent. This is reflected in the high beneficiary to population ratio for Youth Allowance in the region  of 3.5.

By State, the pattern also shows  some differences from the overall  use of income support. This assistance is relatively more important in Victoria  and the Australian  Capital  Territory, and is less significant in South Australia.

Table 6.16: Persons receiving Youth Allowance as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over, September 1998 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.7 1.4 2.6 2.3
Cap City—Middle 2.2 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.7
Cap City—Outer 2.7 2.9 3.4 2.6 3.2 3.2 2.3 2.5 2.9
Within  75k of Cap. 2.2 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.6 3.4 1.9 2.1 2.6
Major non-Capital 2.7 3.4 2.6 3.4 2.8
Town Pop. 40,000+ 3.1 4.6 3.1 3.5
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 3.0 3.6 2.9 1.9 2.8 3.5 1.3 3.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 2.7 3.2 2.2 1.5 2.3 3.1 1.1 2.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 3.0 2.8 1.6 1.2 2.2 2.4 0.8 2.2
Non-Urban 3.1 2.9 2.7 1.5 2.2 3.0 1.1 1.4 2.7
Total 2.5 3.0 2.7 2.3 2.7 3.2 1.5 2.5 2.7

6.3   Summary

Overall, income support payments play a much  more important role in assisting people and families  outside  of the capital cities. This is accentuated when  the financial value  of the assistance is considered relative to total income. While  some 15 per cent  of income in the capitals is derived from transfer  payments, this rises to 20 per cent  in other  areas. This is reflected within most payment types  with  capital cities  having  a below average rate of utilisation of all payment types  on a per capita  basis.

At the national level, there  was not a large  amount  of variation in the mix of payment types  by region. The most substantial differences related to the relative use of Newstart Allowance, Mature Age Allowance, Newstart Mature Age Allowance, family payments and a range  of small assistance programs.

Other features include:

  • Overall, the larger  towns  had the highest proportions of recipients and income derived from transfer  payments.
  • More generally, most non-capital city locations had higher  proportions of persons assisted through the programs than in the capitals. In New South Wales, these  tended to be unemployment recipients and in Victoria, age pensioners. New South Wales  also had a higher proportion of disability support pensioners in the less urbanised areas.
  • The larger  towns  in Queensland had a higher  proportion of recipients and included significant proportions of single  parenting pensions as a proportion of families. There were lower proportions of age pensioners in Queensland.
  • The locations within 75 kilometres of Perth tended to have higher  proportions of recipients in Western Australia.
  • The Australian  Capital  Territory  and Northern  Territory  had lower proportions of recipients. The Northern  Territory  had higher  proportions of single  parent  pensioners and, with  the inclusion of CDEP, the contributions to incomes in locations outside  Darwin  tended to increase. There were lower proportions of most payment types  in most locations in the Australian  Capital  Territory, Northern  Territory  and Western Australia.

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7 Department of Family and Community Services: services

The Department of Family and Community Services (FaCS) is also involved in the delivery and support of community services. Key components are child  care  and employment support services for the disabled

7.1   Child care

There are two cohorts  of children that use child  care: below school  age children and school  age children. These are usually children where both parents, or single  parents, work  full or part-time in the labour  force but also include children whose parents seek  respite or pursue other  non work-related activities.

Below  school  age children (0–4 years  old plus those  5–6 year  olds that do not attend  school) use long day care  services, either  centre based  or in Family Day Care. School age children (7–12 years  old plus those  5–6 years  old that attend  school) use before  and after school  hours care  services and vacation care  services.

The data in the tables  are derived from the latest  Commonwealth Census  of Child Care Services (1997) which provides the numbers of children attending Commonwealth-funded services by the location of the service.

Table 7.1: Proportion of below school age children (approximately 0–5 years old) attending child care services, 1997 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 33.8 37.9 45.6 30.1 42.2 73.1 20.6 62.2 37.9
Cap City—Middle 28.3 22.7 36.0 21.4 20.3 21.7 19.9 22.6 25.9
Cap City—Outer 28.9 27.8 37.7 21.2 24.6 26.9 39.5 20.8 28.4
Within  75k of Cap. 40.3 21.8 36.9 22.7 20.8 30.2 22.0 0.0 29.7
Major non-Capital 32.6 21.9 42.3 23.0 34.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 32.2 28.1 36.5 32.6
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 35.4 34.4 43.9 24.5 30.2 37.9 25.5 35.0
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 23.6 31.5 25.1 15.5 26.6 13.6 19.8 23.9
Town Pop. < 2,000 3.2 8.9 6.4 8.3 3.2 7.3 3.0 5.6
Non-Urban 7.0 10.2 14.8 4.6 4.3 7.1 2.4 73.0 10.5
Total 29.7 26.5 33.6 21.2 24.0 24.2 18.5 31.0 28.2

This information is compared to the resident child  population of the local  area. In order  to meaningfully consider data in the table, the 10 categories need  to be collapsed. This is because children do not always attend  a child  care  service where they  live, particularly in urban  areas. Instead, the service they  attend  may be close  to a parent’s workplace, on the journey to a parent’s workplace or perhaps near or at the child’s school. For example, data for the Capital City–Inner  category are skewed because there  tends to be a disproportionate number  of services in inner  city areas  compared to the resident children population. These services particularly serve  parents with  young  children who  travel  to the city to work  and prefer  to have their  children close  to them during  the day (PAC 1998).

On this basis, more appropriate categories to look at these  child  care  statistics are:

  • capital cities, including those  localities within 75 kilometres of these;
  • major non-capital population centres, including towns  with  populations over 40,000;
  • areas  composed mainly  of towns  with  populations of 2,000  to 40,000; and
  • localities where people live in settlements of fewer  than 2,000, including non-urban  locations.

This is illustrated in Table 7.2.

Below school age

In 1997, in the national picture of below school  age child  care, Queensland had the highest participation rates in formal child  care  in all geographic regions. Brisbane  and Hobart had almost 40 per cent  participation in below school  age child  care  compared to an average of 30 per cent  nationally in capital cities. Overall, two significant points  emerge from the below school  age tables:

  • Non-capital  areas  with  populations above 2,000  tended to have similar  participation rates in formal child  care  to capital cities.
  • Areas comprising smaller  centres with  populations of fewer  than 2,000  and rural areas  had significantly smaller  proportions of their  children attending child  care  services—8.1 per cent  compared to around  30 per cent  in other  geographical areas.

Two possible explanations for these  lower participation rates in rural areas  are that there  are a limited  availability of suitable services but also that there  may be a stronger preference for informal  care  than that of their  regional and urban  counterparts (Riley  Research 1996; PAC 1998).

Table 7.2: Proportion of below school age children (approximately 0–5 years old) attending child care services, 1997—condensed geography
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Capital  city and surrounding areas 32.8 27.6 39.0 23.9 27.0 38.0 25.5 26.4 30.5
Major non-Capital and population 40,000+ 32.4 25.0 39.4 - - 11.5 - - 33.8
Town Pop. 2,000–40,000 29.5 32.9 34.5 20.0 28.4 25.8 22.6 29.4
Small towns  and non urban 5.1 9.6 10.6 6.4 3.7 7.2 2.7 36.5 8.1
Total 29.7 26.5 33.6 21.2 24.0 24.2 18.5 31.0 28.2

School age

The provision of child  care  services for school  age children is shown  in Table 7.3 and 7.4, reflecting both the detailed and the consolidated geographic outcomes.

Participation rates in child  care  for school  age children were much  lower than for below school age children—7.8 per cent  participation nationally compared to 28.2  per cent  for below school age children. Queensland, South Australia  and Australian  Capital  Territory  had the highest participation rates in school  age child  care—9.6 per cent  and 12.5  per cent  respectively.

Patterns  by location are similar  to below school  age participation, with  low participation in locations of centres with  populations of less than 2,000  and rural areas. Queensland had the highest participation rate in these  areas  at 4.1 per cent  compared to 1.9 per cent  on a national average. New South Wales  and the Northern  Territory  had the lowest participation rate in school  age care  services to their  children in small rural areas. This may be in part explained by the distribution of population with  Queensland having  a greater network of these  very small towns. School age care  may also not be required in areas  where children may be schooled via school  of the air or may attend  boarding school  in the city or regional town.

Table 7.3: Proportion school age children (approximately 6–12 years old) attending child care services, 1997 (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 9.5 11.8 19.6 8.5 16.8 28.0 4.6 16.2 12.4
Cap City—Middle 6.8 7.8 13.8 7.1 12.8 6.9 5.7 13.0 8.8
Cap City—Outer 7.4 9.2 10.9 6.4 12.1 4.8 14.6 10.2 8.7
Within  75k of Cap. 6.9 9.5 8.6 4.9 8.7 9.0 8.2 0.0 7.9
Major non-Capital 6.1 6.1 12.1 6.8 8.5
Town Pop. 40,000+ 7.5 7.0 8.7 7.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 4.8 7.2 6.9 5.3 8.1 8.6 15.0 6.1
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 2.6 9.3 4.9 2.1 8.9 2.8 3.2 4.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 0.1 2.6 3.7 0.2 0.7 1.7 0.3 1.1
Non-Urban 0.6 3.0 4.4 1.6 1.9 0.7 0.1 0.0 2.8
Total 6.2 8.3 9.6 5.7 10.8 6.8 6.6 12.5 7.8

   

Table 7.4: Proportion school age children (approximately 6–12 years old) attending child care services, 1997—condensed geography (%)
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Capital  city and surrounding areas 7.6 9.6 13.2 6.7 12.6 12.1 8.3 9.8 9.5
Major non-Capital and population 40,000+ 6.8 6.6 10.4 3.4 - - 8.1
Town Pop. 2,000–40,000 3.7 8.3 5.9 3.7 8.5 5.7 9.1 - 5.1
Small towns  and non urban 0.4 2.8 4.1 0.9 1.3 1.2 0.2 - 1.9
Total 6.2 8.3 9.6 5.7 10.8 6.8 6.6 12.5 7.8

7.2   Disability employment services

FaCS funds employment and rehabilitation services for people with  disabilities under  the Disabilities Services Act 1986. The aims are to:

  • promote participation and choice in work  for people with  a disability;
  • promote better  employment outcomes for people with  an injury  or a disability;
  • promote equity of access to services and support; and
  • improve the accountability of purchasers and providers of employment assistance.

The disability employment assistance program is one part of the Commonwealth’s general labour  market  assistance program and income support programs. It complements Commonwealth-funded mainstream employment programs and assists  in reducing dependency on the Commonwealth income support programs.

Employment assistance is provided to some 440 non-government organisations through some 880 outlets  and by Commonwealth Rehabilitation Services Australia  (CRS Australia)  through some 160 outlets. Eligibility  for disability employment assistance is determined by Centrelink.

The following data relate  to employment assistance provided through agencies, other  than CRS Australia.

The tables  show  considerable variation in the level  of these  services, relative to the working age population, both by region  and by State.

While  the level  of provision in capital cities  is broadly  in line with  the national average, although concentrated in the inner  areas  of these  cities, the pattern outside  of these  locations is more distinct. Specifically, in the larger  States there  is a concentration of services in the major non-capital cities  and in larger  non-metropolitan areas. In contrast, the level  of service provision in small towns  and in non-urban  locations is quite  low.

It is possible that this pattern reflects the role of these  larger  towns  as service centres, as well as the nature  of the services that require a degree of population concentration.

While  detailed disability data are not available on an equivalent regional basis, some insight  into the distribution of need  for such services can be obtained from consideration of the distribution of Disability  Support  Payment  recipients (Table  6.12). As discussed previously, these recipients are more highly  concentrated in the non-capital city regions, with  particularly high concentrations in Tasmania  and South Australia.

Table 7.5: Disability services, supported employment, consumers on books per 1,000 working aged population, 1997
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1.3 1.0 1.3 2.4 2.9 2.1 0.2 2.2 1.5
Cap City—Middle 1.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.9 2.0 1.3 1.5 1.6
Cap City—Outer 1.3 0.8 0.8 1.2 2.4 3.4 0.8 0.9 1.2
Within  75k of Cap. 1.1 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.3 0.9 0.3 2.3 0.8
Major non-Capital 1.9 1.7 1.0 1.1 1.5
Town Pop. 40,000+ 2.6 4.2 1.4 2.7
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 1.8 2.6 0.8 1.2 3.6 3.9 1.1 1.8
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 1.8 2.9 0.6 0.5 1.7 2.6 0.3 1.6
Town Pop. < 2,000 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 1.3 0.1 0.6 0.5
Non-Urban 1.1 0.8 0.7 0.1 1.1 0.9 0.6 5.4 0.8
Total 1.5 1.2 0.9 1.5 2.5 1.8 0.6 1.5 1.4

 

Table 7.6: Disability services, total open and supported employment, consumers on books per 1,000 working aged population, 1997
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 2.2 3.3 3.6 4.0 3.9 2.7 1.2 4.1 3.1
Cap City—Middle 2.9 3.0 2.8 3.5 3.7 2.6 2.6 3.3 3.1
Cap City—Outer 2.6 2.7 3.0 2.6 3.5 4.3 2.0 2.1 2.7
Within  75k of Cap. 2.6 2.2 1.7 2.9 2.2 1.3 1.0 2.3 2.3
Major non-Capital 3.1 5.6 2.8 2.3 3.2
Town Pop. 40,000+ 5.5 5.3 4.0 4.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 3.4 6.1 1.8 3.4 4.4 5.8 3.3 3.7
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 3.3 6.0 2.6 2.6 2.6 3.9 1.2 3.4
Town Pop. < 2,000 1.5 2.7 0.6 1.4 1.5 0.8 0.6 1.4
Non-Urban 2.1 2.5 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.3 0.8 10.2 1.9
Total 2.8 3.3 2.6 3.0 3.3 2.6 1.6 3.2 3.0

7.3   Summary

Data on these  services indicate much  variation by both nature  of location and by State. There is a broad pattern of higher  levels  of provision in the capital cities  with  some concentration in these  on the inner  suburbs. This may, as in the case of some larger  non-capital city locations with  high levels  of provision, in part at least, reflect  the role of these  locations as regional service centres.

Issues of promoting access to services across  Australia  are identified within each  program as a high priority and initiatives are under  way  to look at how  services can be better  delivered, especially in rural and remote  locations.

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8 Summary measures

The complexity of indicators of needs  and social  outcomes has been  amply  demonstrated in previous sections. To overcome this, an alternative is to use summary indicators that permit  a broad number  of individual characteristics to be brought together. While  such measures are very useful  in providing a ‘big picture’ of relative needs, they  also have their  limitations.

The major limitation is that most policy initiatives seek  to respond to specific need  and remedy particular problems. The use of broad measures of social  outcomes is therefore not usually sufficient to make a judgement as to the need  for a particular policy response. Indeed, it may be quite  misleading as to the nature  of response that is needed in any one particular locality.

Nevertheless, bearing in mind these  limitations, aggregate measures can assist in identifying systematic patterns in outcomes. Four measures are considered here. The first three  are Socio- Economic Indicators developed by the ABS, while the fourth brings  together some of the elements which have been  considered in this paper.

8.1   Measures of socio-economic status

The ABS has developed five Socio-Economic  Indicators For Areas (SEIFA). Of these, two are specifically designed for sub-populations (the  urban  and the rural population respectively) and do not permit  comparisons across  these  boundaries and have thus not been  considered here. The remaining three, which are shown  in Tables 8.1 to 8.3, are:

  • Relative  Socio-Economic  Disadvantage: this takes  into account factors  including low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and jobs in relatively unskilled
    occupations;
  • Index  of Education  and Occupation: this reflects the occupational structure and educational level  of the community; and
  • Index  of Economic Resources: this is based  upon data on income and expenditure, home and car ownership, and dwelling size.

The indexes have been  created by ABS, largely on the basis of Census  data, to permit  the examination of socio-economic aspects of areas. They are ordered so that advantaged areas record  high scores, and disadvantaged low. The ABS notes  that when  they  are used, it is important that the appropriate index  be chosen to reflect  the purpose of the analysis.

The ABS also note that the indexes can be considered to have some weaknesses in that they  do not fully encompass wealth, may not perform  well  with  regard  to different  family structures and do not reflect  questions of access to services [ABS 2039.0].

Although  there  is some variation in the patterns of each  of the measures, a number  of underlying features emerge. The most significant is that amongst  the States, no location outside of the capital cities  scores  an above national average result  under  all three  of the measures and indeed the number  of occurrences of even  one above average ranking  is small.

In more detail:

  • Capital  cities  generally record  high results, although this is not the case in the outer  suburbs of Hobart, Adelaide  and Brisbane.
  • The major non-capital cities, urban  centres around  the capitals, and towns  of more than 40,000 people, while usually lying  below the national average, do not present particularly low scores. The exceptions are towns  of 40,000 or more in Queensland, which show  poor results  under  each  of the three  measures.
Table 8.1: Socio-economic indexes—index of relative socio-economic disadvantage, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1044.8 1030.9 1042.9 1017.0 1004.8 1078.0 1032.1 1084.4 1035.3
Cap City—Middle 1039.1 1014.4 1028.2 1029.2 1001.8 1005.8 1044.2 1102.7 1027.0
Cap City—Outer 1008.5 1029.9 964.5 1025.3 956.3 939.5 1037.0 1087.0 1008.0
Within  75k of Cap. 995.6 1020.2 971.3 945.8 994.2 978.9 996.3 1146.7 992.4
Major non-Capital 974.0 979.8 991.0 977.8 982.1
Town Pop. 40,000+ 991.9 985.6 961.0 978.8
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 971.3 975.4 964.0 978.2 920.9 928.4 1024.4 968.4
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 965.1 983.3 970.5 961.9 949.7 939.2 983.7 967.3
Town Pop. < 2,000 952.0 1007.2 929.2 986.7 966.4 947.3 751.2 948.7
Non-Urban 998.1 1014.2 973.5 977.0 992.9 955.7 817.5 1007.7 987.1
Total 1006.7 1016.0 988.6 1005.7 983.7 974.1 959.2 1091.0 1003.7

Table 8.2: Socio-economic indexes—index of education and occupation, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1091.2 1088.9 1088.3 1050.4 1044.2 1140.6 1061.2 1162.0 1083.9
Cap City—Middle 1045.3 1007.0 1016.1 1028.1 997.0 1000.4 1057.2 1120.1 1025.2
Cap City—Outer 998.2 1003.7 934.8 986.7 948.7 925.5 1057.1 1083.3 987.9
Within  75k of Cap. 979.8 976.9 939.2 904.7 975.8 971.6 985.4 1140.0 964.6
Major non-Capital 981.1 972.7 985.2 977.2 981.7
Town Pop. 40,000+ 985.1 989.7 945.0 972.1
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 966.0 967.4 952.0 954.0 929.3 926.0 1045.4 960.5
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 956.1 964.8 936.0 933.8 926.4 924.3 1006.9 949.5
Town Pop. < 2,000 932.8 970.7 915.5 937.9 926.9 910.4 899.0 931.4
Non-Urban 976.7 978.4 936.0 937.4 948.9 918.5 914.5 1049.7 953.7
Total 1011.8 1013.4 975.0 991.6 982.7 967.6 1002.1 1120.6 1001.6
  • Smaller  towns, which in South Australia  and Tasmania, and to a lesser  extent Queensland, show  consistently poor results. While Victorian  and New South Wales  towns  show  a below average performance, this is not as marked. In Western Australia, the overall  result  is similar but the performance of locations varies  according to the measure used.
  • Non-urban localities fare better  than small and medium towns, and fare close  to the national average on the Index  of Relative  Social Disadvantage and the Index  of Economic Resources.
Table 8.3: Socio-economic indexes—index of economic resources, 1996
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 1038.0 1013.1 1014.2 1007.1 988.2 1013.2 1010.5 1052.6 1019.8
Cap City—Middle 1069.2 1037.6 1058.2 1051.7 1007.7 1006.1 1035.5 1107.3 1050.3
Cap City—Outer 1052.7 1048.1 996.4 1069.0 977.3 952.2 1039.9 1098.6 1039.6
Within  75k of Cap. 1010.9 1029.5 996.7 1009.0 990.4 985.6 992.6 1175.9 1009.8
Major non-Capital 992.6 987.7 988.2 972.3 988.9
Town Pop. 40,000+ 989.8 973.0 968.8 976.9
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 968.9 961.1 966.2 995.9 926.5 940.9 992.4 967.3
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 951.4 960.9 960.7 971.3 947.7 950.8 939.9 956.1
Town Pop. < 2,000 927.9 967.7 908.7 973.4 939.5 947.4 751.6 928.8
Non-Urban 966.7 985.5 983.7 963.4 969.7 952.6 804.8 945.9 975.1
Total 1018.5 1016.5 995.0 1025.3 982.9 970.1 945.2 1086.0 1010.5

8.2   Rankings from analysis

It is also possible to develop a more aggregate analysis from the data used in this paper. This is shown  in Table 8.4. The aim here  is to produce a global  picture by developing a ranking  index based  on the range  of variables considered in this analysis.

Structure of the measure

The measure is based  on the overall  ranking  of the regions based  on the sum of their  rankings on a seven-dimensional scale. (These  rankings in turn are based  upon the sum of the rankings of the individual elements of the component.9) In each  case, the scale  has been  developed so that a ranking  of one is given  to the location with  the ‘best’ outcomes. The components of this scale comprise:

  • Demography
    This includes youth  and age dependency, population growth, the proportion of Indigenous population and migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds and the extent of population stability.
Table 8.4: Locational rankings—overall and component ranks
State Location Demography Human Resources Labour Market Income Housing Income Support Services Overall Rank
NSW Capital City—inner tier 25 16 24 20 52 1 39 16
Vic Capital City—inner tier 21 7 49 29 36 4 19 11
Qld Capital City—inner tier 50 6 19 30 48 3 9 11
WA Capital City—inner tier 55 11 31 40 16 6 20 18
SA Capital City—inner tier 31 10 55 51 14 14 2 16
Tas Capital City—inner tier 36 2 28 33 17 23 7 6
NT Capital City—inner tier 57 26 5 14 68 15 56 34
ACT Capital City—inner tier 34 1 27 17 43 9 12 5
NSW Capital City—middle tier 17 24 25 19 46 8 41 20
Vic Capital City—middle tier 4 26 46 18 24 31 49 21
Qld Capital City—middle tier 32 18 11 10 38 23 23 8
WA Capital City—middle tier 40 14 17 26 30 13 36 15
SA Capital City—middle tier 19 21 39 23 5 32 10 7
Tas Capital City—middle tier 9 17 41 21 11 43 26 13
NT Capital City—middle tier 42 8 10 7 63 16 33 18
ACT Capital City—middle tier 5 3 13 6 20 18 28 1
NSW Capital City—outer tier 23 33 22 10 50 23 43 22
Vic Capital City—outer tier 11 32 16 12 22 23 48 10
Qld Capital City—outer tier 63 64 29 15 33 58 15 46
WA Capital City—outer tier 47 40 4 9 37 23 50 23
SA Capital City—outer tier 35 55 54 32 8 48 4 32
Tas Capital City—outer tier 54 67 61 43 1 67 15 57
NT Capital City—outer tier 53 9 6 1 55 7 6 3
ACT Capital City—outer tier 43 15 3 1 25 17 36 4
NSW Within 75km 62 51 23 45 56 28 30 54
Vic Within 75km 24 41 14 13 29 36 53 23
Qld Within 75km 64 66 37 28 59 59 38 65
WA Within 75km 67 68 42 37 28 48 51 63
SA Within 75km 38 30 32 50 34 52 31 44
Tas Within 75km 51 19 50 23 19 56 13 30
NT Within 75km 68 24 7 8 67 48 42 43
ACT Within 75km 1 3 8 3 35 19 47 2
NSW Major non Capital 30 29 58 44 39 28 21 38
Vic Major non Capital 16 19 57 47 2 37 33 25
Qld Major non Capital 65 34 21 25 60 41 24 45
Tas Major non Capital 40 23 52 48 7 63 29 41
NSW Pop 40k+ 38 21 33 31 41 33 18 26
Vic Pop 40k+ 25 13 62 46 9 66 8 29
Qld Pop 40k+ 59 43 40 39 47 42 11 49
NSW Pop 10–40k 60 36 53 59 53 54 22 60
Vic Pop 10–40k 48 35 56 49 27 61 17 53
Qld Pop 10–40k 66 47 43 56 61 63 44 68
WA Pop 10–40k 61 42 12 26 62 11 31 36
SA Pop 10–40k 29 46 66 58 13 46 4 41
Tas Pop 10–40k 25 54 68 61 4 65 2 48
NT Pop 10–40k 52 12 2 5 64 22 1 9
NSW Pop 2–10k 58 48 59 63 44 59 45 67
Vic Pop 2–10k 17 39 51 54 18 54 14 37
Qld Pop 2–10k 45 52 20 37 58 20 52 50
WA Pop 2–10k 48 50 14 16 45 10 45 28
SA Pop 2–10k 32 61 47 61 22 43 24 51
Tas Pop 2–10k 28 49 67 60 11 62 27 56
NT Pop 2–10k 55 28 1 4 65 37 35 27
NSW Pop < 2000 15 58 63 64 31 57 68 66
Vic Pop < 2000 2 38 45 67 3 33 54 35
Qld Pop < 2000 13 65 26 51 40 20 62 46
WA Pop < 2000 14 58 18 34 41 5 67 33
SA Pop < 2000 8 56 60 68 10 40 60 55
Tas Pop < 2000 9 62 65 66 5 43 64 58
NT Pop < 2000 46 44 36 22 51 39 54 52
NSW Non Urban 20 31 48 64 56 53 66 62
Vic Non Urban 7 37 34 55 25 35 58 39
Qld Non Urban 44 57 30 42 53 51 60 60
WA Non Urban 22 60 9 41 32 11 57 31
SA Non Urban 6 53 35 53 20 28 59 40
Tas Non Urban 12 63 64 57 15 68 65 64
NT Non Urban 37 44 44 35 66 47 63 59
ACT Non Urban 3 5 38 36 49 2 40 14
  • Human resources
    In addition  to the proportion of the population who  left school  at 15 years  or earlier and the proportion with  degree or higher  qualifications, this includes the ratio of persons employed in education as a measure of the educational resources available to the community.
  • Labour market
    This component incorporates growth in full and part-time  employment, male and female participation rates, the rate of unemployment and proportion of long-term  unemployed, as well  as the proportion of Disability  Support  Pension  recipients. This latter  provides some indication of the difficulty persons with  disabilities have in obtaining employment.
  • Income
    Income  comprises average household earnings, the proportion of low-income households and the Gini coefficient of the location.
  • Housing
    This encompasses both rental  and mortgage costs as well  as the extent to which caravans and improvised dwellings are used in the location.
  • Income  support
    This comprises change in the number  of income support recipients over the past two years, the ratio of income support recipients to the population and the proportion of income derived from all transfer  payments.
  • Services
    Components of services considered include: the ratios of health  and community employment to total employment, the provision of employment support to persons with disability and child  care, as well  as the level  of public housing.

In determining the components of the scale, the elements have been  included to attempt to select  those  different  components which may be considered to reflect  poor outcomes, lower levels  of resources and access to services, and what  may be causing stress  on communities. Hence elements such as population growth, while being  at one level  a measure of regional success, are included, along  with  the proportion of migrants from non-English speaking countries, the level  of dependency and the Indigenous population as factors  which may give rise to a community needing higher  levels  of infrastructure.

Where  the rankings are shown  on a quartile basis, it should  be noted  that this simply  reflects the number  of locations and not the share  of population with  these  characteristics. Thus, for example, on the aggregate measure, the most highly  ranked  25 per cent  of locations account for 30.5  per cent  of the population, as the average size of the lowest ranked  25 per cent  of locations is much  smaller, these  account for only 20.4  per cent  of the population.

Outcomes

As table  8.4 shows, few regions score  consistently across  all of the components. This is not surprising. Where  a region  may face little  pressure from population growth and have a stable community, this may be a result  of poor economic circumstances. Similarly, housing costs in these  locations may be low.10

Demography

Small towns  of fewer  than 2,000  people, as well  as some middle  rings of capital cities  and non-urban  areas, fare relatively well  with  regard  to their  demographic experience. This appears to reflect  fairly stable  population structures and generally a lower representation of high needs groups. The poorest  outcomes are less concentrated by type  of location, being  across  a number of locations in Queensland and the Northern  Territory, and to a lesser  degree, Western Australia.

Human  resources

The highest rankings under  this component were recorded in the inner, and at times middle rings of the capitals, and all areas  of the Australian  Capital  Territory. Low scores  were recorded in non-urban  locations, small towns, especially those  of less than 2,000  people, and across Queensland, and, to a lesser  degree, South Australia  and Western Australia.

Labour  market

While  there  were generally high rankings for the middle  and outer  regions of the capitals, this measure showed no consistent pattern other  than a general but by no means  uniform  tendency for better  outcomes in the capitals and poorer  outcomes in larger  non-capital locations. While generally positive results  were recorded in Western Australia, the Australian  Capital  Territory  and the Northern  Territory, outcomes in South Australia  and Tasmania  were poor.

Income

The rankings recorded in non-capital city locations, in States other  than Queensland and Western Australia, and the two Territories, were generally low. High rankings were concentrated in both Territories and in some non-inner  capital city locations in New South Wales, Victoria  and Queensland.

Housing

This indicator showed a very strong  State divide, with  high rankings being  recorded in almost all locations in Tasmania  and South Australia. In contrast, the Northern  Territory, Queensland and New South Wales  had poor rankings. The high rankings appear to reflect  low housing costs. Poor rankings are explained by: high housing costs; or high propensities in the use of caravans and improvised dwellings; or in the case of the Northern  Territory, both.

Income support

This dimension had both strong  locational and State characteristics. While  the ranking  of most inner  capital cities  was high, indicating low levels  of reliance upon income support, beyond  this the patterns had mainly  strong  State components. Tasmania  had a high reliance in all locations, while in New South Wales  there  was a concentration in the smallest locations. In contrast, in Queensland the poorest  outcomes were in the outer  suburbs, on the fringe  of the cities  and in middle  sized country towns. Outside  of a 75 kilometre radius  from the capital, the rankings in country Western Australia  were very high, indicating lower levels  of reliance.

Services

The measures used in this paper  suggest that service provision in smaller  centres was generally poor. With the exception of the Australian  Capital  Territory, locations of under  2,000  people and non-urban  centres were ranked  in the bottom 25 per cent  of locations. As has been  discussed in the paper, it is not possible to determine how  far this reflects an absence of access to services, or a degree of centralisation of services in regional service centres to which access from other locations is possible. The patterns in some States suggest this may be the case. In New South Wales, for example, the best level  of service provision was in a group  of locations from towns  of 10,000 up to, and including, although less markedly the extra-capital urban  ring. A similar pattern was seen  in Victoria  with  high rankings being  achieved for towns  of between 2,000  and 40,000 persons or more. Elements of such patterns could  also be seen  in Queensland, South Australia  and the Northern  Territory.

Interactions

While  the differences between the components of the measure and the lack of consistency in rankings across  measures have been  cited, some associations can be seen. This is particularly so with  the labour  market  and income elements which also have linkages with  the human resources scores.

Overall ranking

Table 8.5: Overall ranking of locations1
SLA Type NSW Vic. Qld WA SA Tas. NT ACT Aust.
Cap. City—Inner 16 11 11 18 16 6 34 5 1
Cap City—Middle 20 21 8 15 7 13 18 1 2
Cap City—Outer 22 10 46 23 32 57 3 4 3
Within 75k of Cap. 54 23 65 63 44 30 43 2 6
Major non-Capital 38 25 45     41     5
Town Pop. 40,000+ 26 29 49           4
Town Pop. 10,000–40,000 60 53 68 36 41 48 9   10
Town Pop. 2,000–10,000 67 37 50 28 51 56 27   9
Town Pop. < 2,000 66 35 46 33 55 58 52   7
Non-Urban 62 39 60 31 40 64 59 14 8
Overall 6 2 8 3 4 7 5 1  

Note
1 The summary location and State totals are the ranked population weighted scores of the component locations.

This shows  the division  of outcomes dramatically, including:

  • high rankings for most inner, middle  and outer  capital locations, with  however the outer suburbs  of Brisbane  and in particular Hobart showing poor results;
  • poor outcomes in non-capital city locations of under  40,000 people, including non-urban locations, except in Western Australia. The poor rankings were particularly marked  in New South Wales  and Tasmania;
  • while the areas  adjacent to capitals fared well  in Victoria  and Tasmania, this was not the case in New South Wales, Queensland or Western Australia.

8.3   Summary

Most aggregate measures show  a pattern of broadly  positive outcomes within capital cities, and poor outcomes in other  localities, especially smaller  towns  and non-urban  localities.

In addition, some important State characteristics emerge, although these  vary by measure. Of particular note are the poor results  for Tasmania  and a tendency for Western Australia non-capital city locations to show  divergent trends  to similar  locations in other  States.

The multi-dimensional measures used here  show  however that the causes  of these  poor outcomes vary by location with  few areas  recording consistently poor, or good, scores  across all dimensions.

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9 Regional summary

9.1 Capital cities and surrounding areas

63.4% of National Population

60.7% of Population Growth

65.7% of Employment

63.0% of Employment Growth

60.9% of Unemployment

86.2% of Migrants from NESB

31.5% of Indigenous Population

66.8% of Disposable Income

59.7% of Transfer Payments
  • The main sources of possible stress  in these  locations come from their  relatively strong  population growth and, at least in Sydney  and Melbourne, the high growth in the number  of migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds. A further factor is housing cost.
     
  • The population growth stress  is particularly strong  in the outer suburbs  and in those  regions immediately adjacent to the capital cities.
     
  • In most cases, these  locations have high levels  of human resources and relatively high levels  of service provision, while showing lower reliance upon transfer  payments as a source of income.
     
  • While  incomes are high, there  is a higher  degree of inequity in its distribution.
     
  • In very broad terms, outcomes were generally more positive closer  to the centre of each  city.

9.2   Major non-capitals and cities of more than 40,000

10.1% of National
Population

11.0% of Population Growth

9.5%  of Employment

11.6% of Employment
Growth

11.8% of Unemployment

5.6%  of Migrants from
NESB

10.6% of Indigenous
Population

9.5%  of Disposable Income

11.4% of Transfer Payments
  • This classification includes centres such as Wollongong, Newcastle, Geelong, Toowoomba, Gold Coast, Townsville, Cairns, Launceston, Ballarat, Bendigo  and Rockhampton. Cities of this size are absent  in South Australia  and Western Australia.
     
  • These locations show  a diverse set of outcomes, with  some marked  differences by States.
     
  • Their main weakness appears to be in regard  to their  labour markets, with  this being  reflected in job losses  in some locations, and low levels  of participation and high unemployment rates, as well  as a concentration of long-term unemployed.
     
  • They also have relatively high levels  of sole parents and, in New South Wales  and Victoria, concentrations of public housing.
     
  • The level  of services is above average, as is their  level  of human  resources. It is possible that their  higher  service levels reflect  the ‘regional service centre’ role of these  cities  for adjacent locations.

9.3   Towns and cities of 2,000 to 40,000 people

16.4% of National Population

17.8% of Population Growth

14.8% of Employment

15.6% of Employment Growth

17.8% of Unemployment

5.3%   of Migrants from NESB

32.4% of Indigenous Population

14.8% of Disposable Income

18.7% of Transfer Payments
  • Most of these  areas  have relatively poor outcomes. This is particularly so with  regard  to their  reliance upon income support and the overall  level  of income and numbers of low-income households.
     
  • Much of this reflects their  poor labour  market  performance, with  below average employment growth and high unemployment. While  male participation was high, female participation was low.
     
  • They also had high levels  of age and total dependency.
     
  • In a number  of States, there  were high proportions of Indigenous populations.
     
  • These locations fared particularly badly  in New South Wales, and to a lesser  degree in Queensland and Tasmania, but recorded positive outcomes in Western Australia.
     
  • While  the smaller  centres had poor outcomes with  regard  to services the large  centres fared well. This may again  be related to regional servicing.

9.4   Small towns and non-urban areas

10.2% of National Population

10.4% of Population Growth

10.0% of Employment

9.8%   of Employment Growth

9.4%   of Unemployment

2.9%   of Migrants from NESB

25.5% of Indigenous Population

8.9%  of Disposable Income

10.3% of Transfer Payments
  • With the exception of Western Australia, these  centres had poor outcomes, with  these  being  most marked  in New South Wales, Tasmania  and the Northern  Territory.
     
  • While  small towns  lost population, most non-urban  locations gained population. In a number  of cases, this gain was strong. A similar  pattern was seen  with  regard  to employment.
     
  • They have high Indigenous populations and very few migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds.
     
  • They have high levels  of low-income households although incomes, especially in non-urban  areas, were higher  than in small towns  and some larger  towns.
     
  • Levels of educational attainment were low.
     
  • All of the locations (other  than the Australian  Capital  Territory) rated  very poorly  with  regard  to access to services within the location.

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10 Conclusion

In 1996, the social  circumstances and outcomes of individual Australians and their  families showed significant regional variation. This variation is reflected in the outcomes for the communities in which they  live.

In approaching the study  of this variation, this paper  did not seek  to impose  a specific construct on what ‘Regional Australia’ is. Rather, it sought  to classify  all locations based  upon the size of settlements and their  relationship to the State capitals and review the outcomes for these classifications of locations as a whole, and by State. This approach has revealed a complex picture of outcomes.

Social outcomes and needs  have many different  components. While  some communities face stress from rapid  population growth and require infrastructure in response, in others  the causes of stress  may include economic decline in industries which are concentrated in that location. Also, the outcomes for different  locations are not simply  the product of overall  national changes but very much  also of the economic circumstances of the different  States and Territories.

At the broadest level, the analysis indicates that social  outcomes in non-capital city locations are below those  of the capitals. In some States, including Tasmania  and the Northern  Territory, the poorest  outcomes are recorded in the smallest settlements and in non-urban  areas; in others, such as Victoria  and Queensland, they  are concentrated in larger  centres of 10,000 to 40,000 people.

In some States, such as New South Wales, the divide  between the capital city and other  locations is very marked. In others, such as Queensland, the contrast is lower.

In seeking to respond to these  results, the different  factors  that generated these  outcomes must be taken  into account. Most communities had both strengths and weaknesses, and recording a poor outcome in one area is not necessarily an indicator of a poor outcome against  other measures.

This appears to indicate that these  communities do not need  a generic form of ‘special area assistance’ but rather  that assistance needs  to focus on the particular circumstances of the location and the needs  of the individuals who  live there. This focus on individuals is important, as many areas  which have high average levels  of need  may have just a small proportion of the total number  of people with  these  needs  living  in them.

A further  issue  is that the needs  of an area may reflect  a more widespread State-level phenomenon than simply  disadvantage at the locational level. This can be seen, for example, in the consistently poor labour  market  outcomes in Tasmania  and South Australia, or housing outcomes in the Northern  Territory. In such cases, the response would  appear to need  to be ‘State’ rather  than ‘regionally’ based.

The issue  of service provision and access is important to all communities, and while this paper only looks at a narrow band of these, the data suggest a need  for much  closer  consideration of the issues  associated with  access to service. For example, it may be inappropriate to take the outcomes for some of the smallest locations at face value  without more detailed examination of the extent to which the higher  apparent service levels  in adjoining larger  non-capital locations may indicate that these  locations act as service centres for the smaller  locations.

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Appendix A: Notes on tables

Table No. Summary Detailed Description1 Population Totals
Demographic
1.1 Population Distribution   1996 Population = 17,749,574
2.1

Population Growth
1986–96

1986, 1996 Census: Percentage growth in enumerated population, excluding overseas visitors. (Note: Unless otherwise indicated all tables exclude overseas visitors). 1986 Population = 15,542,001
1996 Population = 17,749,574
2.2

Distribution  of
Population Growth

1986,  1996  Census: Growth in enumerated population, excluding overseas visitors. (Note: Unless otherwise indicated all tables exclude overseas visitors). 1986 Population = 15,542,001
1996 Population = 17,749,574
2.3 Population Growth 1996-98

1996,  1998 Estimated Resident Population (ERP).

1996 ERP = 18,307,619 1998 ERP = 18,747,804
2.4 Child Dependency 1996 Census: Persons aged under 15 as a proportion  of persons aged 15 to 64. Persons under 15 = 3,837,307
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
2.5 Age Dependency 1996 Census: Persons aged 65 years and over as a proportion  of persons aged 15 to 64. Persons 65 and over = 215,0491
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
2.6 Total Dependency

1996 Census: Total persons aged under 15 years and aged 65 years and over as a proportion of persons aged 15 to 64.


Persons under 15 and 65 and over =
5,987,798
Population 15–64 = 11,761,776
2.7

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Population

1996 Census: Indigenous persons as a proportion  of total population Indigenous population = 352,727
Total Population = 17,749,574
2.8 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Growth 1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in Indigenous population.
1986 Indigenous Population = 227,420
1996 Indigenous Population = 352,727
2.9 Migrant from Non- English Speaking Background (NESB) 1996 Census: Persons born overseas, in countries other than Canada, Ireland, NZ, South  Africa,  UK and  USA, as a proportion of total population.
NESB Population = 2,361,473 Total Population = 17,749,574
2.10 NESB Growth 1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in NESB population. 1986 NESB = 1,785,781 1996 NESB = 2,361,473
2.11 Sole Parent Families 1996 Census: Number of sole parent families with children as a proportion  of all families with children. Sole Parent Families = 673,305
All families with children = 2,981,731
2.12 De facto Marriages 1996 Census: Women aged 15 years who report they are living in a de facto marriage as a proportion of the total reporting they are married in either a registered or a de facto marriage Married, De facto = 383,644
Married, De facto and Registered =
3,844,803
2.13 Children per Family 1996 Census: Average estimated number of children currently living in families.

Note 1) measure used is the average number of children being with their parents regardless  of the status or age of the children.

Note 2) The data are for children currently living in families at the time of the Census, not completed family size.
Total Children = 5,548,337
Families with Children = 2,981,731
2.14 Left school  aged 15 or younger 1996 Census: Persons Aged 15 years and over who left school aged 15 years or younger as a proportion  of all those who have left school (excluding  age left school not Stated). Left school  aged 15 years or younger = 4,668,244
All persons who have left school (excluding age left not Stated) = 12,209,357
2.15 Degree or higher
qualification
1996 Census: Persons with a Bachelor or higher degree as a
proportion of total population who had left school (excluding
qualification not Stated).
Persons with degrees = 1,470,660
Population (excluding qualification not Stated) = 12,211,300
2.16 Living at same Address 1996 Census: Persons aged over 5 who are living at the same
address as 5 years ago as a proportion of population with a
reported address 5 years ago.
Persons living at same address =
8,691,164
Persons with a reported address =15,830,960
Labour Market
3.1 Male Labour Force Participation Rate 1996 Census: Males aged 15 years and over, in the labour force
(either employed or unemployed) as a proportion of males aged
15 years and over (less persons with labour force status not
Stated).

Male labour force = 4,738,844

Males aged 15 years and over = 6,635,980

3.2 Female Labour Force Participation Rate 1996 Census: Females aged 15 years and over in the labour force
(either employed or unemployed) as a proportion of females
aged 15 years and over (less persons with labour force status not
Stated).
Female labour force = 3,667,755
Females aged 15 years and over =
6,944,218
3.3 Male Employment to Population Ratio 1996 Census: Employed males aged 15 to 64 as a proportion of
the male population aged 15 to 64 (less persons with labour
force status not Stated).
Employed Males 15–64 = 4,186,563
Male Population 15–64 = 5,704,008
3.4 Female Employment
to Population ratio
1996 Census: Employed females aged 15 to 59 as a proportion of
the female population aged 15 to 59 (less persons with labour
force status not Stated).
Employed Females 15–59 = 3,266,598
Female Population 15–59 = 5,381,922
3.5 Full-time employment growth 1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed
full-time.
1986 Employed full-time = 4,856,275
1996 Employed full-time = 5,179,024
3.6 Part-time employment growth 1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed
part-time.
1986 Employed part-time = 1,478,801
1996 Employed part-time = 2,286,308
3.7 Distribution of
Employment Growth
1986, 1996 Censuses: Percentage growth in persons employed in
identified industry.
1986 Employed = 6,503,989
1996 Employed = 7,634,848
3.8 Industry Composition of
Workforce
1986, 1996 Census. Wholesale & Retail = ANZSIC F&G, Transport and Storage = I&J, Finance and Business Services = K&L, Government and related services = M,N&0, Accom. Restaurants and Services = H,P&Q. 1996 Employed with identified industry =7,379,906

3.9

3.10

Self Employment Rate 1996 Census: Persons identified as an employer, own account
worker or contributing family worker as a proportion of total
employed persons.
Self employed = 714,864
Total employed = 7,634,746
3.11 Long-term unemployment income support 1998  FaCS: Persons in receipt of employment related income support, recipients of unemployment benefits and those on Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA), or Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA), and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, Mature Age Partner Allowance (MPA), a Partner Allowance (PTA), or parenting payments (PPP) (where the partner is also on a Pension (PGP), Newstart (PGN), or low income (PGL) recipient for more than 12 months as a proportion  of all recipients  of these payments. In receipt of income support
(employment)  for more than 12 months =
412,892

Total = 889,886
3.12 Average duration of unemployment income support

1998  FaCS: Persons in receipt of employment related income support (as above)—average  duration of receipt.

Total = 889,886

3.13

Couples neither parent employed

1996 Census: Couples with children where neither parent is employed as a proportion of total couples with children (less couples not stating their employment status).

Neither employed = 302,925
Couples with children, excl ns and absent partner = 2,125,923

3.14 Sole Parent not employed 1996 Census: Sole parents not employed as a proportion  of total sole parents. Sole Parent not Employed = 376,161
Sole parents = 657,557
3.15 Total Govt, Educ, Health and Rec employment 1996 Census: Total of government, education, health and cultural as above, as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry.  Australian  and New Zealand Standard  Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) = M,N,O&P. Total govt, etc = 1,816,893
Employed with identified industry =
7,380,077
3.16 Government
Employment
1996 Census: Persons employed in government administration, defence and justice (excluding police) as a proportion  of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = M. Government Employment = 372,931
Employed with identified industry =
7,380,077
3.17 Education
Employment
1996 Census: Persons employed in education (pre-school  to post secondary) as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = N. Education Employment = 539,944
Employed with identified industry =
7,380,077
3.18 Health and
Community
1996 Census: Persons employed in health, dental, veterinary, child and community care as a proportion of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = O. Health and Community Employment =
725,097
Employed with identified industry =
7,380,077
3.19 Cultural and
Recreational
1996 Census: Persons employed in media, library and art gallery and sports (including gambling) as a proportion  of employed persons with identified industry. ANZSIC = P. Cultural and Recreational  Employment =
178,924
Employed with identified industry = 7,380,077
3.20 Selected employment by detailed industry 1996 Census: Employed with identified industry only. Finance = ANZSIC 73, Government Administration = 81, Defence = 82, Health = 86, Community Services = 87, Other Services = 96. Employed with identified industry =
7,380,077
Income
4.1 Average Individual
Income
1996 Census: $ per week, Population who Stated income (ie earning incomes) negative and nil income excluded. Total individual income = 5,246,485,960
Total persons = 12,123,720
4.2 Average Household
Income
1996 Census: $ per week, All households where all members Stated their income, negative and nil income excluded. Total household weekly income =
$4,524,936,862
Total households = 5,551,253
4.3 Average Household
Income
Taxation Statistics 1996–7: [ATO 1998] Total annual tax = $58,878,368,3541
Total taxpayers = 8,055,6612
4.4 Lower Income Household 1996 Census: Incomes equivalised, on the basis of aggregate household composition, using OECD equivalence scale. Total ‘lower income’ households =
2,419,777
Total households = 5,601,075
4.5 Gini
Co-efficients
1996 Census: Household Income, all non negative and non nil income ranges where income is Stated, mid points derived from
1995–96  Survey of Income and Housing Costs.
 
Housing
5.1 Home Ownership 1996 Census: Dwellings owned or being purchased as a proportion  of all Other Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where tenure was not Stated, was rent free, or life tenure.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged
self-contained units.

Public Housing = 328,423
OOPD (excl tenure ns, etc) = 5,987,585

5.2 Public Housing 1996 Census: Dwellings rented from State/Territory Housing Authorities as a proportion  of all Other Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding  where tenure was not Stated, was rent free, or life tenure.)  Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units Public Housing = 328,423
OOPD (excl tenure ns, etc) = 5,987,585
5.3 Caravans 1996 Census: Caravans, cabins and houseboats as a proportion of all Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding  where structure not Stated.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units. Caravans = 90,943
OPD (excl structure ns, etc) = 6,332,253
5.4 Improvised Dwellings 1996 Census: Improvised homes, tents and sleeping out as a proportion of all Occupied Private Dwellings (excluding where structure not Stated.) Excludes manufactured home eStates and retired and aged self-contained units. Improvised dwellings = 11,398
OPD (excl structure ns, etc) = 6,332,253
5.5 Average Rent 1996 Census: Average weekly rent paid by households paying rent other than those renting from a State housing authority Households paying rent (excluding  to
SHAs) = 1,279,600
Total rent = $204,781,450
5.6

Average Mortgage
Payments

1996 Census: Average weekly mortgage payments of households paying mortgages.

Households paying mortgages = 1,655,157

Total mortgage payments = 330,139,263
Income Support
6.1 Income derived from DSS income support 1996 DSS: Estimated proportion of after-tax income derived from DSS income support payments. (Note the estimate varies from previous published estimates due to revisions3). See Bray & Mudd 1998
6.2 Income derived from all transfers 1996 DSS: Estimated proportion of after-tax income derived from DSS and DVA income support payments, Austudy and the Community Development Employment Program. (Note the estimate varies from previous published estimates due to revisions4). See Bray & Mudd 1998
6.3 Children with Family Payments 1996 DSS: Proportion of children aged under 16 for whom family payments are claimed at above minimum rates. See Bray & Mudd 1998
6.4 Adults with income support 1996 DSS: Persons claiming a primary payment as a proportion of the population aged over 16. See Bray & Mudd 1998
6.5 Growth in income support 1996, 1998 FaCS: Estimated recipients, excluding Youth Allowance and equivalent programs for 1998, and all those on employment related benefits under the age of 21 in 1996. The 1998 total, excluding youth, excludes all payments to partners of Youth Allowance recipients and is not compatible with other 1998 data. This exclusion has been undertaken due to changes in income support arrangements for young people 1996 Recipients (excluding youth) = 4,174,118
1998 Recipients (excluding youth) = 4,856,772
6.6 Persons assisted by income support 1998 FaCS: Recipients (and partners) of income support as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (See below for further details re calculation). Recipients = 4,821,667
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.7 Persons assisted by income support— proportions 1998 FaCS: Recipients (and partners) of income support as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (See below for further details re calculation)—Program elements as detailed below Recipients = 4,821,667
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.8 Age Pensions to population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of the Age Pension include all age pensioners and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of a Wife Age Pension (WFA), Wife DSP Pension (WFD), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, FMA). Recipients = 1,635,826
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.9 Age Pensions to aged population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of the Age Pension as a proportion of the population aged 65 years and under. Recipients = 1,635,826
Population aged 65 years and over = 2,150,491
6.10 Newstart to population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of unemployment benefits as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of unemployment benefits include those on Newstart Allowance (NSA), Mature Age Allowance (MAA) or Newstart Mature Age Allowance (NMA) and their partners where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, Mature Age Partner Allowance (MPA), a Partner Allowance (PTA), or parenting payments (PPP) (where the partner is also on a Pension (PGP), Newstart (PGN), or low- income (PGL) recipient). A further small number of recipients include partners on parenting payments at basic rates (PGE,PGB, and PGA), Family payment auto minimum (FMA), and Family payment minimum (FMR).)
(Recipients do not include non-payment spouses (NPS, NNS, PG and FRM). Even though, in the case of those with income that can affect the payment of recipients, in this instance payments are on an individual basis. These exclusions also apply to the following payments.)
Recipients = 926,989
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.11 Newstart to working age population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of NSA, MAA & NMA as a proportion of the population 15 to 64 years. (Refer to notes re counting of partners.) Recipients = 889,886
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
6.12 DSP to population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of Disability Support Pension (DSP) as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of DSP include all DSP recipients and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of this pension, a Wife DSP Pension (WFD), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, PGE, PGB, PGA, FMA, FMR.) Recipients = 601,936
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.13 DSP to working age population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of Disability Support Pension (DSP) as a proportion of the population aged 15 to 64 years. Recipients = 601,936
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
6.14 Sole parent to population ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of Parenting Payment Single payments as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. Recipients = 363,989
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
6.15 Sole parent to families ratio 1998 FaCS: Recipients of Parenting Payment Single payments as a proportion of families with children. Recipients = 363,989
Families with children = 2,981,731
6.16 Youth Allowance to population 1998 FaCS: Recipients of youth payments as a proportion of the population aged 15 years and over. (Recipients of youth payments include those on Youth Allowance (YAL) and Youth Training Allowance (replaced) and their partners, where the partner is in receipt of these benefits, a Parenting Payment for partners of YAL and AUSTUDY recipients (DYA), or the following partnering payments (as with unemployment, above) MPA, PTA, PGP, PGN, PGL, PGE, PGB, PGA, FMA, FMR.) Recipients = 389,206
Population aged 15 years and over = 13,912,267
Services
7.1 and 7.2 Child care—daycare 1997 Child care Census: Children attending before school age child care as a proportion of children aged 6 years and under not attending school. Children attending before school age child care = 385,7195
Children not attending school = 1,368,921
7.3 and 7.4 Child care—after school 1997 Child care Census: Children attending school age child care as a proportion of children 12 years and under attending school. Children attending at school age child care = 151,1886
Children under 12 attending school = 1,951,843
7.5 Disability— Supported Employment 1997 Disability Services Census: Consumers on books at outlets providing supported employment (and a small number of combined supported and open employment) by customer postcode, per 1,000 working aged population. Consumers = 16,2197
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
7.6 Disability—Total Employment 1997 Disability Services Census: Consumers on books at outlets providing supported and open employment by customer postcode, per 1,000 working aged population. Consumers = 34,7068
Population aged 15–64 years = 11,761,776
Aggregate Measures
8.1 SES—Relative Disadvantage Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on low-income, low educational attainment and high unemployment. A low score indicates a greater occurrence of these. Mean of SES index = 1003.7 1996 Population = 17,749,574
8.2 SES—Education and Occupation Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on educational and occupational structure of communities. Mean of SES index = 1001.6 1996 Population = 17,749,574
8.3 SES—Economic Resources Index derived by the ABS from 1996 Census: focusing on the economic resources of families such as income, expenditure and housing. Mean of SES index = 1010.5
1996 Population = 17,749,574
8.4 Locational Ranking Components Index derived from rankings of locations against individual components of a seven dimensional scale developed in the paper.  
8.5 Locational Ranking Summary Summary of rankings. State and location totals produced on a population-weighted basis.  


Notes
1   Actual payments = 60,251,443,680, some records have had to be deleted due to absent  or non-matchable postcodes.
2   Actual Taxpayers = 8,239,609, some records have had to be deleted due to absent  or non-matchable postcodes.
3   The data have been  revised to take account of later estimates of taxation payments and the level  of non-response in the Census  with  regard  to income. The overall  average of 14.2  per cent  compares with  previous estimates of
15.8  per cent.
4   The data have been  revised as above. The overall  average of 16.9  per cent  compares with  previous estimates of
18.7  per cent.
5   Actual count  387,578—some records deleted due to insufficient details  on location.
6   Actual count  151,710—some records deleted due to insufficient details  on location.
7   Actual count  16,385—some records deleted due to geographic mismatch.
8   Actual count  35,054—some records deleted due to geographic mismatch.

 

[ Return to Top   Return to Section ]

Appendix B: Maps

New South Wales

New South Wales map

Victoria

Victoria map

Queensland

Queensland map

Western Australia

Western Australia map

South Australia

South Australia map

Tasmania

Tasmania map

Northern  Territory

Northern Territory map

Australian  Capital  Territory

Australian Capital Territory map

[ Return to Top   Return to Section ]

Appendix C: Allocation of SLAs to Location Types

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
New South Wales
Albury (C) Pop 40k+ 41,795 98.6 1.4
Armidale (C) Pop 10–40k 21,330 100.0
Ashfield (A) Cap City Inner 40,077 100.0
Auburn (A) Cap City middle 50,959 100.0
Ballina (A) Pop 10–40k 34,702 46.3 26.6 6.7 20.5
Balranald (A) Pop < 2000 2,964 63.4 36.6
Bankstown (C) Cap City middle 157,735 100.0
Barraba (A) Pop < 2000 2,270 55.8 44.2
Bathurst (C) Pop 10–40k 28,842 90.2 1.3 8.4
Baulkham Hills (A) Cap City outer 119,545 86.9 0.6 12.5
Bega Valley (A) Pop 2–10k 28,845 40.5 27.9 31.7
Bellingen (A) Non Urban 12,253 44.1 11.4 44.5
Berrigan (A) Pop < 2000 8,161 26.2 42.5 31.3
Bingara (A) Pop < 2000 2,099 58.9 41.1
Blacktown (C) Cap City outer 232,219 98.1 1.9
Bland (A) Pop 2–10k 6,681 51.2 9.2 39.6
Blayney (A)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 4,366 61.2 14.3 24.5
Blayney (A)—Pt  B Non Urban 1,659 26.9 73.1
Blue Mountains (C) Cap City outer 72,506 51.0 45.1 1.1 2.8
Bogan (A) Pop 2–10k 3,287 68.1 31.9
Bombala (A) Pop < 2000 2,911 58.9 41.1
Boorowa (A) Non Urban 2,376 46.8 53.2
Botany (A) Cap City Inner 34,702 100.0
Bourke (A) Pop 2–10k 4,049 68.5 31.5
Brewarrina (A) Pop < 2000 2,193 67.9 32.1
Broken Hill (C) Pop 10–40k 21,356 98.2 1.8
Burwood (A) Cap City Inner 28,579 100.0
Byron (A) Pop 2–10k 27,565 54.0 14.7 31.3
Cabonne (A)—Pt A Non Urban 1,974 100.0
Cabonne (A)—Pt  B Non Urban 802 100.0
Cabonne (A)—Pt C Pop < 2000 9,168 62.0 38.0
Camden (A) Cap City outer 32,109 73.1 6.2 20.7
Campbelltown (C) (NSW) Cap City outer 143,773 97.9 0.2 1.9
Canterbury (C) Cap City Inner 132,360 100.0
Carrathool (A) Non Urban 3,164 43.9 56.1
Casino (A) Pop 2–10k 10,774 92.7 2.6 4.7
Central Darling (A) Pop < 2000 2,650 60.5 39.5
Cessnock (C) Pop 10–40k 44,362 67.8 8.4 9.1 14.6
Cobar (A) Pop 2–10k 5,676 79.7 20.3
Coffs Harbour  (C) Pop 10–40k 58,337 60.7 6.5 14.4 18.4
Conargo (A) Non Urban 1,561 100.0
Concord (A) Cap City Inner 23,644 100.0
Coolah (A) Pop < 2000 3,770 51.3 48.7
Coolamon (A) Pop < 2000 3,849 58.9 41.1
Cooma-Monaro (A) Pop 2–10k 9,680 73.9 2.8 23.4
Coonabarabran (A) Pop 2–10k 6,994 43.1 15.9 41.1
Coonamble (A) Pop 2–10k 4,804 57.3 10.2 32.5
Cootamundra (A) Pop 2–10k 7,457 78.8 3.4 17.7
Copmanhurst (A) Non Urban 3,968 31.2 68.8

Corowa (A) Pop 2–10k 8,215 62.8 19.4 17.8

Cowra (A) Pop 2–10k 12,146 70.3 2.2 27.5

Crookwell (A) Non Urban 4,250 47.4 52.6

Culcairn (A) Pop < 2000 4,106 64.5 35.5

Deniliquin (A) Pop 2–10k 7,816 100.0

Drummoyne (A) Cap City Inner 30,264 100.0

Dubbo (C) Pop 10–40k 36,701 82.0 1.1 16.9

Dumaresq (A) Non Urban 3,835 100.0

Dungog (A) Non Urban 7,658 28.5 18.5 53.1

Eurobodalla (A) Pop 2–10k 30,447 51.1 30.6 18.3

Evans (A)—Pt  A Non Urban 1,051 100.0

Evans (A)—Pt  B Non Urban 3,871 100.0

Fairfield (C) Cap City outer 181,785 98.6 1.4

Forbes (A) Pop 2–10k 10,138 73.7 26.3

Gilgandra (A) Pop 2–10k 4,844 58.3 41.7

Glen Innes (A) Pop 2–10k 6,101 100.0

Gloucester (A) Pop 2–10k 4,816 54.7 45.3

Gosford (C) Within 75km 144,840 93.4 6.6

Goulburn (C) Pop 10–40k 21,293 100.0

Grafton (C) Pop 10–40k 17,110 96.8 3.2

Greater Lithgow (C) Pop 10–40k 19,248 59.4 10.6 9.8 20.1

Greater Taree (C) Pop 10–40k 42,410 39.4 16.7 10.5 33.4

Great Lakes (A) Pop 10–40k 28,609 55.7 24.0 20.2

Griffith (C) Pop 10–40k 21,594 65.8 9.8 24.4

Gundagai (A) Pop 2–10k 3,726 55.4 44.6
Gunnedah (A) Pop 2–10k 12,819 64.9 4.8 30.4
Gunning (A) Non Urban 2,211 22.0 78.0
Guyra (A) Pop < 2000 4,262 59.4 40.6
Harden (A) Non Urban 3,773 45.1 54.9
Hastings (A) Pop 10–40k 58,010 58.1 18.1 7.6 16.2
Hawkesbury (C) Within 75km 57,381 66.8 33.2
Hay (A) Pop 2–10k 3,822 75.8 24.2
Holbrook (A) Pop < 2000 2,529 52.6 47.4
Holroyd (C) Cap City middle 80,470 100.0
Hornsby (A) Cap City middle 136,746 92.3 2.2 5.4
Hume (A) Non Urban 6,835 4.3 38.1 57.6
Hunter’s Hill (A) Cap City Inner 11,969 100.0
Hurstville (C) Cap City middle 65,392 100.0
Inverell (A)—Pt A Non Urban 4,485 24.7 75.3
Inverell (A)—Pt B Pop 2–10k 10,414 90.1 9.9
Jerilderie (A) Non Urban 1,960 44.4 55.6
Junee (A) Pop 2–10k 5,755 64.0 36.0
Kempsey (A) Pop 2–10k 26,430 45.9 17.1 37.0
Kiama (A) Pop 10–40k 17,706 66.1 16.3 8.0 9.5
Kogarah (A) Cap City middle 47,618 100.0
Ku-ring-gai (A) Cap City middle 99,030 100.0 0.0
Kyogle (A) Non Urban 9,716 29.5 7.6 62.9
Lachlan (A) Pop 2–10k 7,433 41.7 21.0 37.3
Lake Macquarie (C) Major non-Cap 170,495 83.3 4.8 9.2 2.7
Lane Cove (A) Cap City Inner 30,107 100.0
Leeton (A) Pop 2–10k 11,031 60.0 8.5 31.5
Leichhardt (A) Cap City Inner 58,304 100.0
Lismore (C) Pop 10–40k 42,954 66.1 3.8 30.1
Liverpool (C) Cap City middle 120,197 89.5 2.4 8.2
Lockhart (A) Non Urban 3,487 49.9 50.1
Maclean (A) Pop 2–10k 15,987 49.3 23.2 27.6
Maitland (C) Pop 40k+ 49,941 90.6 3.1 6.3
Manilla (A) Pop 2–10k 3,145 65.9 34.1
Manly (A) Cap City Inner 36,265 100.0
Marrickville (A) Cap City Inner 76,017 100.0
Merriwa (A) Non Urban 2,257 41.5 58.5
Moree Plains (A) Pop 2–10k 15,517 59.7 10.3 30.0
Mosman (A) Cap City Inner 25,468 100.0
Mudgee (A) Pop 2–10k 17,074 59.8 40.2
Mulwaree (A) Non Urban 5,625 13.4 86.6
Murray (A) Pop 2–10k 5,319 46.4 12.3 41.3
Murrumbidgee (A) Pop < 2000 2,389 64.0 36.0
Murrurundi (A) Non Urban 2,166 41.6 58.4
Muswellbrook (A) Pop 10–40k 15,562 67.7 9.7 22.6
Nambucca (A) Pop 2–10k 17,610 50.9 15.8 33.3
Narrabri (A) Pop 2–10k 14,101 45.5 19.4 35.1
Narrandera (A) Pop 2–10k 7,141 65.5 5.5 29.0
Narromine (A) Pop 2–10k 6,523 53.4 14.6 32.0
Newcastle (C)—Inner Major non-Cap 4,145 100.0
Newcastle (C)—Remainder Major non-Cap 129,539 95.4 3.8 0.4 0.4
North Sydney (A) Cap City Inner 53,790 100.0
Nundle (A) Non Urban 1,337 20.2 79.8
Nymboida (A) Non Urban 4,354 29.2 70.8
Oberon (A) Pop 2–10k 4,608 55.2 44.8
Orange (C) Pop 10–40k 33,964 90.4 2.6 7.0
Parkes (A) Pop 10–40k 15,098 66.9 12.1 21.1
Parramatta (C) Cap City middle 139,157 100.0
Parry (A) Non Urban 11,870 32.4 67.6
Penrith (C) Cap City outer 163,122 91.1 1.2 7.7
Pittwater (A) Cap City middle 51,450 98.3 1.7
Port Stephens (A) Pop 2–10k 51,288 1.1 24.0 46.6 12.2 16.1
Queanbeyan (C) Pop 10–40k 27,414 93.7 6.3
Quirindi (A) Pop 2–10k 4,872 54.8 45.2
Randwick (C) Cap City Inner 118,905 100.0
Richmond River (A) Non Urban 10,059 26.0 22.2 51.8
Rockdale (C) Cap City Inner 84,847 100.0
Ryde (C) Cap City Inner 92,675 100.0
Rylstone (A) Pop < 2000 3,734 57.9 42.1
Scone (A) Pop 2–10k 9,518 36.4 29.9 33.6
Severn (A) Non Urban 2,915 21.1 78.9
Shellharbour (A) Major non-Cap 52,080 98.7 1.3
Shoalhaven (C) Pop 2–10k 76,726 31.0 34.4 19.4 15.1
Singleton (A) Pop 10–40k 20,133 62.2 1.5 36.4
Snowy River (A) Non Urban 17,697 36.3 23.7 40.0
South Sydney (C) Cap City Inner 82,960 100.0
Strathfield (A) Cap City Inner 26,044 100.0
Sutherland Shire (A) Cap City outer 194,104 98.1 1.8 0.1
Sydney (C)—Inner Cap City Inner 11,114 100.0
Sydney (C)—Remainder Cap City Inner 13,768 100.0
Tallaganda (A) Non Urban 2,420 38.8 61.2
Tamworth (C) Pop 10–40k 35,014 91.0 0.9 8.1
Temora (A) Pop 2–10k 5,914 69.7 4.9 25.4
Tenterfield (A) Pop 2–10k 6,529 49.1 3.8 47.1
Tumbarumba (A) Pop < 2000 3,613 52.1 47.9
Tumut (A) Pop 2–10k 10,951 54.0 21.5 24.5
Tweed (A)—Pt  A Pop 10–40k 41,030 92.1 7.9
Tweed (A)—Pt  B Non Urban 25,835 40.0 15.2 44.8
Ulmarra (A) Non Urban 6,147 42.2 57.8
Uralla (A) Non Urban 5,871 41.9 5.4 52.7
Urana (A) Non Urban 1,497 43.8 56.2
Wagga Wagga (C) Pop 40k+ 55,519 77.2 4.1 4.5 14.3
Wakool (A) Non Urban 4,941 42.2 57.8
Walcha (A) Pop < 2000 3,208 50.6 49.4
Walgett (A) Pop < 2000 8,550 50.6 49.4
Warren (A) Pop < 2000 3,290 58.0 42.0
Warringah (A) Cap City middle 124,299 98.8 1.2
Waverley (A) Cap City Inner 61,674 100.0
Weddin (A) Pop < 2000 3,788 51.6 48.4
Wellington (A) Pop 2–10k 8,648 56.9 5.6 37.5
Wentworth (A) Pop < 2000 7,245 54.4 45.6
Willoughby (C) Cap City Inner 53,735 100.0
Windouran (A) Non Urban 422 100.0
Wingecarribee (A) Pop 2–10k 36,777 9.1 56.8 13.3 20.8
Wollondilly (A) Within 75km 33,413 69.6 30.4
Wollongong (C) Major non-Cap 177,009 4.0 95.1 0.9
Woollahra (A) Cap City Inner 50,169 100.0
Wyong (A) Within 75km 115,999 82.5 9.4 8.1
Yallaroi (A) Non Urban 3,227 39.9 60.1
Yarrowlumla (A)—Pt A Non Urban 8,910 19.8 80.2
Yarrowlumla (A)—Pt  B Non Urban 276 100.0
Yass (A) Pop 2–10k 9,128 53.0 14.5 32.4
Young (A) Pop 2–10k 11,046 61.5 2.3 36.2
Unincorp. Far West Non Urban 1,078 19.9 80.1
Lord Howe Island Pop < 2000 369 100.0
NSW Off-Shore  Areas  & Migratory Offshore 2,637 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Victoria
Alpine (S)—East Non Urban 13,627 34.1 65.9
Alpine (S)—West Pop 2–10k 4,530 59.7 40.3
Ararat (RC) Pop 2–10k 11,098 62.1 4.8 33.1
Ballarat (C)—Central Pop 40k+ 33,601 100.0
Ballarat (C)—Inner  North Pop 40k+ 22,391 77.7 2.9 19.4
Ballarat (C)—North Non Urban 1,050 28.8 71.2
Ballarat (C)—South Pop 40k+ 19,467 71.1 14.6 14.3
Banyule (C)—Heidelberg Cap City Inner 59,871 100.0
Banyule (C)—North Cap City middle 52,723 100.0
Bass Coast (S)—Phillip Is. Within 75km 5,707 60.2 19.1 20.6
Bass Coast (S) Bal Pop 2–10k 14,440 8.7 57.7 8.5 25.0
Baw Baw (S)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 4,129 54.2 45.8
Baw Baw (S)—Pt B East Non Urban 4,088 24.0 76.0
Baw Baw (S)—Pt B West Non Urban 24,768 21.6 36.4 3.2 38.8
Bayside (C)—Brighton Cap City Inner 32,603 100.0
Bayside (C)—South Cap City middle 48,330 100.0
Boroondara (C) Camberwell  N. Cap City Inner 39,447 100.0
Boroondara (C) Camberwell S. Cap City Inner 46,029 100.0
Boroondara (C)—Hawthorn Cap City Inner 30,641 100.0
Boroondara (C)—Kew Cap City Inner 28,473 100.0
Brimbank (C)—Keilor Cap City middle 73,202 99.7 0.3
Brimbank (C)—Sunshine Cap City middle 75,929 97.7 2.3
Buloke (S)—North Pop < 2000 3,846 57.9 42.1
Buloke (S)—South Pop < 2000 3,753 66.1 33.9
Campaspe (S)—Echuca Pop 10–40k 10,014 100.0
Campaspe (S)—Kyabram Pop 2–10k 11,750 48.8 11.7 39.5
Campaspe (S)—Rochester Non Urban 7,865 32.5 8.1 59.5
Campaspe (S)—South Non Urban 3,691 41.8 58.2
Cardinia (S)—North Within 75km 21,276 56.4 43.6
Cardinia (S)—Pakenham Within 75km 14,700 66.7 25.7
Cardinia (S)—South Non Urban 4,623 42.0 58.0
Casey (C)—Berwick Cap City outer 43,624 96.6 3.4
Casey (C)—Cranbourne Within 75km 44,171 56.0 2.8
Casey (C)—Hallam Cap City outer 45,703 100.0
Casey (C)—South Non Urban 10,033 35.2 64.8
C. Goldfields  (S)—M’borough Pop 2–10k 7,381 100.0
C. Goldfields  (S) Bal Non Urban 4,941 32.0 68.0
Colac-Otway (S)—Colac Pop 2–10k 9,793 100.0
Colac-Otway (S)—North Non Urban 6,745 9.3 90.7
Colac-Otway (S)—South Non Urban 3,226 30.3 69.7
Corangamite (S)—North Pop < 2000 9,443 33.4 33.4 33.2
Corangamite (S)—South Non Urban 7,520 31.6 68.4
Darebin (C)—Northcote Cap City Inner 43,956 100.0
Darebin (C)—Preston Cap City Inner 77,838 100.0
Delatite (S)—Benalla Pop 2–10k 8,582 100.0
Delatite (S)—North Non Urban 4,749 100.0
Delatite (S)—South Non Urban 9,162 27.6 72.4
E. Gippsland  (S)—Bairnsdale Pop 10–40k 23,378 46.6 33.8 2.2 17.4
E. Gippsland  (S)—Orbost Non Urban 8,281 26.0 23.2 50.9
E. Gippsland  (S)—South-West Non Urban 3,447 6.8 93.2
E. Gippsland  (S) Bal Non Urban 2,787 40.4 59.6
Frankston (C)—East Cap City outer 29,449 84.2 7.9 7.9
Frankston (C)—West Cap City outer 74,522 99.7 0.3
Gannawarra (S) Non Urban 11,922 32.6 27.3 40.2
Glen Eira (C)—Caulfield Cap City Inner 70,326 100.0
Glen Eira (C)—South Cap City middle 43,066 100.0
Glenelg (S)—Heywood Non Urban 6,022 26.1 73.9
Glenelg (S)—North Pop < 2000 3,668 53.1 46.9
Glenelg (S)—Portland Pop 2–10k 10,217 94.6 5.4
Golden Plains (S)—North-West Non Urban 6,392 9.8 90.2
Golden Plains (S)—South-East Non Urban 6,766 28.0 72.0
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Central Pop 40k+ 18,919 100.0
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Eaglehawk Pop 40k+ 8,054 100.0
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner  East Pop 40k+ 20,375 100.0
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner  North Pop 40k+ 7,471 63.5 8.2 28.3
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Inner  West Pop 40k+ 12,490 62.8 37.2
Gr. Bendigo (C)—S’saye Non Urban 4,120 35.6 64.4
Gr. Bendigo (C)—Pt B Non Urban 9,909 25.1 74.9
Gr. Dandenong (C) Dandenong Cap City outer 55,817 99.7 0.3
Gr. Dandenong (C) Bal Cap City outer 70,362 98.2 1.8
Bellarine—Inner Major non-Cap 19,483 28.2 64.9 7.0
Corio—Inner Major non-Cap 52,399 14.0 79.0 7.0
Geelong Major non-Cap 12,091 95.4 4.6
Geelong West Major non-Cap 13,597 100.0
Newtown Major non-Cap 9,431 100.0
South Barwon—Inner Major non-Cap 39,165 93.9 6.1
Greater Geelong (C)—Pt  B Within 75km 26,876 89.8 10.2
Greater Geelong (C)—Pt  C Non Urban 2,367 100.0
Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt A Pop 10–40k 39,694 80.5 19.5
Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt  B East Non Urban 3,832 6.8 93.2
Gr. Shepparton (C)—Pt B West Non Urban 8,376 33.7 13.4 52.9
Hepburn (S)—East Pop 2–10k 7,075 46.3 9.3 44.4
Hepburn (S)—West Non Urban 6,352 36.6 13.3 50.0
Hindmarsh (S) Pop < 2000 6,572 67.1 32.9
Hobsons Bay (C)—Altona Cap City middle 48,195 99.0 1.0
Hobsons Bay (C)Williamstown Cap City Inner 25,969 100.0
Horsham (RC)—Central Pop 10–40k 12,591 100.0
Horsham (RC) Bal Non Urban 4,731 10.1 89.9
Hume (C)—Broadmeadows Cap City middle 64,869 98.5 1.5
Hume (C)—Craigieburn Within 75km 26,562 49.9 8.6
Hume (C)—Sunbury Within 75km 24,599 89.9 10.1
Indigo (S)—Pt A Non Urban 10,289 28.7 24.1 47.2
Indigo (S)—Pt B Pop < 2000 3,390 74.6 25.4
Kingston (C)—North Cap City middle 84,738 100.0
Kingston (C)—South Cap City outer 37,700 100.0
Knox (C)—North Cap City outer 104,569 100.0
Knox (C)—South Cap City outer 26,225 99.1 0.9
La Trobe (S)—Moe Pop 10–40k 17,878 86.8 6.8 6.4
La Trobe (S)—Morwell Pop 10–40k 22,801 60.6 21.4 4.4 13.5
La Trobe (S)—Traralgon Pop 10–40k 24,199 78.5 1.0 20.5
La Trobe (S) Bal Non Urban 2,686 100.0
Loddon (S)—North Non Urban 3,638 36.6 63.4
Loddon (S)—South Non Urban 4,948 39.1 60.9
Macedon Ranges (S)—Kyneton Pop 2–10k 7,384 50.9 10.3 38.8
Macedon Ranges (S)—Romsey Within 75km 8,779 55.4 44.6
Macedon Ranges (S) Bal Non Urban 16,204 36.8 18.4 44.8
Manningham (C)—East Cap City outer 13,286 70.2 13.2 16.5
Manningham (C)—West Cap City middle 90,474 100.0
Maribyrnong (C) Cap City Inner 59,029 100.0
Maroondah (C)—Croydon Cap City outer 51,160 100.0
Maroondah (C)—Ringwood Cap City outer 40,163 100.0
Melbourne (C)—Inner Cap City Inner 6,373 100.0
Melbourne (C)—Remainder Cap City Inner 42,187 100.0
Melton (S)—East Cap City outer 4,563 50.7 38.6 10.7
Melton (S) Bal Within 75km 34,606 89.4 10.6
Mildura (RC)—Pt A Pop 10–40k 40,644 59.4 6.3 7.0 27.4
Mildura (RC)—Pt B Non Urban 4,774 36.0 64.0
Mitchell (S)—North Pop 2–10k 10,991 57.3 2.2 40.5
Mitchell (S)—South Within 75km 13,942 67.6 32.4
Moira (S)—East Non Urban 7,374 46.6 4.1 49.3
Moira (S)—West Non Urban 17,339 40.3 12.0 47.6
Monash (C)—South-West Cap City middle 39,618 100.0
Monash (C)—Waverley  East Cap City outer 57,677 100.0
Monash (C)—Waverley West Cap City middle 55,257 100.0
Moonee Valley (C)—Essendon Cap City Inner 63,991 100.0
Moonee Valley (C)—West Cap City Inner 40,858 100.0
Moorabool (S)— Bacchus Marsh Within 75km 13,489 83.6 16.4
Moorabool (S)—Ballan Non Urban 5,060 40.9 59.1
Moorabool (S)—West Non Urban 3,393 100.0
Moreland (C)—Brunswick Cap City Inner 39,164 100.0
Moreland (C)—Coburg Cap City Inner 47,575 100.0
Moreland (C)—North Cap City middle 43,354 100.0
Mornington P’sula (S)—East Within 75km 32,329 72.0 21.5
Mornington P’sula (S)—South Cap City outer 38,516 84.7 3.1 12.2
Mornington P’sula (S)—West Cap City outer 39,564 97.5 2.5
Mount Alexander (S)—C’maine Pop 2–10k 6,690 100.0
Mount Alexander (S) Bal Non Urban 9,240 36.5 63.5
Moyne (S)—North-East Non Urban 2,755 35.9 64.1
Moyne (S)—North-West Non Urban 2,960 8.0 92.0
Moyne (S)—South Non Urban 10,152 25.9 15.0 59.1
Murrindindi (S)—East Non Urban 6,062 10.3 42.3 47.4
Murrindindi (S)—West Non Urban 6,389 10.8 15.0 74.2
Nillumbik (S)—South Cap City outer 26,238 93.4 6.6
Nillumbik (S)—South-West Cap City outer 19,541 84.1 3.2 12.7
Nillumbik (S) Bal Non Urban 8,638 38.0 62.0
N. Grampians  (S)—St Arnaud Pop 2–10k 3,790 69.6 30.4
N. Grampians  (S)—Stawell Pop 2–10k 9,211 68.1 2.8 29.1
Port Phillip (C)—St  Kilda Cap City Inner 46,709 100.0
Port Phillip (C)—West Cap City Inner 26,383 100.0
Pyrenees (S)—North Non Urban 3,402 28.5 71.5
Pyrenees (S)—South Non Urban 3,178 41.9 58.1
Queenscliffe (B) Within 75km 3,193 100.0
South Gippsland (S)—Central Non Urban 11,391 36.4 18.0 45.6
South Gippsland (S)—East Non Urban 5,639 32.1 67.9
South Gippsland (S)—West Non Urban 7,053 3.5 38.8 7.3 50.3
S. Grampians (S)—Hamilton Pop 2–10k 9,248 100.0
S. Grampians (S)—Wannon Non Urban 2,535 42.8 57.2
S. Grampians (S) Bal Non Urban 5,374 17.8 82.2
Stonnington (C)—Prahran Cap City Inner 42,191 100.0
Stonnington (C)—Malvern Cap City Inner 42,109 100.0
Strathbogie (S) Non Urban 8,794 30.7 28.0 41.3
Surf Coast (S)—East Pop 2–10k 9,065 66.0 4.3 29.7
Surf Coast (S)—West Pop < 2000 7,649 63.6 36.4
Swan Hill (RC)—Central Pop 2–10k 9,385 100.0
Swan Hill (RC)—Robinvale Non Urban 3,855 45.6 54.4
Swan Hill (RC) Bal Non Urban 7,152 27.3 72.7
Towong (S)—Pt A Pop < 2000 2,292 54.3 45.7
Towong (S)—Pt B Non Urban 3,830 31.7 68.3
Wangaratta (RC)—Central Pop 10–40k 15,527 100.0
Wangaratta (RC)—North Non Urban 3,863 100.0
Wangaratta (RC)—South Non Urban 5,645 10.2 89.8
Warrnambool (C) Pop 10–40k 26,776 97.3 2.7
Wellington (S)—Alberton Non Urban 5,722 35.9 64.1
Wellington (S)—Avon Non Urban 3,979 33.9 66.1
Wellington (S)—Maffra Pop 2–10k 10,073 40.0 23.2 36.7
Wellington (S)—Rosedale Non Urban 6,677 32.1 67.9
Wellington (S)—Sale Pop 10–40k 13,366 100.0
West Wimmera (S) Non Urban 4,933 36.7 63.3
Whitehorse (C)—Box Hill Cap City middle 46,165 100.0
Whitehorse (C) Nunawading  E. Cap City middle 42,534 100.0
Whitehorse(C)Nunawading W. Cap City middle 46,773 100.0
Whittlesea (C)—North Non Urban 9,260 26.3 49.4
Whittlesea (C)—South Cap City middle 92,634 100.0
Wodonga (RC) Pop 10–40k 29,188 88.5 11.5
Wyndham (C)—North-West Non Urban 537 100.0
Wyndham (C)—Werribee Cap City outer 67,737 100.0
Wyndham (C) Bal Non Urban 5,623 88.2
Yarra (C)—North Cap City Inner 41,973 100.0
Yarra (C)—Richmond Cap City Inner 23,175 100.0
Yarra Ranges (S)—Central Within 75km 14,512 69.4 30.6
Yarra Ranges (S)—North Within 75km 11,094 68.5 31.5
Yarra Ranges (S)—South-West Cap City outer 104,437 84.5 3.4 12.1
Yarra Ranges (S)—Pt B Non Urban 762 100.0
Yarriambiack (S)—North Non Urban 2,452 45.4 54.6
Yarriambiack (S)—South Pop 2–10k 5,852 42.6 29.4 28.0
Lady Julia Percy Island Non Urban 0
Yallourn Works Area Non Urban 0
French Island Non Urban 58 100.0
Bass Strait Islands Non Urban 0
VIC Off-Shore & Migratory Offshore 807 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Queensland
Acacia Ridge Cap City middle 6,489 100.0
Aitkenvale Major non-Cap 5,063 100.0
Albany Creek Cap City middle 12,001 100.0
Albion Cap City Inner 2,262 100.0
Alderley Cap City Inner 4,550 100.0
Alexandra Hills Cap City outer 17,267 100.0
Algester Cap City middle 7,254 100.0
Annerley Cap City Inner 8,450 100.0
Anstead Non Urban 960 100.0
Aramac (S) Non Urban 778 44.0 56.0
Arana Hills Cap City middle 6,347 100.0
Archerfield Cap City middle 613 100.0
Arundel Major non-Cap 3,958 81.9 18.1
Ascot Cap City Inner 4,626 100.0
Ashgrove Cap City Inner 10,933 100.0
Ashmore Major non-Cap 10,267 100.0
Aspley Cap City middle 11,020 100.0
Atherton (S) Pop 2–10k 10,253 55.5 10.2 34.3
Aurukun (S) Pop < 2000 781 99.6 0.4
Bald Hills Cap City middle 5,783 97.4 2.6
Balmoral Cap City Inner 3,252 100.0
Balonne (S) Pop 2–10k 4,846 50.8 10.3 38.9
Banana (S) Non Urban 13,598 38.0 22.6 39.4
Banyo Cap City middle 4,702 100.0
Barcaldine (S) Pop < 2000 1,850 86.1 13.9
Barcoo (S) Non Urban 492 100.0
Bardon Cap City Inner 8,048 100.0
Bauhinia (S) Non Urban 2,543 26.2 73.8
Beaudesert (S)—Pt B Non Urban 23,630 37.3 1.0 61.8
Beaudesert (S) Bal in BSD Non Urban 22,521 4.7 81.3
Beenleigh Cap City outer 7,428 100.0
Bellbowrie Cap City middle 3,829 100.0
Belmont-Mackenzie Cap City middle 3,194 75.8 24.2
Belyando (S) Pop 2–10k 10,755 82.7 17.3
Bendemere (S) Non Urban 958 46.8 53.2
Benowa Major non-Cap 6,223 100.0
Berrinba-Karawatha Cap City outer 296 100.0
Bethania-Waterford Cap City outer 4,657 100.0
Biggenden (S) Non Urban 1,570 43.7 56.3
Biggera Waters Major non-Cap 5,013 100.0
Bilinga Major non-Cap 1,668 100.0
Birkdale Cap City middle 11,136 100.0
Blackall (S) Pop < 2000 1,833 78.1 21.9
Boonah (S) Non Urban 6,879 40.2 59.8
Boondall Cap City middle 7,256 100.0
Booringa (S) Pop < 2000 1,850 52.3 47.7
Boulia (S) Non Urban 561 43.3 56.7
Bowen (S) Pop 2–10k 14,411 76.4 1.9 21.8
Bowen Hills Cap City Inner 999 100.0
Bracken Ridge Cap City middle 12,845 100.0
Bray Park Cap City outer 8,151 100.0
Bribie Island Within 75km 12,946 98.6 1.4
Bridgeman Downs Cap City middle 3,546 100.0
Brighton Cap City outer 8,678 100.0
Broadbeach Major non-Cap 5,183 100.0 0.0
Broadbeach Waters Major non-Cap 8,158 100.0
Broadsound (S) Pop 2–10k 7,486 74.5 25.5
Brookfield (incl. Mt C’tha) Non Urban 2,645 76.6
Browns Plains Cap City outer 23,944 100.0
Bulimba Cap City Inner 3,659 100.0
Bulloo (S) Non Urban 799 26.9 73.1
Bundaberg (C) Pop 40k+ 42,842 95.8 4.2
Bundall Major non-Cap 3,878 100.0
Bungil (S) Non Urban 1,978 20.5 79.5
Burbank Non Urban 1,170 100.0
Burdekin (S) Pop 2–10k 18,957 62.1 8.9 29.0
Burke (S) Pop < 2000 1,431 68.1 31.9
Burleigh Heads Major non-Cap 8,425 100.0
Burleigh Waters Major non-Cap 9,540 100.0
Burnett (S)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 10,707 61.6 12.1 26.3
Burnett (S)—Pt B Non Urban 10,511 6.0 94.0
Burpengary-Narangba Within 75km 14,122 51.1 48.9
Caboolture (S)—Central Within 75km 15,320 84.5 15.5
Caboolture (S)—East Within 75km 10,963 50.8 49.2
Caboolture (S)—Pt B Non Urban 4,408 36.8 63.2
Caboolture (S) Bal in BSD Non Urban 9,718 12.8 87.2
Cairns (C)—Barron Major non-Cap 16,913 55.8 17.3 10.5 16.4
Cairns (C)—Central Suburbs Major non-Cap 23,698 100.0
Cairns (C)—City Major non-Cap 16,035 100.0
Cairns (C)—Mt Whitfield Major non-Cap 11,435 99.6 0.4
Cairns (C)—Northern Suburbs Pop 10–40k 15,498 76.4 15.7 8.0
Cairns (C)—Pt B Non Urban 6,990 45.9 54.1
Cairns (C)—Trinity Major non-Cap 26,249 78.1 14.0 7.9
Cairns (C)—Western Suburbs Major non-Cap 11,208 100.0
Calamvale Cap City middle 6,150 100.0
Calliope (S)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 11,055 57.7 11.2 31.1
Calliope (S)—Pt B Non Urban 2,899 7.3 92.7
Caloundra (C)—Caloundra N. Pop 10–40k 15,080 96.0 4.0
Caloundra (C)—Caloundra S. Pop 10–40k 14,016 98.8 1.2
Caloundra (C)—Hinterland Non Urban 6,184 14.2 85.8
Caloundra (C)—Kawana Pop 10–40k 16,389 99.2 0.8
Caloundra (C)—Rail Corridor Non Urban 14,667 13.0 17.5 69.4
Cambooya (S) Non Urban 4,079 35.3 64.7
Camp Hill Cap City Inner 9,059 100.0
Cannon Hill Cap City Inner 3,903 100.0
Capalaba Cap City outer 16,213 100.0
Capalaba West Non Urban 380 63.9
Carbrook-Cornubia Non Urban 2,894 100.0
Cardwell (S) Non Urban 10,588 23.7 35.9 40.5
Carina Cap City Inner 8,359 100.0
Carina Heights Cap City Inner 5,601 100.0
Carindale Cap City middle 10,205 100.0
Carpentaria (S) Pop < 2000 4,271 89.8 10.2
Carrara-Merrimac Major non-Cap 11,661 100.0
Carseldine Cap City middle 5,757 100.0
Chandler Non Urban 938 61.0
Chapel Hill Cap City Inner 9,936 100.0
Charters Towers (C) Pop 2–10k 8,893 100.0
Chelmer Cap City Inner 2,544 100.0
Chermside Cap City Inner 6,297 100.0
Chermside West Cap City middle 5,544 100.0
Chinchilla (S) Pop 2–10k 5,600 58.0 42.0
City—Inner (Brisbane) Cap City Inner 2,337 100.0
City—Remainder (Brisbane) Cap City Inner 2,641 100.0
City (Townsville) Major non-Cap 1,820 100.0
Clayfield Cap City Inner 9,054 100.0
Cleveland Cap City outer 10,939 100.0
Clifton (S) Non Urban 2,308 36.1 63.9
Cloncurry (S) Pop 2–10k 3,898 63.1 5.2 31.7
Clontarf Cap City outer 8,048 100.0 0.0
Cook (S)—Weipa only Pop 2–10k 2,200 100.0
Cook (S) (excl. Weipa) Non Urban 6,881 49.4 50.6
Coolangatta Major non-Cap 6,618 100.0
Cooloola (S)—Gympie only Pop 10–40k 15,147 71.4 19.1 9.5
Cooloola (S) (excl. Gympie) Non Urban 16,715 25.5 74.5
Coombabah Major non-Cap 7,053 83.2 16.8
Coomera-Cedar Creek Non Urban 6,247 100.0
Coopers Plains Cap City middle 3,926 100.0
Coorparoo Cap City Inner 12,763 100.0
Corinda Cap City middle 3,988 100.0
Cranbrook Major non-Cap 6,445 100.0
Crow’s Nest (S) Non Urban 8,644 31.4 22.2 46.5
Croydon (S) Pop < 2000 316 70.6 29.4
Currajong Major non-Cap 2,924 100.0
Currumbin Major non-Cap 2,696 100.0
Currumbin Waters Major non-Cap 8,638 100.0
Daisy Hill-Priestdale Cap City outer 4,325 97.1 2.9
Dalby (T) Pop 2–10k 9,517 100.0
Dalrymple (S) Non Urban 3,669 5.5 94.5
Darra-Sumner Cap City middle 3,714 100.0
Deagon Cap City middle 3,250 100.0
Deception Bay Within 75km 15,886 82.9 17.1
Diamantina (S) Non Urban 424 100.0
Doolandella-Forest Lake Cap City middle 6,468 94.1 5.9
Douglas Major non-Cap 2,097 100.0
Douglas (S) Pop 2–10k 14,594 43.8 22.2 34.1
Duaringa (S) Pop 2–10k 9,311 63.7 19.6 16.7
Durack Cap City middle 5,641 100.0
Dutton Park Cap City Inner 1,456 100.0
Eacham (S) Non Urban 6,211 34.9 65.1
Eagleby Cap City outer 8,466 96.4 3.6
East Brisbane Cap City Inner 4,607 100.0
Edens Landing-Holmview Cap City outer 3,945 100.0
Eidsvold (S) Pop < 2000 970 53.5 46.5
Eight Mile Plains Cap City middle 9,372 98.8 1.2
Elanora Major non-Cap 9,416 100.0
Ellen Grove Cap City middle 2,493 81.7 18.3
Emerald (S) Pop 2–10k 13,312 70.2 11.2 18.6
Enoggera Cap City Inner 6,188 100.0
Ernest-Molendinar Major non-Cap 3,049 93.4 6.6
Esk (S) Non Urban 13,391 23.0 6.5 70.5
Etheridge (S) Non Urban 1,280 23.3 76.7
Everton Hills Cap City middle 5,206 100.0
Everton Park Cap City Inner 7,668 100.0
Fairfield Cap City Inner 2,184 100.0
Ferny Grove Cap City middle 5,065 100.0
Ferny Hills Cap City middle 7,642 99.6 0.4
Fig Tree Pocket Cap City Inner 2,587 100.0
Fitzroy (S)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 4,501 100.0
Fitzroy (S)—Pt B Non Urban 4,998 11.7 88.3
Flinders (S) Pop < 2000 2,232 64.7 35.3
Fortitude Valley—Inner Cap City Inner 165 100.0
Fortitude Valley—Remainder Cap City Inner 1,528 100.0
Garbutt Major non-Cap 2,513 100.0
Gatton (S) Non Urban 14,730 36.2 11.7 52.1
Gayndah (S) Pop < 2000 2,916 61.1 38.9
Geebung Cap City middle 4,187 100.0
Gladstone (C) Pop 10–40k 26,453 99.9 0.1
Gold Coast (C) Bal in BSD Non Urban 8,438 7.8 54.8
Goondiwindi (T) Pop 2–10k 4,374 100.0
Graceville Cap City Inner 3,609 100.0
Grange Cap City Inner 3,317 100.0
Greenbank—Pt A Non Urban 557 100.0
Greenbank—Pt  B Cap City outer 7,732 99.7 0.3
Greenslopes Cap City Inner 7,471 100.0
Guanaba-Currumbin Valley Non Urban 14,145 3.7 11.5 84.7
Gulliver Major non-Cap 3,020 100.0
Gumdale Cap City middle 929 100.0
Hamilton Cap City Inner 4,257 100.0
Hawthorne Cap City Inner 3,699 100.0
Heatley Major non-Cap 4,582 100.0
Helensvale Within 75km 10,022 100.0
Hemmant-Lytton Cap City middle 1,660 100.0
Hendra Cap City Inner 3,441 100.0
Herberton (S) Non Urban 5,181 43.8 56.2
Hermit Park Major non-Cap 3,460 100.0
Herston Cap City Inner 2,899 100.0
Hervey Bay (C) Pop 10–40k 42,391 75.6 10.0 14.3
Highgate Hill Cap City Inner 5,190 100.0
Hinchinbrook (S) Pop 2–10k 15,579 45.5 22.3 32.2
Holland Park Cap City Inner 7,134 100.0
Holland Park West Cap City Inner 5,305 100.0
Hollywell Major non-Cap 2,623 100.0
Hope Island Within 75km 2,765 100.0
Hyde Park-Mysterton Major non-Cap 2,378 100.0
Ilfracombe (S) Non Urban 333 100.0
Inala Cap City middle 13,287 100.0
Indooroopilly Cap City Inner 9,849 100.0
Inglewood (S) Pop < 2000 2,771 61.6 38.4
Ipswich (C)—Central Cap City outer 66,048 97.3 2.7
Ipswich (C)—East Cap City outer 37,016 97.5 2.5
Ipswich (C)—North Within 75km 11,415 65.9 30.7
Ipswich (C)—South-West Non Urban 4,724 7.5 92.5
Ipswich (C)—West Non Urban 7,650 48.6 51.4
Isis (S) Non Urban 5,878 41.8 58.2
Isisford (S) Non Urban 302 100.0
Jamboree Heights Cap City middle 3,357 100.0
Jericho (S) Non Urban 966 40.9 59.1
Jindalee Cap City middle 5,302 100.0
Johnstone (S) Pop 2–10k 20,777 43.3 26.5 30.2
Jondaryan (S) Non Urban 11,056 8.2 30.7 1.8 59.3
Kallangur Cap City outer 14,405 100.0
Kangaroo Point Cap City Inner 5,124 100.0
Kedron Cap City Inner 11,029 100.0
Kelso Major non-Cap 7,553 92.5 7.5
Kelvin Grove Cap City Inner 3,945 100.0
Kenmore Cap City middle 8,014 100.0
Kenmore Hills Cap City middle 2,246 100.0
Keperra Cap City middle 7,303 100.0
Kerrydale-Stephens Major non-Cap 7,871 97.4 2.6
Kilcoy (S) Non Urban 3,139 48.3 51.7
Kilkivan (S) Non Urban 3,203 25.4 74.6
Kingaroy (S) Pop 2–10k 11,141 62.9 37.1
Kingston (QLD) Cap City outer 13,148 100.0
Kirwan Major non-Cap 15,203 99.1 0.9
Kolan (S) Non Urban 4,196 22.8 77.2
Kuraby Non Urban 1,673 51.6
Labrador Major non-Cap 13,972 100.0
Laidley (S) Non Urban 12,116 23.0 77.0
Lawnton Cap City outer 5,315 100.0
Livingstone (S) Pop 2–10k 24,796 5.6 46.8 1.3 46.3
Logan (C) Bal Non Urban 1,892 100.0
Loganholme Cap City outer 10,988 100.0
Loganlea Cap City outer 6,573 100.0
Longreach (S) Pop 2–10k 4,419 85.2 14.8
Lota Cap City middle 2,556 100.0
Lutwyche Cap City Inner 2,548 100.0
MacGregor (QLD) Cap City middle 5,426 100.0
Mackay (C)—Pt A Pop 40k+ 60,703 73.9 8.7 9.4 7.9
Mackay (C)—Pt B Non Urban 11,191 9.2 90.8
Magnetic Island Pop < 2000 3,027 98.3 1.7
Main Beach-Broadwater Major non-Cap 4,772 96.9 3.1
Manly Cap City middle 3,427 100.0
Manly West Cap City middle 8,392 100.0
Mansfield Cap City middle 8,187 100.0
Mareeba (S) Non Urban 18,188 37.8 6.0 56.2
Margate-Woody Point Cap City outer 10,224 100.0
Maroochy (S)—Buderim Pop 10–40k 24,213 86.6 13.4
Maroochy (S)—Coastal  North Pop 2–10k 15,905 88.2 7.3 4.6
Maroochy (S)—Maroochydore Pop 10–40k 17,045 98.2 1.8
Maroochy (S)—Mooloolaba Pop 10–40k 11,161 100.0
Maroochy (S)—Nambour Pop 10–40k 11,397 100.0
Maroochy (S) Bal Non Urban 19,991 11.1 88.9
Maroochy (S) Bal in S C’st SSD Non Urban 12,086 6.7 27.7 18.8 46.8
Marsden Cap City outer 16,502 100.0
Maryborough (C) Pop 10–40k 24,868 85.6 14.4
McDowall Cap City middle 5,142 100.0
McKinlay (S) Non Urban 1,443 36.0 64.0
Mermaid Beach Major non-Cap 6,083 100.0
Mermaid Waters Major non-Cap 9,793 100.0
Miami Major non-Cap 6,567 100.0
Middle Park Cap City middle 4,391 100.0
Millmerran (S) Non Urban 2,830 46.4 53.6
Milton Cap City Inner 1,584 100.0
Mirani (S) Non Urban 5,088 27.1 72.9
Miriam Vale (S) Non Urban 4,331 20.2 79.8
Mitchelton Cap City Inner 5,882 100.0
Moggill Non Urban 710 100.0
Monto (S) Non Urban 2,922 44.1 55.9
Moorooka Cap City Inner 8,408 100.0
Morayfield Within 75km 15,496 80.2 19.8
Moreton Island Non Urban 455 100.0
Morningside Cap City Inner 6,931 100.0
Mornington (S) Non Urban 1,114 100.0
Mount Gravatt Cap City Inner 3,063 100.0
Mount Gravatt East Cap City Inner 9,019 100.0
Mount Isa (C) Pop 10–40k 22,866 95.1 1.1 3.7
Mount Morgan (S) Pop 2–10k 2,858 87.0 13.0
Mount Ommaney Cap City middle 2,009 100.0
Mt Louisa-Mt  St John-Bohle Major non-Cap 3,707 84.1 15.9
Mt Warren Park Cap City outer 5,283 100.0
Mudgeeraba Major non-Cap 8,103 66.4 33.6
Mundingburra Major non-Cap 4,026 100.0
Mundubbera (S) Non Urban 2,514 49.2 50.8
Murarrie Cap City Inner 2,356 100.0
Murgon (S) Pop 2–10k 4,472 46.7 24.6 28.7
Murilla (S) Non Urban 2,790 42.5 57.5
Murray Major non-Cap 6,979 100.0
Murweh (S) Pop 2–10k 4,962 67.0 8.8 24.1
Nanango (S) Non Urban 7,810 34.7 6.7 58.6
Nathan Cap City Inner 1,582 100.0
Nebo (S) Pop < 2000 2,462 54.0 46.0
Nerang Within 75km 19,113 75.7 18.3 6.0
New Farm Cap City Inner 9,118 100.0
Newmarket Cap City Inner 3,680 100.0
Newstead Cap City Inner 1,330 100.0
Noosa (S)—Noosa-Noosaville Pop 10–40k 11,539 100.0
Noosa (S)—Sunshine-Peregian Pop 10–40k 8,862 63.8 25.4 5.3 5.4
Noosa (S)—Tewantin Pop 10–40k 8,856 100.0
Noosa (S) Bal Non Urban 11,914 31.9 68.1
Norman Park Cap City Inner 5,977 100.0
North Ward-Castle  Hill Major non-Cap 6,096 100.0
Northgate Cap City middle 3,619 100.0
Nudgee Cap City middle 1,873 100.0
Nudgee Beach Cap City middle 314 100.0
Nundah Cap City Inner 7,742 100.0
Oonoonba-Idalia-Cluden Major non-Cap 1,788 100.0
Ormiston Cap City outer 3,593 100.0
Oxenford Within 75km 6,590 87.3 12.7
Oxley (QLD) Cap City middle 5,662 100.0
Paddington Cap City Inner 6,878 100.0
Pallara-Heathwood-Larapinta Non Urban 713 100.0
Pallarenda-Shelley Beach Pop < 2000 1,009 87.6 12.4
Palm Beach Major non-Cap 13,657 100.0
Paradise Point Major non-Cap 3,921 100.0
Parkinson-Drewvale Cap City outer 2,428 100.0
Parkwood Major non-Cap 7,344 100.0
Paroo (S) Pop < 2000 2,432 60.1 39.9
Peak Downs (S) Pop < 2000 3,172 73.5 26.5
Perry (S) Non Urban 351 100.0
Petrie Cap City outer 7,263 100.0
Pimlico Major non-Cap 2,448 100.0
Pine Rivers (S) Bal Non Urban 26,841 4.4 66.1
Pinjarra Hills Non Urban 440 100.0
Pinkenba-Eagle Farm Cap City middle 482 88.0 12.0
Pittsworth (S) Pop 2–10k 4,264 54.5 45.5
Pullenvale Non Urban 1,656 100.0
Quilpie (S) Pop < 2000 1,402 52.1 47.9
Railway EState Major non-Cap 2,771 100.0
Ransome Cap City middle 430 100.0
Red Hill (QLD) Cap City Inner 4,768 100.0
Redcliffe-Scarborough Cap City outer 17,789 100.0
Redland (S) Bal Within 75km 5,372 95.7 4.3
Redland Bay Within 75km 5,559 81.8 18.2
Richlands Cap City middle 859 100.0
Richmond (S) Pop < 2000 1,179 62.2 37.8
Riverhills Cap City middle 3,304 100.0
Robertson Cap City middle 4,110 100.0
Robina-Clear Island Waters Major non-Cap 13,257 100.0
Rochedale Non Urban 1,309 100.0
Rochedale South Cap City middle 15,672 100.0
Rockhampton (C) Pop 40k+ 59,732 94.4 5.6
Rocklea Cap City middle 1,448 100.0
Roma (T) Pop 2–10k 6,439 89.2 10.8
Rosalie (S) Non Urban 8,035 35.4 64.6
Rosslea Major non-Cap 1,878 100.0
Rothwell-Kippa-Ring Cap City outer 11,965 100.0
Rowes Bay-Belgian Gardens Major non-Cap 2,678 100.0
Runaway Bay Major non-Cap 7,707 100.0
Runcorn Cap City middle 9,229 100.0
Salisbury Cap City Inner 5,159 100.0
Sandgate Cap City middle 6,271 100.0
Sarina (S) Non Urban 9,394 34.1 19.9 46.0
Seventeen Mile Rocks Cap City middle 4,356 100.0
Shailer Park Cap City outer 10,275 100.0
Sheldon-Mt Cotton Non Urban 3,204 100.0
Sherwood Cap City Inner 4,387 100.0
Slacks Creek Cap City outer 11,665 100.0
South Brisbane Cap City Inner 3,599 100.0
South Townsville Major non-Cap 2,059 100.0
Southport Major non-Cap 22,059 100.0
Spring Hill Cap City Inner 4,970 100.0
Springwood Cap City outer 6,374 100.0
St Lucia Cap City Inner 9,824 100.0
Stafford Cap City Inner 5,538 100.0
Stafford Heights Cap City Inner 7,283 100.0
Stanthorpe (S) Non Urban 9,596 43.3 4.0 52.7
Strathpine Cap City outer 10,021 100.0
Stretton Cap City middle 2,079 100.0
Stuart-Roseneath Major non-Cap 1,197 68.8 31.2
Sunnybank Cap City middle 7,436 100.0
Sunnybank Hills Cap City middle 14,166 100.0
Surfers Paradise Major non-Cap 24,086 100.0
Taigum-Fitzgibbon Cap City middle 3,550 100.0
Tambo (S) Pop < 2000 566 66.8 33.2
Tanah Merah Cap City outer 902 100.0
Tara (S) Non Urban 3,504 24.4 75.6
Taringa Cap City Inner 6,236 100.0
Taroom (S) Non Urban 2,733 40.0 60.0
Tarragindi Cap City Inner 9,050 100.0
The Gap (incl. Enoggera Res.) Cap City middle 15,004 97.3 2.7
Thorneside Cap City middle 3,369 100.0
Thornlands Cap City outer 7,131 77.1 22.9
Thuringowa (C)—Pt A Bal Major non-Cap 15,036 50.7 15.4 26.0 7.9
Thuringowa (C)—Pt B Non Urban 6,527 34.1 65.9
Tiaro (S) Non Urban 4,252 8.9 91.1
Tingalpa Cap City middle 7,290 100.0
Toowong Cap City Inner 13,093 100.0
Toowoomba (C)—Central Major non-Cap 14,237 100.0
Toowoomba (C)—North-East Major non-Cap 10,671 99.3 0.7
Toowoomba (C)—North-West Major non-Cap 18,611 97.6 2.4
Toowoomba (C)—South-East Major non-Cap 19,247 99.1 0.9
Toowoomba (C)—West Major non-Cap 20,868 97.6 2.4
Torres (S) Non Urban 8,571 29.0 22.0 49.1
Townsville (C)—Pt  B Non Urban 3,109 31.9 68.1
Tugun Major non-Cap 4,494 100.0
Underwood Cap City middle 2,675 95.6 4.4
Upper Brookfield Non Urban 507 100.0
Upper Kedron Non Urban 339 100.0
Upper Mount Gravatt Cap City middle 7,238 100.0
Victoria Point Within 75km 9,760 100.0
Vincent Major non-Cap 2,944 100.0
Virginia Cap City middle 1,800 100.0
Wacol Cap City middle 5,155 100.0
Waggamba (S) Non Urban 2,712 8.0 92.0
Wakerley Cap City middle 715 100.0
Wambo (S) Non Urban 5,205 18.8 81.2
Warroo (S) Non Urban 996 40.0 60.0
Warwick (S)—Central Pop 10–40k 10,947 100.0
Warwick (S)—East Non Urban 4,041 25.6 74.4
Warwick (S)—North Non Urban 2,234 38.1 61.9
Warwick (S)—West Non Urban 2,745 100.0
Waterford West Cap City outer 4,859 100.0
Wavell Heights Cap City Inner 8,241 100.0
Wellington Point Cap City outer 6,556 100.0
West End (Brisbane) Cap City Inner 5,780 100.0
West End (Townsville) Major non-Cap 3,527 100.0
Westlake Cap City middle 3,360 100.0
Whitsunday (S) Pop 2–10k 18,282 51.5 8.2 40.3
Willawong Non Urban 236 100.0
Wilston Cap City Inner 3,209 100.0
Windaroo-Bannockburn Cap City outer 2,132 100.0
Windsor Cap City Inner 5,834 100.0
Winton (S) Pop < 2000 1,736 65.8 34.2
Wishart Cap City middle 8,442 100.0
Wondai (S) Non Urban 3,971 39.2 60.8
Woocoo (S) Non Urban 2,902 100.0
Woodridge Cap City outer 18,039 100.0
Woolloongabba Cap City Inner 4,646 100.0
Wooloowin Cap City Inner 5,453 100.0
Worongary-Tallai Major non-Cap 8,191 78.8 21.2
Wulguru Major non-Cap 4,803 100.0
Wynnum Cap City middle 10,589 100.0
Wynnum West Cap City middle 9,013 100.0
Yeerongpilly Cap City Inner 2,119 100.0
Yeronga Cap City Inner 4,638 100.0
Zillmere Cap City middle 7,651 100.0
Unincorp. Islands Non Urban 0
QLD Off-Shore & Migratory Offshore 2,999 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
South Australia
Adelaide (C) Cap City Inner 16,115 100.0
Angaston (DC) Within 75km 6,952 76.9 23.1
Barmera (DC) Non Urban 4,278 48.9 51.1
Barossa (DC) Non Urban 4,991 45.9 54.1
Beachport (DC) Pop < 2000 1,572 52.9 47.1
Berri (DC) Pop 2–10k 6,752 57.9 42.1
Blyth-Snowtown (DC) Non Urban 1,970 36.1 63.9
Brighton (C) Cap City middle 18,149 100.0
Browns Well (DC) Non Urban 289 100.0
Burnside (C) Cap City Inner 38,585 99.1 0.9
Burra Burra (DC) Pop < 2000 1,824 55.3 44.7
Bute (DC) Non Urban 962 26.8 73.2
Campbelltown (C) (SA) Cap City middle 44,032 100.0
Carrieton (DC) Non Urban 163 100.0
Ceduna (DC) Pop 2–10k 3,559 73.0 27.0
Central Yorke Peninsula (DC) Non Urban 4,957 48.2 51.8
Clare (DC) Pop 2–10k 4,177 67.4 32.6
Cleve (DC) Non Urban 1,884 39.6 60.4
Coober Pedy (DC) Pop 2–10k 3,184 86.7 13.3
Coonalpyn Downs (DC) Non Urban 1,383 38.3 61.7
Crystal Brook-Redhill (DC) Pop < 2000 2,106 62.8 37.2
Dudley (DC) Non Urban 695 100.0
East Torrens (DC) Non Urban 6,653 12.4 56.6
Elizabeth (C) Cap City outer 25,852 100.0
Elliston (DC) Non Urban 1,212 17.9 82.1
Enfield (C)—Pt  A Cap City Inner 44,338 100.0
Enfield (C)—Pt  B Cap City middle 15,563 100.0
Eudunda (DC) Non Urban 1,310 49.0 51.0
Franklin Harbor (DC) Pop < 2000 1,218 61.4 38.6
Gawler (M) Within 75km 16,656 92.6 7.4
Glenelg (C) Cap City middle 12,982 100.0
Gumeracha (DC) Non Urban 6,034 34.5 65.5
Hallett (DC) Non Urban 540 100.0
Happy Valley (C) Cap City outer 36,316 92.4 7.6
Hawker (DC) Pop < 2000 498 64.1 35.9
Henley & Grange (C) Cap City middle 13,811 100.0
Hindmarsh and Woodville (C) Cap City Inner 85,157 100.0
Jamestown (DC) Pop < 2000 2,156 66.3 33.7
Kanyaka-Quorn (DC) Pop < 2000 1,444 71.9 28.1
Kapunda (DC) Within 75km 3,324 66.0 34.0
Karoonda East Murray (DC) Non Urban 1,323 24.7 75.3
Kensington & Norwood (C) Cap City Inner 8,952 100.0
Kimba (DC) Pop < 2000 1,224 55.3 44.7
Kingscote (DC) Non Urban 3,423 44.7 55.3
Lacepede (DC) Pop < 2000 2,219 64.5 35.5
Lameroo (DC) Non Urban 1,234 41.8 58.2
Le Hunte (DC) Non Urban 1,482 35.6 64.4
Light (DC) Non Urban 5,892 43.1 56.9
Lower Eyre Peninsula (DC) Non Urban 3,859 28.3 71.7
Loxton (DC) Non Urban 6,836 48.4 2.9 48.6
Lucindale (DC) Non Urban 1,274 21.4 78.6
Mallala (DC) Non Urban 6,761 18.9 81.1
Mannum (DC) Within 75km 3,069 64.1 35.9
Marion (C) Cap City outer 74,317 100.0
Meningie (DC) Pop < 2000 3,826 62.9 37.1
Millicent (DC) Pop 2–10k 7,247 65.1 3.6 31.3
Minlaton (DC) Non Urban 2,216 20.1 33.1 46.8
Mitcham (C) Cap City middle 59,289 99.1 0.9
Morgan (DC) Non Urban 1,483 33.2 66.8
Mount Barker (DC) Within 75km 20,303 69.5 30.5
Mount Gambier (C) Pop 10–40k 22,037 100.0
Mount Gambier (DC) Non Urban 5,010 9.1 90.9
Mount Pleasant (DC) Non Urban 2,249 33.5 66.5
Mount Remarkable (DC) Non Urban 3,037 36.2 63.8
Munno Para (C) Cap City outer 37,634 77.5 3.4 19.0
Murray Bridge (RC) Within 75km 15,893 81.6 18.4
Naracoorte (M) Pop 2–10k 4,674 100.0
Naracoorte (DC) Non Urban 1,878 100.0
Noarlunga (C) Cap City outer 89,377 97.4 2.6
Northern Yorke Peninsula (DC) Pop 2–10k 7,594 88.4 11.6
Onkaparinga (DC) Within 75km 7,585 57.1 42.9
Orroroo (DC) Pop < 2000 882 63.2 36.8
Paringa (DC) Non Urban 1,753 43.0 57.0
Payneham (C) Cap City Inner 15,258 100.0
Peake (DC) Non Urban 744 100.0
Penola (DC) Pop < 2000 3,248 63.9 36.1
Peterborough (M) Pop < 2000 1,855 100.0
Peterborough (DC) Non Urban 322 100.0
Pinnaroo (DC) Pop < 2000 1,074 56.4 43.6
Pirie (DC) Non Urban 1,442 16.7 83.3
Port Adelaide (C) Cap City outer 37,559 100.0
Port Augusta (C) Pop 10–40k 14,244 97.7 2.3
Port Broughton (DC) Non Urban 1,311 47.9 52.1
Port Elliot & Goolwa (DC) Within 75km 7,938 78.7 21.3
Port Lincoln (C) Pop 10–40k 12,182 95.9 4.1
Port MacDonnell (DC) Non Urban 2,430 27.2 72.8
Port Pirie (C) Pop 10–40k 13,960 97.7 2.3
Prospect (C) Cap City Inner 18,516 100.0
Renmark (M) Pop 2–10k 7,835 55.7 44.3
Ridley-Truro (DC) Non Urban 2,796 18.3 81.7
Riverton (DC) Non Urban 1,596 43.5 56.5
Robe (DC) Pop < 2000 1,277 63.9 36.1
Robertstown (DC) Non Urban 721 100.0
Rocky River (DC) Pop < 2000 2,208 52.9 47.1
Roxby Downs (M) Pop 2–10k 2,670 91.6 8.4
Saddleworth  & Auburn (DC) Non Urban 2,046 34.8 65.2
St Peters (M) Cap City Inner 8,173 100.0
Salisbury (C) Cap City middle 108,465 99.5 0.5
Spalding (DC) Non Urban 458 44.5 55.5
Stirling (DC) Within 75km 16,150 80.7 19.3
Strathalbyn (DC) Non Urban 6,856 48.3 51.7
Streaky Bay (DC) Pop < 2000 1,925 52.5 47.5
Tanunda (DC) Within 75km 4,114 85.1 14.9
Tatiara (DC) Non Urban 6,660 35.1 16.4 48.6
Tea Tree Gully (C) Cap City middle 92,187 98.7 1.3
Thebarton (M) Cap City Inner 7,530 100.0
Tumby Bay (DC) Pop < 2000 2,553 53.2 46.8
Unley (C) Cap City Inner 35,097 100.0
Victor Harbor (DC) Within 75km 8,656 84.8 15.2
Waikerie (DC) Non Urban 4,713 38.1 61.9
Wakefield Plains (DC) Pop < 2000 4,454 19.0 44.5 36.5
Walkerville (M) Cap City Inner 6,726 100.0
Wallaroo (M) Pop 2–10k 2,289 100.0
Warooka (DC) Non Urban 1,097 21.5 78.5
West Torrens (C) Cap City Inner 42,155 100.0
Whyalla (C) Pop 10–40k 23,644 98.9 1.1
Willunga (DC) Within 75km 14,234 75.7 24.3
Yankalilla (DC) Non Urban 3,538 38.4 61.6
Yorketown (DC) Non Urban 2,818 18.6 38.8 42.7
Unincorp. Western Non Urban 26 100.0
Unincorp. Yorke Non Urban 0
Unincorp. Riverland Non Urban 177 100.0
Unincorp. Murray Mallee Non Urban 0
Unincorp. Lincoln Non Urban 32 100.0
Unincorp. West Coast Non Urban 740 36.9 63.1
Unincorp. Whyalla Pop < 2000 335 0.0 66.9 33.1
Unincorp. Pirie Non Urban 367 100.0
Unincorp. Flinders Ranges Non Urban 2,196 45.8 54.2
Unincorp. Far North Non Urban 6,273 33.4 66.6
SA Off-Shore  & Migratory Offshore 598 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Western Austalia
Albany (T) Pop 10–40k 14,590 100.0
Albany (S) Pop 10–40k 12,413 47.6 9.5 42.9
Armadale (C) Cap City outer 49,703 89.0 11.0
Ashburton (S) Pop 2–10k 8,783 44.1 38.1 17.8
Augusta-Margaret River (S) Non Urban 8,047 35.4 13.5 51.1
Bassendean (T) Cap City middle 13,230 100.0
Bayswater (C) Cap City Inner 43,756 100.0
Belmont (C) Cap City Inner 26,826 100.0
Beverley (S) Pop < 2000 1,399 56.3 43.7
Boddington (S) Pop < 2000 1,522 68.5 31.5
Boyup Brook (S) Non Urban 1,604 34.5 65.5
Bridgetown-Greenbushes (S) Pop 2–10k 3,904 54.4 10.3 35.3
Brookton (S) Pop < 2000 911 57.7 42.3
Broome (S) Pop 10–40k 13,717 82.9 8.4 8.7
Broomehill (S) Non Urban 470 100.0
Bruce Rock (S) Pop < 2000 1,129 51.3 48.7
Bunbury (C) Pop 10–40k 26,556 93.9 6.1
Busselton (S) Pop 10–40k 17,490 60.8 8.7 30.5
Cambridge (T) Cap City Inner 22,904 100.0
Canning (C) Cap City middle 68,374 99.3 0.7
Capel (S) Pop < 2000 5,692 73.8 26.2
Carnamah (S) Pop < 2000 1,039 70.0 30.0
Carnarvon (S) Pop 2–10k 8,616 73.8 14.0 12.3
Chapman Valley (S) Non Urban 785 100.0
Chittering (S) Non Urban 2,264 100.0
Claremont (T) Cap City Inner 8,805 100.0
Cockburn (C) Cap City outer 57,335 92.3 0.7 7.0
Collie (S) Pop 2–10k 8,636 83.3 6.6 10.1
Coolgardie (S) Pop < 2000 5,652 42.4 43.5 14.1
Coorow (S) Pop < 2000 1,395 55.6 44.4
Corrigin (S) Pop < 2000 1,276 55.1 44.9
Cottesloe (T) Cap City middle 7,100 100.0
Cranbrook (S) Non Urban 1,121 25.2 74.8
Cuballing (S) Non Urban 708 34.0 66.0
Cue (S) Pop < 2000 731 51.2 48.8
Cunderdin (S) Pop < 2000 1,368 52.3 47.7
Dalwallinu (S) Non Urban 1,699 41.0 59.0
Dandaragan (S) Pop < 2000 2,607 54.2 45.8
Dardanup (S) Pop 2–10k 6,344 64.2 9.1 26.7
Denmark (S) Pop < 2000 3,686 53.7 46.3
Derby-West Kimberley (S) Pop 2–10k 7,249 44.6 20.8 34.6
Donnybrook-Balingup (S) Non Urban 4,029 40.6 59.4
Dowerin (S) Non Urban 824 45.9 54.1
Dumbleyung (S) Non Urban 837 31.5 68.5
Dundas (S) Pop < 2000 1,888 80.3 19.7
East Fremantle (T) Cap City middle 6,245 100.0
East Pilbara (S) Pop 2–10k 7,945 60.3 4.0 35.7
Esperance (S) Pop 2–10k 11,837 73.1 26.9
Exmouth (S) Pop 2–10k 3,908 78.2 21.8
Fremantle (C)—Inner Cap City middle 869 100.0
Fremantle (C)—Remainder Cap City middle 23,407 100.0
Geraldton (C) Pop 10–40k 19,816 100.0 0.0
Gingin (S) Non Urban 3,189 35.9 64.1
Gnowangerup (S) Non Urban 1,724 42.7 57.3
Goomalling (S) Non Urban 1,038 46.4 53.6
Gosnells (C) Cap City middle 73,705 95.6 4.4
Greenough (S) Pop 10–40k 10,362 52.4 3.6 44.0
Halls Creek (S) Non Urban 3,302 47.5 52.5
Harvey (S) Pop 2–10k 14,766 56.0 26.0 18.0
Irwin (S) Pop < 2000 2,453 76.4 23.6
Jerramungup (S) Non Urban 1,338 41.3 58.7
Kalamunda (S) Cap City outer 46,358 88.9 11.1
Kalgoorlie/Boulder (C) Pop 10–40k 29,683 94.6 5.4
Katanning (S) Pop 2–10k 4,506 89.5 10.5
Kellerberrin (S) Pop < 2000 1,210 70.7 29.3
Kent (S) Non Urban 780 100.0
Kojonup (S) Non Urban 2,214 46.7 53.3
Kondinin (S) Non Urban 1,237 26.0 74.0
Koorda (S) Pop < 2000 602 57.8 42.2
Kulin (S) Non Urban 893 30.3 69.7
Kwinana (T) Within 75km 19,186 81.7 18.3
Lake Grace (S) Non Urban 1,769 32.5 67.5
Laverton (S) Non Urban 1,569 41.0 59.0
Leonora (S) Pop < 2000 3,511 73.6 26.4
Mandurah (C) Within 75km 37,925 94.8 5.2
Manjimup (S) Pop 2–10k 10,093 43.5 15.6 40.9
Meekatharra (S) Non Urban 2,666 47.6 52.4
Melville (C) Cap City middle 89,238 100.0
Menzies (S) Non Urban 521 100.0
Merredin (S) Pop 2–10k 3,650 79.8 20.2
Mingenew (S) Pop < 2000 589 53.1 46.9
Moora (S) Pop < 2000 2,573 64.7 35.3
Morawa (S) Pop < 2000 1,058 65.4 34.6
Mosman Park (T) Cap City middle 7,420 100.0
Mount Magnet (S) Pop < 2000 833 89.7 10.3
Mount Marshall (S) Non Urban 770 100.0
Mukinbudin (S) Non Urban 700 49.6 50.4
Mullewa (S) Non Urban 1,192 49.6 50.4
Mundaring (S) Cap City outer 31,613 53.8 28.8 17.4
Murchison (S) Non Urban 184 100.0
Murray (S) Within 75km 9,190 65.8 34.2
Nannup (S) Non Urban 1,144 45.5 54.5
Narembeen (S) Non Urban 1,017 45.1 54.9
Narrogin (T) Pop 2–10k 4,491 100.0
Narrogin (S) Non Urban 867 100.0
Nedlands (C) Cap City Inner 20,876 100.0
Ngaanyatjarraku (S) Non Urban 1,448 31.6 68.4
Northam (T) Pop 2–10k 6,300 100.0
Northam (S) Non Urban 3,215 19.1 80.9
Northampton (S) Pop < 2000 3,787 69.4 30.6
Nungarin (S) Non Urban 272 100.0
Peppermint  Grove (S) Cap City middle 1,628 100.0
Perenjori (S) Non Urban 684 100.0
Perth (C)—Inner Cap City Inner 2,813 100.0
Perth (C)—Remainder Cap City Inner 7,282 100.0
Pingelly (S) Pop < 2000 1,135 66.6 33.4
Plantagenet (S) Non Urban 4,117 40.0 60.0
Port Hedland (T) Pop 10–40k 13,116 97.9 2.1
Quairading (S) Pop < 2000 1,176 60.0 40.0
Ravensthorpe (S) Non Urban 1,389 48.5 51.5
Rockingham (C) Within 75km 58,167 92.1 7.9
Roebourne (S) Pop 10–40k 14,954 67.3 28.7 4.1
Sandstone (S) Non Urban 295 100.0
Serpentine-Jarrahdale (S) Non Urban 9,783 36.3 63.7
Shark Bay (S) Pop < 2000 1,943 58.7 41.3
South Perth (C) Cap City Inner 35,376 100.0
Stirling (C)—Central Cap City Inner 92,663 100.0
Stirling (C)—Coastal Cap City middle 56,381 100.0
Stirling (C)—South-Eastern Cap City Inner 25,044 100.0
Subiaco (C) Cap City Inner 15,076 100.0
Swan (S) Cap City outer 69,112 78.0 1.6 20.4
Tambellup (S) Non Urban 701 46.4 53.6
Tammin (S) Non Urban 489 48.3 51.7
Three Springs (S) Pop < 2000 806 51.0 49.0
Toodyay (S) Non Urban 3,214 21.0 79.0
Trayning (S) Non Urban 469 100.0
Upper Gascoyne (S) Non Urban 309 100.0
Victoria Park (T) Cap City Inner 26,405 100.0
Victoria Plains (S) Non Urban 957 100.0
Vincent (T) Cap City Inner 24,721 100.0
Wagin (S) Pop < 2000 1,868 71.6 28.4
Wandering (S) Non Urban 370 100.0
Wanneroo (C)—Central  Coastal Cap City outer 37,300 100.0
Wanneroo (C)—North-East Cap City outer 14,046 62.7 37.3
Wanneroo (C)—North-West Cap City outer 16,968 72.0 18.6 9.4
Wanneroo (C)—South-East Cap City middle 30,869 94.0 6.0
Wanneroo (C)—South-West Cap City outer 103,736 100.0
Waroona (S) Pop < 2000 3,278 55.9 44.1
West Arthur (S) Non Urban 988 26.8 73.2
Westonia (S) Non Urban 292 100.0
Wickepin (S) Non Urban 841 29.6 70.4
Williams (S) Non Urban 1,037 37.0 63.0
Wiluna (S) Non Urban 1,879 13.9 86.1
Wongan-Ballidu (S) Pop < 2000 1,545 52.6 47.4
Woodanilling (S) Non Urban 354 100.0
Wyalkatchem (S) Pop < 2000 634 55.0 45.0
Wyndham-East Kimberley (S) Pop 2–10k 8,760 55.8 17.6 26.7
Yalgoo (S) Non Urban 577 100.0
Yilgarn (S) Pop < 2000 2,668 61.5 38.5
York (S) Pop < 2000 2,788 69.0 31.0
WA Off-Shore  Areas  & Migratory Offshore 3,024 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Tasmania
Break  O’Day (M) Pop < 2000 5,644 56.3 43.7
Brighton (M) Within 75km 12,471 84.9 15.1
Burnie (C)—Pt A Pop 10–40k 17,202 93.1 6.9
Burnie (C)—Pt B Non Urban 2,081 20.5 79.5
Central Coast (M)—Pt  A Pop 2–10k 17,148 74.8 14.3 10.9
Central Coast (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 3,232 100.0
Central Highlands (M) Non Urban 2,550 14.0 86.0
Circular Head (M) Non Urban 8,108 40.9 6.7 52.4
Clarence (C) Cap City middle 47,461 75.3 12.4 12.3
Derwent Valley (M)—Pt A Within 75km 6,553 80.7 19.3
Derwent Valley (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 2,985 11.1 88.9
Devonport (C) Pop 10–40k 23,814 93.6 6.4
Dorset (M) Pop < 2000 7,095 51.5 48.5
Flinders (M) Non Urban 924 100.0
George Town (M)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 5,654 80.0 8.2 11.8
George Town (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 999 100.0
Glamorgan/Spring Bay (M) Non Urban 4,035 30.4 29.6 40.0
Glenorchy (C) Cap City outer 43,066 96.7 0.7 2.6
Hobart (C)—Inner Cap City Inner 1,059 100.0
Hobart (C)—Remainder Cap City Inner 45,617 98.2 1.3 0.5
Huon Valley (M) Non Urban 12,907 33.2 66.8
Kentish (M) Non Urban 5,331 35.5 64.5
King Island  (M) Non Urban 1,797 46.8 53.2
Kingborough (M)—Pt A Within 75km 24,550 64.5 23.7
Kingborough (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 2,289 24.5 75.5
Latrobe (M)—Pt  A Pop 2–10k 6,958 39.7 26.1 34.1
Latrobe (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 669 100.0
Launceston (C)—Inner Major non-Cap 428 100.0
Launceston (C)—Pt  B Major non-Cap 59,178 95.7 0.5 3.7
Launceston (C)—Pt C Non Urban 2,825 12.1 87.9
Meander Valley (M)—Pt A Major non-Cap 6,782 55.4 25.5 19.1
Meander Valley (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 9,991 21.7 22.4 55.9
Northern Midlands (M)—Pt  A Pop < 2000 6,833 41.4 42.4 16.2
Northern Midlands (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 4,538 38.1 61.9
Sorell (M)—Pt A Within 75km 9,167 76.6 23.4
Sorell (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 947 30.2 69.8
Southern Midlands (M) Non Urban 5,324 32.7 67.3
Tasman (M) Non Urban 2,256 32.5 67.5
Waratah/Wynyard (M)—Pt A Pop 2–10k 10,666 29.3 42.3 2.6 25.9
Waratah/Wynyard (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 2,684 8.6 91.4
West Coast (M) Pop < 2000 6,337 41.5 55.6 2.9
West Tamar (M)—Pt  A Major non-Cap 17,107 40.1 32.9 27.0
West Tamar (M)—Pt  B Non Urban 1,766 100.0
TAS Off-Shore  Areas  & Migratory Offshore 632 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Northern Territory
Alice Springs (T)—Charles Pop 10–40k 5,339 89.6 10.4
Alice Springs (T)—Heavitree Non Urban 3,016 100.0
Alice Springs (T)—Larapinta Pop 10–40k 8,266 92.8 7.2
Alice Springs (T)—Ross Pop 10–40k 7,113 93.8 6.2
Alice Springs (T)—Stuart Pop 10–40k 3,358 100.0
Bathurst-Melville Pop < 2000 2,033 95.2 4.8
Coomalie (CGC) Within 75km 1,411 45.7 19.8 34.5
Cox-Finniss Non Urban 838 27.9 72.1
Daly Pop < 2000 3,718 58.1 41.9
Alawa Cap City middle 2,282 100.0
Anula Cap City middle 2,753 100.0
Brinkin Cap City outer 1,170 100.0
City—Inner (Darwin) Cap City Inner 4,269 100.0
Coconut Grove Cap City Inner 2,147 100.0
Fannie Bay Cap City Inner 2,771 100.0
Jingili Cap City middle 2,046 100.0
Karama Cap City outer 5,220 100.0
Larrakeyah Cap City Inner 3,108 100.0
Leanyer Cap City outer 5,042 100.0
Lee Point-Leanyer Swamp Non Urban 850 100.0
Ludmilla Cap City Inner 1,924 100.0
Malak Cap City outer 3,516 100.0
Marrara Cap City middle 2,018 100.0
Millner Cap City middle 2,649 100.0
Moil Cap City middle 2,291 100.0
Nakara Cap City outer 2,167 100.0
Narrows Cap City Inner 540 100.0
Nightcliff Cap City middle 3,642 100.0
Parap Cap City Inner 1,750 100.0
Rapid Creek Cap City middle 3,183 100.0
Stuart Park Cap City Inner 2,860 100.0
The Gardens Cap City Inner 829 100.0
Tiwi Cap City outer 2,975 100.0
Wagaman Cap City outer 2,299 100.0
Wanguri Cap City outer 2,009 100.0
Winnellie Cap City Inner 749 100.0
Wulagi Cap City outer 2,716 100.0
City—Remainder (Darwin) Cap City Inner 2,847 46.6 31.7 21.7
East Arm Non Urban 371 100.0
East Arnhem—Bal Pop < 2000 5,926 78.6 21.4
Elsey—Bal Non Urban 2,813 32.6 67.4
Groote Eylandt Pop < 2000 2,551 91.7 8.3
Gulf Pop < 2000 2,880 50.5 49.5
Jabiru (T) Pop < 2000 1,696 100.0
Katherine (T) Pop 2–10k 10,809 73.8 26.2
Litchfield (S)—Pt A Non Urban 1,229 100.0
Litchfield (S)—Pt B Within 75km 12,629 80.6 19.4
Nhulunbuy Pop 2–10k 3,695 100.0
Driver Within 75km 2,602 100.0
Gray Within 75km 3,286 100.0
Moulden Within 75km 3,444 100.0
Woodroffe Within 75km 2,901 100.0
Palmerston (T) Bal Non Urban 517 100.0
Petermann Pop 2–10k 4,856 56.7 5.7 37.6
Sandover—Bal Non Urban 2,495 28.1 71.9
South Alligator Non Urban 1,625 100.0
Tableland Non Urban 1,329 32.5 67.5
Tanami Non Urban 6,701 27.0 73.0
Tennant Creek (T) Pop 2–10k 3,856 100.0
Tennant Creek—Bal Non Urban 1,942 43.8 56.2
Victoria Pop < 2000 2,805 50.5 49.5
West Arnhem Pop < 2000 3,916 65.6 34.4
NT Off-Shore & Migratory Offshore 513 100.0

 

Distribution of SLA Population by Nature of Urban Centre or Location (%)
Statistical Local Area Classification Population Inner Cap. Mid. Cap. Outer Cap. Near Cap. Maj Nom Cap. 40,000+ 10-20,000 2-10,000 <2,000 Non Urban Off Shore
Australian Capital Territory
Acton Cap City Inner 1,748 100.0
Ainslie Cap City Inner 4,444 100.0
Amaroo Cap City middle 620 100.0
Aranda Cap City Inner 2,519 100.0
Banks Cap City outer 3,440 100.0
Barton Cap City Inner 712 100.0
Belconnen Town Centre Cap City Inner 2,695 100.0
Belconnen—SSD Bal Non Urban 55 100.0
Bonython Cap City outer 3,430 100.0
Braddon Cap City Inner 3,093 100.0
Bruce Cap City Inner 2,525 100.0
Calwell Cap City outer 5,932 100.0
Campbell Cap City Inner 3,024 100.0
Chapman Cap City middle 2,859 100.0
Charnwood Cap City outer 3,313 100.0
Chifley Cap City middle 2,210 100.0
Chisholm Cap City outer 5,805 100.0
City (Canberra) Cap City Inner 574 100.0
Conder Cap City outer 3,365 100.0
Cook Cap City Inner 2,814 100.0
Curtin Cap City Inner 5,004 100.0
Deakin Cap City Inner 2,577 100.0
Dickson Cap City Inner 2,037 100.0
Downer Cap City Inner 3,247 100.0
Duffy Cap City middle 3,312 100.0
Dunlop Cap City outer 706 100.0
Duntroon Cap City Inner 1,906 100.0
Evatt Cap City middle 5,969 100.0
Fadden Cap City outer 3,463 100.0
Farrer Cap City middle 3,379 100.0
Fisher Cap City middle 3,040 100.0
Florey Cap City middle 5,430 100.0
Flynn Cap City middle 3,760 100.0
Forrest Cap City Inner 1,365 100.0
Fraser Cap City outer 2,307 100.0
Fyshwick Cap City Inner 68 100.0
Garran Cap City Inner 3,277 100.0
Gilmore Cap City outer 3,111 100.0
Giralang Cap City middle 3,730 100.0
Gordon Cap City outer 6,498 100.0 0.0
Gowrie Cap City outer 3,485 100.0
Greenway Cap City outer 937 100.0
Griffith Cap City Inner 3,796 100.0
Gungahlin-Hall—SSD Bal Non Urban 45 100.0
Hackett Cap City Inner 2,907 100.0
Hall Within 75km 320 100.0
Harman Cap City middle 227 100.0
Hawker Cap City middle 2,890 100.0
Higgins Cap City middle 3,239 100.0
Holder Cap City middle 2,793 100.0
Holt Cap City outer 4,427 100.0
Hughes Cap City Inner 2,939 100.0
Hume Non Urban 10 100.0
Isaacs Cap City middle 2,545 100.0
Isabella Plains Cap City outer 4,346 100.0
Jerrabomberra Non Urban 22 100.0
Kaleen Cap City Inner 8,197 100.0
Kambah Cap City outer 17,056 100.0
Kingston (ACT) Cap City Inner 1,600 100.0
Kowen Non Urban 16 100.0
Latham Cap City middle 3,925 100.0
Lyneham Cap City Inner 4,097 100.0
Lyons Cap City middle 2,618 100.0
McKellar Cap City Inner 2,912 100.0
Macarthur Cap City outer 1,688 100.0
Macgregor (ACT) Cap City outer 3,745 100.0
Macquarie Cap City Inner 2,433 100.0
Majura Non Urban 340 100.0
Mawson Cap City middle 2,669 100.0
Melba Cap City middle 3,392 100.0
Mitchell Cap City Inner 6 100.0
Monash Cap City outer 5,740 100.0
Narrabundah Cap City Inner 5,629 100.0
Ngunnawal Cap City middle 4,409 100.0
Nicholls Cap City middle 1,788 100.0
Oaks EState Cap City middle 312 100.0
O’Connor Cap City Inner 4,916 100.0
O’Malley Cap City middle 733 100.0
Oxley (ACT) Cap City outer 1,908 100.0
Page Cap City middle 2,547 100.0
Palmerston Cap City middle 5,157 100.0
Parkes Cap City Inner 6 100.0
Pearce Cap City middle 2,437 100.0
Phillip Cap City middle 1,691 100.0
Pialligo Non Urban 107 100.0
Red Hill (ACT) Cap City Inner 3,104 100.0
Reid Cap City Inner 1,581 100.0
Richardson Cap City outer 3,585 100.0
Rivett Cap City middle 3,296 100.0
Russell Cap City Inner 0
Scullin Cap City middle 2,930 100.0
Spence Cap City middle 2,882 100.0
Stirling Cap City middle 2,175 100.0
Stromlo Non Urban 98 100.0
Symonston Non Urban 710 100.0
Theodore Cap City outer 4,093 100.0
Torrens Cap City middle 2,182 100.0
Tuggeranong—SSD Bal Non Urban 62 100.0
Turner Cap City Inner 1,848 100.0
Wanniassa Cap City outer 8,722 100.0
Waramanga Cap City middle 2,637 100.0
Watson Cap City Inner 3,748 100.0
Weetangera Cap City middle 2,611 100.0
Weston Cap City middle 3,298 100.0
Weston Creek-Stromlo SSDBal Non Urban 28 100.0
Yarralumla Cap City Inner 2,892 100.0
Remainder  of ACT Non Urban 398 100.0
Jervis Bay Territory Non Urban 762 100.0
Territory of Christmas Island Pop < 2000 1,906 100.0
Territory of Cocos (Keeling)  Is Pop < 2000 655 100.0

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Endnotes

  1. The urban  localities have been  derived from the ABS Urban Centre  and Location (UCL) classification which allocates Collection Districts  (CDs), which are the smallest geographic classification used by ABS, to urban  centres and localities on the basis of population density and contiguity with  similar CDs.

    The key principle of the definition is that urban  centres comprise contiguous CDs which have a population density of 200 persons or more per square  kilometre. In addition, where the distance between localities is less than three  kilometres—by road or train—they are considered to be contiguous. The separation of some related urban  centres by distances more than three  kilometres can result  in some large  agglomerations being  treated as a series  of smaller  settlements. A case of this is the Sunshine Coast which does not appear as an urban  centre although its components do.

    Small localities require a non-farm population of at least 200 with  a minimum of 40 occupied, non- farm dwellings and a ‘discernible urban  street  pattern’. [ABS 2909.0]

    The allocations of SLAs to particular urban  type  has been  based  on the highest proportion of the population living  in a single  type  of urban  location. In most cases, this represents the majority of the population of the SLA, although this is not always the case. (See Attachment C)
     
  2. The classification of a capital city urban  location does not necessarily match  the more usual  use of a capital city Statistical Division, which may include areas  which it is anticipated may become urbanised over coming  decades. In contrast, this definition only considers those areas  currently urbanised. In addition, as urban  localities are based  upon contiguous dense  settlement, their boundaries can go beyond  more accepted definitions of locations.

    An example of the variation is the urban  centre of Sydney  with  a population of 3,354,908 compared with  the more usual  use of the Statistical District that has a population of 3,741,290. This is a consequence of SLAs, such as Wollondilly, Hawkesbury, Gosford and Wyong, being  excluded from the UCL definition of Sydney  as they  do not form part of the continuous settlement of the Sydney region. They are, however, captured in the classification of urban  locations within 75 kilometres of the CBD.
     
  3. It is not clear  whether this growth reflects higher  population growth per se, or higher  levels  of self- identification as being  an Aboriginal  or Torres Strait Islander.
     
  4. The measure used is the average number  of children living  with  their  parent(s), regardless of the status or age of the children. While  other  measures, such as the number  of dependent children, show a similar  pattern, the count  of all children is used to avoid distortion as a result  of varying  rates of educational participation. (The ABS measure of dependency only considers children over the age of 15 as being  dependent if they  are engaged in full-time study.)
     
  5. As the data relate  to the characteristics of individuals by place  of enumeration, these  results  reflect the residential location of employed persons and not the physical location of the jobs in which they work.
     
  6. In looking  at both household and individual incomes, the data represent average gross income for those respondents with  a non-negative and non-nil income, as recorded in the 1996  Census.
     
  7. It is important to note that the measure is essentially descriptive, with  the ‘lower income’ referring to those households in the bottom 43.2  per cent  of the income distribution, rather  than a normative measure which suggests that the particular income cut off used represents a qualitatively ‘low’ income. The measure used is an approximated equivalised household income derived from the Census. As these  data use grouped income ranges  and detailed family composition was not available in the data source used, both the equivalising (which uses the OECD scale  to adjust for household size and composition) and the cut off point (the  lowest 43.2  per cent  rather  than more conventional measures such as the lower two quintiles, or below half median  income) are broad approximations. In addition, there  are a number  of other  limitations including its insensitivity to variance in living costs between locations and, in the way  it needed to be calculated from grouped data, including using  aggregate household composition estimates for equivalisation purposes.
     
  8. This Census  classification includes ‘improvised housing’, tents and ‘sleepers out’.
     
  9. As such, each  of the individual factors  within components have been  given  an equal  weighting in determining the ranking  of the component, and each  component has been  given  equal  weighting in the combined ranking.
     
  10. Indeed, statistical testing  shows  relative low correlations between the individual measures. The most highly  correlated measure were the labour  market  which had a strong  positive correlation with income R = 0.789, and income support R = 0.639, and a negative correlation with  housing R = –0.576.

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References

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) 1996, 1996 Census Dictionary Catalogue no. 2901.0, ABS.

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) 1997,‘Australian Standard  Geographical Classification (ASGC) Urban Centres/Localities’, 1996  Edition, Statistical Geography vol. 3, Catalogue no. 2909.0, ABS.

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS), CDATA96, Final Release, Catalogue no. 2019.0.30.001, ABS.

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) 1998, Census of Population and Housing, Selected Characteristics for Urban Centres, Australia, Catalogue no. 2016.0, ABS.

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) 1998,‘Socio-economic indexes for areas’, 1996  Census  of Population and Housing Information  Paper, Catalogue no. 2039.0ABS.

Australian  Bureau  of Statistics (ABS) 1999, 1996 Census, Labour Force Status, Census Working  Paper 99/2, ABS.

Australian  Taxation  Office (ATO) 1998, Taxation Statistics 1996–97, ATO, Canberra.

Bray, J. R. & Mudd, W. 1998,‘The contribution of DSS payments to regional income’, DSS Technical Series  Number 2, DSS.

Riley Research 1996,‘OSHC  family preferences, specifically the child’s preferred care’, Consumer Research Study Report  October  1995  to March 1996, Riley Research Pty Ltd, Sydney.

National Planning  Advisory Committees (PACs) 1998,‘Feedback 1998’, Child Care Services Branch, Department of Family and Community Services, Canberra.

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Content Updated: 19 June 2013